Plasma levels of cytokines and chemokines and the risk of mortality in HIV-infected individuals: a case-control analysis nested in a large clinical trial.
ABSTRACT: All-cause mortality and serious non-AIDS events (SNAEs) in individuals with HIV-1 infection receiving antiretroviral therapy are associated with increased production of interleukin-6 which appears to be driven by monocyte/macrophage activation. Plasma levels of other cytokines or chemokines associated with immune activation might also be biomarkers of an increased risk of mortality and/or SNAEs.Baseline plasma samples from 142 participants enrolled into the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy study, who subsequently died, and 284 matched controls, were assayed for levels of 15 cytokines and chemokines. Cytokine and chemokine levels were analysed individually and when grouped according to function (innate/proinflammatory response, cell trafficking and cell activation/proliferation) for their association with the risk of subsequent death.Higher plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-?) were associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality but in analyses adjusted for potential confounders, only the association with interleukin-6 persisted. Increased plasma levels of the chemokine CXCL8 were also associated with all-cause mortality independently of hepatitis C virus status but not when analyses were adjusted for all confounders. In contrast, higher plasma levels of cytokines mediating cell activation/proliferation were not associated with a higher mortality risk and exhibited a weak protective effect when analysed as a group.Whereas plasma levels of interleukin-6 are the most informative biomarker of cytokine dysregulation associated with all-cause mortality in individuals with HIV-1 infection, assessment of plasma levels of CXCL8 might provide information about causes of mortality and possibly SNAEs.
Project description:To identify immune factors present during the acute rash phase of measles and associations with outcome and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) coinfection, we measured the plasma levels of 22 cytokines and chemokines in Zambian children hospitalized with measles (n = 148) and control children (n = 44). Children with measles had higher levels of innate cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ?, interleukin 1? (IL-1?), interleukin 18, and interleukin 6; chemokines CCL2, CCL4, CCL11, CCL22, CXCL8, and CXCL10; and T-cell cytokines interferon ?, and interleukin 2, 10, and 17. Children who died in the hospital had higher levels of TNF-?, IL-1?, interleukin 12p70; CCL2, CCL4, CCL13, CCL17, CXCL8, CXCL10; and interleukin 2 and interferon ? than children who survived, and lower levels of interleukin 4. Children coinfected with HIV-1 had higher levels of TNF-? and IL-1? than HIV-uninfected children with measles, and lower levels of interleukin 4 and 5. Therefore, acute measles was characterized by activation of macrophages and T cells producing type 1, but not type 2, cytokines, which was more pronounced in fatal disease.
Project description:Despite the major advances in the management of HIV infection, HIV-infected patients still have greater morbidity and mortality than the general population. Serious non-AIDS events (SNAEs), including non-AIDS malignancies, cardiovascular events, renal and hepatic disease, bone disorders and neurocognitive impairment, have become the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era. SNAEs occur at the rate of 1 to 2 per 100 person-years of follow-up. The pathogenesis of SNAEs is multifactorial and includes the direct effect of HIV and associated immunodeficiency, underlying co-infections and co-morbidities, immune activation with associated inflammation and coagulopathy as well as ART toxicities. A number of novel strategies such as ART intensification, treatment of co-infection, the use of anti-inflammatory drugs and agents that reduce microbial translocation are currently being examined for their potential effects in reducing immune activation and SNAEs. However, currently, initiation of ART before advanced immunodeficiency, smoking cessation, optimisation of cardiovascular risk factors and treatment of HCV infection are most strongly linked with reduced risk of SNAEs or mortality. Clinicians should therefore focus their attention on addressing these issues prior to the availability of further data.
