High-level Gpr56 expression is dispensable for the maintenance and function of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in mice.
ABSTRACT: Blood formation by hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is regulated by a still incompletely defined network of general and HSC-specific regulators. In this study, we analyzed the role of G-protein coupled receptor 56 (Gpr56) as a candidate HSC regulator based on its differential expression in quiescent relative to proliferating HSCs and its common targeting by core HSC regulators. Detailed expression analysis revealed that Gpr56 is abundantly expressed by HSPCs during definitive hematopoiesis in the embryo and in the adult bone marrow, but its levels are reduced substantially as HSPCs differentiate. However, despite enriched expression in HSPCs, Gpr56-deficiency did not impair HSPC maintenance or function during steady-state or myeloablative stress-induced hematopoiesis. Gpr56-deficient HSCs also responded normally to physiological and pharmacological mobilization signals, despite the reported role of this GPCR as a regulator of cell adhesion and migration in neuronal cells. Moreover, Gpr56-deficient bone marrow engrafted with equivalent efficiency as wild-type HSCs in primary recipients; however, their reconstituting ability was reduced when subjected to serial transplantation. These data indicate that although GPR56 is abundantly and selectively expressed by primitive HSPCs, its high level expression is largely dispensable for steady-state and regenerative hematopoiesis.
Project description:Integrated molecular signals regulate cell fate decisions in the embryonic aortic endothelium to drive hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) generation during development. The G-protein-coupled receptor 56 (Gpr56, also called Adgrg1) is the most highly upregulated receptor gene in cells that take on hematopoietic fate and is expressed by adult bone marrow HSCs. Despite the requirement for Gpr56 in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HS/PC) generation in zebrafish embryos and the highly upregulated expression of GPR56 in treatment-resistant leukemic patients, its function in normal mammalian hematopoiesis remains unclear. Here, we examine the role of Gpr56 in HS/PC development in Gpr56 conditional knockout (cKO) mouse embryos and Gpr knockout (KO) embryonic stem cell (ESC) hematopoietic differentiation cultures. Our results show a bias toward myeloid differentiation of Gpr56 cKO fetal liver HSCs and an increased definitive myeloid progenitor cell frequency in Gpr56KO ESC differentiation cultures. Surprisingly, we find that mouse Gpr97 can rescue Gpr56 morphant zebrafish hematopoietic generation, and that Gpr97 expression is upregulated in mouse Gpr56 deletion models. When both Gpr56 and Gpr97 are deleted in ESCs, no or few hematopoietic PCs (HPCs) are generated upon ESC differentiation. Together, our results reveal novel and redundant functions for these 2 G-protein coupled receptors in normal mammalian hematopoietic cell development and differentiation.
Project description:Summary Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside at the apex of the hematopoietic differentiation hierarchy and sustain multilineage hematopoiesis. Here, we show that the transcriptional regulator CITED2 is essential for life-long HSC maintenance. While hematopoietic-specific Cited2 deletion has a minor impact on steady-state hematopoiesis, Cited2-deficient HSCs are severely depleted in young mice and fail to expand upon aging. Moreover, although they home normally to the bone marrow, they fail to reconstitute hematopoiesis upon transplantation. Mechanistically, CITED2 is required for expression of key HSC regulators, including GATA2, MCL-1, and PTEN. Hematopoietic-specific expression of anti-apoptotic MCL-1 partially rescues the Cited2-deficient HSC pool and restores their reconstitution potential. To interrogate the Cited2→Pten pathway in HSCs, we generated Cited2;Pten compound heterozygous mice, which had a decreased number of HSCs that failed to reconstitute the HSC compartment. In addition, CITED2 represses multiple pathways whose elevated activity causes HSC exhaustion. Thus, CITED2 promotes pathways necessary for HSC maintenance and suppresses those detrimental to HSC integrity. Highlights • Unperturbed hematopoiesis can be sustained long term while the HSC pool is depleted• CITED2 promotes HSC survival but not quiescence under homeostatic conditions• CITED2 maintains the HSC pool by controlling Mcl1 and Pten expression Kranc, Guitart, and colleagues demonstrate that Cited2 deletion causes a progressive HSC loss under steady-state conditions without perturbing normal hematopoiesis. The authors show that CITED2 maintains HSCs by regulating the expression of Mcl1 and Pten. Finally, they indicate that CITED2 promotes multiple pathways necessary for HSC maintenance and suppresses those detrimental to HSC integrity to coordinate HSC function.