Project description:The use of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically reduced HIV-1 associated morbidity and mortality. However, HIV-1 infected individuals have increased rates of morbidity and mortality compared to the non-HIV-1 infected population and this appears to be related to end-organ diseases collectively referred to as Serious Non-AIDS Events (SNAEs). Circulating miRNAs are reported as promising biomarkers for a number of human disease conditions including those that constitute SNAEs. Our study sought to investigate the potential of selected miRNAs in predicting mortality in HIV-1 infected ART treated individuals.A set of miRNAs was chosen based on published associations with human disease conditions that constitute SNAEs. This case: control study compared 126 cases (individuals who died whilst on therapy), and 247 matched controls (individuals who remained alive). Cases and controls were ART treated participants of two pivotal HIV-1 trials. The relative abundance of each miRNA in serum was measured, by RTqPCR. Associations with mortality (all-cause, cardiovascular and malignancy) were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Correlations between miRNAs and CD4+ T cell count, hs-CRP, IL-6 and D-dimer were also assessed.None of the selected miRNAs was associated with all-cause, cardiovascular or malignancy mortality. The levels of three miRNAs (miRs -21, -122 and -200a) correlated with IL-6 while miR-21 also correlated with D-dimer. Additionally, the abundance of miRs -31, -150 and -223, correlated with baseline CD4+ T cell count while the same three miRNAs plus miR-145 correlated with nadir CD4+ T cell count.No associations with mortality were found with any circulating miRNA studied. These results cast doubt onto the effectiveness of circulating miRNA as early predictors of mortality or the major underlying diseases that contribute to mortality in participants treated for HIV-1 infection.
Project description:In the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era, serious non-AIDS events (SNAEs) have become the major causes of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected persons. Early ART initiation has the strongest evidence for reducing SNAEs and mortality. Biomarkers of immune activation, inflammation and coagulopathy do not fully normalize despite virologic suppression and persistent immune activation is an important contributor to SNAEs. A number of strategies aimed to reduce persistent immune activation including ART intensification to reduce residual viremia; treatment of co-infections to reduce chronic antigen stimulation; the use of anti-inflammatory agents, reducing microbial translocation as well as interventions to improve immune recovery through cytokine administration and reducing lymphoid tissue fibrosis, have been investigated. To date, there is little conclusive evidence on which strategies beyond treatment of hepatitis B and C co-infections and reducing cardiovascular risk factors will result in clinical benefits in patients already on ART with viral suppression. The use of statins seems to show early promise and larger clinical trials are underway to confirm their efficacy. At this stage, clinical care of HIV-infected patients should therefore focus on early diagnosis and prompt ART initiation, treatment of active co-infections and the aggressive management of co-morbidities until further data are available.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:In pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome, lung injury is mediated by immune activation and severe inflammation. Therefore, we hypothesized that patients with elevated pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines would have higher mortality rates and that these biomarkers could improve risk stratification of poor outcomes. DESIGN:Multicenter prospective observational study. SETTING:We enrolled patients from five academic PICUs between 2008 and 2015. PATIENTS:Patients were 1 month to 18 years old, used noninvasive or invasive ventilation, and met the American European Consensus Conference definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome. INTERVENTIONS:Eight proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were measured on acute respiratory distress syndrome day 1 and correlated with mortality, ICU morbidity as measured by survivor Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction score, and biomarkers of endothelial injury, including angiopoietin-2, von Willebrand Factor, and soluble thrombomodulin. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:We measured biomarker levels in 194 patients, including 38 acute respiratory distress syndrome nonsurvivors. Interleukin-6, interleukin-8, interleukin-10, interleukin-18, and tumor necrosis factor-R2 were each strongly associated with all-cause mortality, multiple markers of ICU morbidity, and endothelial injury. A multiple logistic regression model incorporating oxygenation index, interleukin-8, and tumor necrosis factor-R2 was superior to a model of oxygenation index alone in predicting the composite outcome of mortality or severe morbidity (area under the receiver operating characteristic, 0.77 [0.70-0.83] vs 0.70 [0.62-0.77]; p = 0.042). CONCLUSIONS:In pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines are strongly associated with mortality, ICU morbidity, and biochemical evidence of endothelial injury. These cytokines significantly improve the ability of the oxygenation index to discriminate risk of mortality or severe morbidity and may allow for identification and enrollment of high-risk subgroups for future studies.