Project description:Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are generated via a natural transdifferentiation process known as endothelial to hematopoietic cell transition (EHT). Because of small numbers of embryonal arterial cells undergoing EHT and the paucity of markers to enrich for hemogenic endothelial cells (ECs [HECs]), the genetic program driving HSC emergence is largely unknown. Here, we use a highly sensitive RNAseq method to examine the whole transcriptome of small numbers of enriched aortic HSCs, HECs, and ECs. Gpr56, a G-coupled protein receptor, is one of the most highly up-regulated of the 530 differentially expressed genes. Also, highly up-regulated are hematopoietic transcription factors, including the "heptad" complex of factors. We show that Gpr56 (mouse and human) is a target of the heptad complex and is required for hematopoietic cluster formation during EHT. Our results identify the processes and regulators involved in EHT and reveal the surprising requirement for Gpr56 in generating the first HSCs.
Project description:Understanding the molecular regulation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) engraftment is paramount to improving transplant outcomes. To discover novel regulators of HSPC repopulation, we transplanted >1,300 mice with shRNA-transduced HSPCs within 24 h of isolation and transduction to focus on detecting genes regulating repopulation. We identified 17 regulators of HSPC repopulation: Arhgef5, Armcx1, Cadps2, Crispld1, Emcn, Foxa3, Fstl1, Glis2, Gprasp2, Gpr56, Myct1, Nbea, P2ry14, Smarca2, Sox4, Stat4, and Zfp251. Knockdown of each of these genes yielded a loss of function, except in the cases of Armcx1 and Gprasp2, whose loss enhanced hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) repopulation. The discovery of multiple genes regulating vesicular trafficking, cell surface receptor turnover, and secretion of extracellular matrix components suggests active cross talk between HSCs and the niche and that HSCs may actively condition the niche to promote engraftment. We validated that Foxa3 is required for HSC repopulating activity, as Foxa3(-/-) HSC fails to repopulate ablated hosts efficiently, implicating for the first time Foxa genes as regulators of HSPCs. We further show that Foxa3 likely regulates the HSC response to hematologic stress. Each gene discovered here offers a window into the novel processes that regulate stable HSPC engraftment into an ablated host.
Project description:Type I interferons (IFN?/?) regulate diverse aspects of host defense, but their impact on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSC/HSPCs) during infection remains unclear. Hematologic impairment can occur in severe infections, thus we sought to investigate the impact of type I IFNs on hematopoiesis in a tick-borne infection with a virulent ehrlichial pathogen that causes shock-like disease. During infection, IFN?/? induced severe bone marrow (BM) loss, blunted infection-induced emergency myelopoiesis, and reduced phenotypic HSPCs and HSCs. In the absence of type I IFN signaling, BM and splenic hematopoiesis were increased, and HSCs derived from Ifnar1-deficient mice were functionally superior in competitive BM transplants. Type I IFNs impaired hematopoiesis during infection by both limiting HSC/HSPC proliferation and increasing HSPC death. Using mixed BM chimeras we determined that type I IFNs restricted proliferation indirectly, whereas HSPC death occurred via direct IFN?R -mediated signaling. IFN?R-dependent signals resulted in reduced caspase 8 expression and activity, and reduced cleavage of RIPK1 and RIPK3, relative to Ifnar1-deficient mice. RIPK1 antagonism with Necrostatin-1s rescued HSPC and HSC numbers during infection. Early antibiotic treatment is required for mouse survival, however antibiotic-treated survivors had severely reduced HSPCs and HSCs. Combination therapy with antibiotics and Necrostatin-1s improved HSPC and HSC numbers in surviving mice, compared to antibiotic treatment alone. We reveal two mechanisms whereby type I IFNs drive hematopoietic collapse during severe infection: direct sensitization of HSPCs to undergo cell death and enhanced HSC quiescence. Our studies reveal a strategy to ameliorate the type I IFN-dependent loss of HSCs and HSPCs during infection, which may be relevant to other infections wherein type I IFNs cause hematopoietic dysfunction.
Project description:How hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) coordinate their divisional axis and whether this orientation is important for stem cell-driven hematopoiesis is poorly understood. Single-cell RNA sequencing data from patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS), an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome, show that ARHGEF2, a RhoA-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor and determinant of mitotic spindle orientation, is specifically downregulated in SDS hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). We demonstrate that transplanted Arhgef2-/- fetal liver and bone marrow cells yield impaired hematopoietic recovery and a production deficit from long-term HSCs, phenotypes that are not the result of differences in numbers of transplanted HSCs, their cell cycle status, level of apoptosis, progenitor output, or homing ability. Notably, these defects are functionally restored in vivo by overexpression of ARHGEF2 or its downstream activated RHOA GTPase. By using live imaging of dividing HSPCs, we show an increased frequency of misoriented divisions in the absence of Arhgef2. ARHGEF2 knockdown in human HSCs also impairs their ability to regenerate hematopoiesis, culminating in significantly smaller xenografts. Together, these data demonstrate a conserved role for Arhgef2 in orienting HSPC division and suggest that HSCs may divide in certain orientations to establish hematopoiesis, the loss of which could contribute to HSC dysfunction in bone marrow failure.