Project description:Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life-saving support system used in neonates and young children with severe cardiorespiratory failure. Although ECMO has reduced mortality in these critically ill patients, almost all patients treated with ECMO develop a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) characterized by a 'cytokine storm', leukocyte activation, and multisystem organ dysfunction. We used a neonatal porcine model of ECMO to investigate whether rising plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokines during ECMO reflect de novo synthesis of these mediators in inflamed tissues, and therefore, can be used to assess the severity of ECMO-related SIRS. Previously healthy piglets (3-week-old) were subjected to venoarterial ECMO for up to 8 h. SIRS was assessed by histopathological analysis, measurement of neutrophil activation (flow cytometry), plasma cytokine concentrations (enzyme immunoassays), and tissue expression of inflammatory genes (PCR/western blots). Mast cell degranulation was investigated by measurement of plasma tryptase activity. Porcine neonatal ECMO was associated with systemic inflammatory changes similar to those seen in human neonates. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) concentrations rose rapidly during the first 2 h of ECMO, faster than the tissue expression of these cytokines. ECMO was associated with increased plasma mast cell tryptase activity, indicating that increased plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokines during ECMO may result from mast cell degranulation and associated release of preformed cytokines stored in mast cells. TNF-alpha and IL-8 concentrations rose faster in plasma than in the peripheral tissues during ECMO, indicating that rising plasma levels of these cytokines immediately after the initiation of ECMO may not reflect increasing tissue synthesis of these cytokines. Mobilization of preformed cellular stores of inflammatory cytokines such as in mucosal mast cells may have an important pathophysiological role in ECMO-related SIRS.
Project description:The bone marrow (BM) niche is a microenvironment promoting survival, dormancy and therapeutic resistance in tumor cells. Central to this function are mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Here, using neuroblastoma (NB) as a model, we demonstrate that NB cells release an extracellular vesicle (EVs) whose protein cargo is enriched in exosomal proteins but lacks cytokines and chemokines. Using three different purification methods, we then demonstrate that NB-derived exosomes were captured by MSCs and induced the production of pro-tumorigenic cytokines and chemokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8/CXCL8, vascular endothelial cell growth factor and monocyte-chemotactic protein-1, with exosomes prepared by size exclusion chromatography having the highest activity. We found no correlation between the IL-6 and IL-8/CXCL8 stimulatory activity of exosomes from eight NB cell lines and their origin, degree of MYCN amplification, drug resistance and disease status. We then demonstrate that the uptake of NB exosomes by MSCs was associated with a rapid increase in ERK1/2 and AKT activation, and that blocking ERK1/2 but not AKT activation inhibited the IL-6 and IL-8/CXCL8 production by MSCs without affecting exosome uptake. Thus, we describe a new mechanism by which NB cells induce in MSCs an inflammatory reaction that contributes to a favorable microenvironment in the BM.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:A high plasma level of inflammasome mediator interleukin-18 was associated with mortality in observational acute respiratory distress syndrome cohorts. Statin exposure increases both inflammasome activation and lung injury in mouse models. We tested whether randomization to statin therapy correlated with increased interleukin-18 in the ARDS Network Statins for Acutely Injured Lungs from Sepsis trial. DESIGN:Retrospective analysis of randomized controlled clinical trial. SETTING:Multicenter North American clinical trial, the ARDS Network Statins for Acutely Injured Lungs from Sepsis. PATIENTS:Six hundred eighty-three subjects with infection-related acute respiratory distress syndrome, representing 92% of the original trial population. INTERVENTIONS:Random assignment of rosuvastatin or placebo for up to 28 days or 3 days after ICU discharge. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:We measured plasma interleukin-18 levels in all Statins for Acutely Injured Lungs from Sepsis patients with sample available at day 0 (baseline, n = 683) and day 3 (after randomization, n = 588). We tested the association among interleukin-18 level at baseline, rising interleukin-18, and the impact of statin therapy on 60-day mortality, adjusting for severity of illness. Baseline plasma interleukin-18 level greater than or equal to 800 pg/mL was highly associated with 60-day mortality, with a hazard of death of 2.3 (95% CI, 1.7-3.1). Rising plasma interleukin-18 was also associated with increased mortality. For each unit increase in log2 (interleukin-18) at day 3 compared with baseline, the hazard of death increased by 2.3 (95% CI, 1.5-3.5). Subjects randomized to statin were significantly more likely to experience a rise in plasma interleukin-18 levels. Subjects with acute kidney injury, shock, low baseline interleukin-18, and those not receiving systemic corticosteroids were more likely to experience rising interleukin-18. Randomization to statin therapy was associated with rising in interleukin-18 in all of those subsets, however. CONCLUSIONS:Elevated baseline plasma interleukin-18 was associated with higher mortality in sepsis-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome. A rise in plasma interleukin-18 was also associated with increased mortality and was more common in subjects randomized to statin therapy in this clinical trial.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease in which interferon (IFN)-gamma, the signature cytokine of Th1 cells, plays a central role. We investigated whether interleukin (IL)-17, the signature cytokine of Th17 cells, is also associated with human coronary atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS:Circulating IL-17 and IFN-gamma were detected in a subset of patients with coronary atherosclerosis and in referent outpatients of similar age without cardiac disease but not in young healthy individuals. IL-17 plasma levels correlated closely with those of the IL-12/IFN-gamma/CXCL10 cytokine axis but not with known Th17 inducers such as IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-23. Both IL-17 and IFN-gamma were produced at higher levels by T cells within cultured atherosclerotic coronary arteries after polyclonal activation than within nondiseased vessels. Combinations of proinflammatory cytokines induced IFN-gamma but not IL-17 secretion. Blockade of IFN-gamma signaling increased IL-17 synthesis, whereas neutralization of IL-17 responses decreased IFN-gamma synthesis; production of both cytokines was inhibited by transforming growth factor-beta1. Approximately 10-fold fewer coronary artery-infiltrating T helper cells were IL-17 producers than IFN-gamma producers, and unexpectedly, IL-17/IFN-gamma double producers were readily detectable within the artery wall. Although IL-17 did not modulate the growth or survival of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells, IL-17 interacted cooperatively with IFN-gamma to enhance IL-6, CXCL8, and CXCL10 secretion. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings demonstrate that IL-17 is produced concomitantly with IFN-gamma by coronary artery-infiltrating T cells and that these cytokines act synergistically to induce proinflammatory responses in vascular smooth muscle cells.
Project description:Background:Demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system associated with autoantibodies against aquaporin-4 and myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein are mediated by different immunopathological mechanisms compared to multiple sclerosis. Objective:The purpose of this study was to evaluate serum and cerebrospinal fluid cytokine/chemokine profiles in patients with autoantibodies against aquaporin-4 or autoantibodies against myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-associated demyelination compared to multiple sclerosis and autoimmune encephalitis. Methods:Serum and cerebrospinal fluid cytokine/chemokine levels were analysed using Procartaplex Multiplex Immunoassays. First, we analysed a panel of 32 cytokines/chemokines in a discovery group (nine aquaporin-4-antibody seropositive, nine myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-antibody seropositive, eight encephalitis, 10 multiple sclerosis). Significantly dysregulated cytokines/chemokines were validated in a second cohort (11 aquaporin-4-antibody seropositive, 18 myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-antibody seropositive, 18 encephalitis, 33 multiple sclerosis). Results:We found 11 significantly altered cytokines/chemokines in cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples in the discovery group (a proliferation-inducing ligand, fractalkine=CX3CL1, growth-regulated oncogene-α, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, interleukin-6, interleukin-8=CXCL8, interleukin-10, interleukin-21, interferon-ɣ-induced protein-10=CXCL10, monokine induced by interferon-ɣ=CXCL9, macrophage inflammatory protein-1ß=CCL4). Most of these cytokines/chemokines were up-regulated in autoantibodies against aquaporin-4 or autoantibodies against myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein positive patients compared to multiple sclerosis. We confirmed these results for cerebrospinal fluid interleukin-6 and serum interleukin-8, growth-regulated oncogene-α, a proliferation-inducing ligand and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β in the validation set. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis revealed increased levels of cerebrospinal fluid interleukin-6, serum interleukin-8 and growth-regulated oncogene-α in most patients with autoantibody-associated neurological diseases. Conclusion:This study suggests that distinctive cerebrospinal fluid and serum cytokine/chemokine profiles are associated with autoantibody-mediated demyelination, but not with multiple sclerosis.