Project description:Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) regulation is highly dependent on interactions with the marrow microenvironment. Controversy exists on N-cadherin's role in support of HSCs. Specifically, it is unknown whether microenvironmental N-cadherin is required for normal marrow microarchitecture and for hematopoiesis. To determine whether osteoblastic N-cadherin is required for HSC regulation, we used a genetic murine model in which deletion of Cdh2, the gene encoding N-cadherin, has been targeted to cells of the osteoblastic lineage. Targeted deletion of N-cadherin resulted in an age-dependent bone phenotype, ultimately characterized by decreased mineralized bone, but no difference in steady-state HSC numbers or function at any time tested, and normal recovery from myeloablative injury. Intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) treatment is well established as anabolic to bone and to increase marrow HSCs through microenvironmental interactions. Lack of osteoblastic N-cadherin did not block the bone anabolic or the HSC effects of PTH treatment. This report demonstrates that osteoblastic N-cadherin is not required for regulation of steady-state hematopoiesis, HSC response to myeloablation, or for rapid expansion of HSCs through intermittent treatment with PTH.
Project description:Protection of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from exhaustion and effective regeneration of the HSC pool after bone marrow transplantation or irradiation therapy is an urgent clinical need. Here, we investigated the role of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) in steady-state and stress hematopoiesis using conditional knockout mice (Atf3 fl/fl Vav1Cre mice). Deficiency of ATF3 in the hematopoietic system displayed no noticeable effects on hematopoiesis under steady-state conditions. Expression of ATF3 was significantly down-regulated in long-term HSCs (LT-HSCs) after exposure to stresses such as 5-fluorouracil challenge or irradiation. Atf3 fl/fl Vav1Cre mice displayed enhanced proliferation and expansion of LT-HSCs upon short-term chemotherapy or irradiation compared with those in Atf3 fl/fl littermate controls; however, the long-term reconstitution capability of LT-HSCs from Atf3 fl/fl Vav1Cre mice was dramatically impaired after a series of bone marrow transplantations. These observations suggest that ATF3 plays an important role in preventing stress-induced exhaustion of HSCs.
Project description:Estrogens are potential regulators of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche and have effects on mature hematopoietic cells; however, whether estrogen signaling directly regulates normal and malignant HSC remains unclear. We demonstrate differential expression and specific roles of estrogen receptors (ER) in hematopoietic progenitors. ERa activation in short-term HSC and multipotent progenitors induced apoptosis. In contrast, the selective ER modulator (SERM) tamoxifen induced proliferation of quiescent long-term HSC, altered their self-renewal signature and compromised hematopoietic reconstitution following myelotoxic stress. Treatment with tamoxifen alone abolished hematopoietic progenitor expansion induced by JAK2V617F by restoring normal levels of apoptosis, blocked JAK2V617F-induced myeloproliferative neoplasm in vivo, and sensitized MLL-AF9+ leukemias to chemotherapy. Tamoxifen showed selective effects on mutant cells compared to normal ones, and had only a minor impact on steady-state hematopoiesis in disease-free animals. These results uncover specific regulation of hematopoietic progenitors by estrogens and potential anti-leukemic properties of SERM LT-HSCs, ST-HSCs and MPPs sorted from the bone marrow of mice treated with tamoxifen or vehicle (3 biological replicates per group)
Project description:Self-renewal and differentiation of adult stem cells are tightly regulated partly through configuration of chromatin structure by chromatin remodelers. Using knockout mice, we here demonstrate that bromodomain PHD finger transcription factor (BPTF), a component of the nucleosome remodeling factor (NURF) chromatin-remodeling complex, is essential for maintaining the population size of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), including long-term hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Bptf-deficient HSCs are defective in reconstituted hematopoiesis, and hematopoietic-specific knockout of Bptf caused profound defects including bone marrow failure and anemia. Genome-wide transcriptome profiling revealed that BPTF loss caused downregulation of HSC-specific gene-expression programs, which contain several master transcription factors (Meis1, Pbx1, Mn1, and Lmo2) required for HSC maintenance and self-renewal. Furthermore, we show that BPTF potentiates the chromatin accessibility of key HSC "stemness" genes. These results demonstrate an essential requirement of the chromatin remodeler BPTF and NURF for activation of "stemness" gene-expression programs and proper function of adult HSCs.