Magnolia officinalis Extract Contains Potent Inhibitors against PTP1B and Attenuates Hyperglycemia in db/db Mice.
ABSTRACT: Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is an established therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory activity of Magnolia officinalis extract (ME) on PTP1B and its anti-T2DM effects. Inhibition assays and inhibition kinetics of ME were performed in vitro. 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes were stimulated with ME to explore its bioavailability in cell level. The in vivo studies were performed on db/db mice to probe its anti-T2DM effects. In the present study, ME inhibited PTP1B in a reversible competitive manner and displayed good selectivity against PTPs in vitro. Furthermore, ME enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation levels of cellular proteins, especially the insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylations of insulin receptor ?-subunit (IR?) and ERK1/2 in a dose-dependent manner in stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes. Meanwhile, ME enhanced insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation. More importantly, there was a significant decrease in fasting plasma glucose level of db/db diabetic mice treated orally with 0.5?g/kg ME for 4 weeks. These findings indicated that improvement of insulin sensitivity and hypoglycemic effects of ME may be attributed to the inhibition of PTP1B. Thereby, we pioneered the inhibitory potential of ME targeted on PTP1B as anti-T2DM drug discovery.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) negatively regulates insulin signalling by tyrosine dephosphorylation of the insulin receptor. It is a highly validated target for type 2 diabetes therapeutics. Here, the anti-diabetic effects of HPN were evaluated in the diabetic BKS db mice. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:The mode of inhibition of PTP1B by HPN was determined according to the Lineweaver-Burk plot. A surface plasmon resonance assay and molecular docking were used to study the interaction between HPN and PTP1B. C2C12 skeletal muscle cells were used to investigate the cell permeability of HPN and the effect of HPN on insulin signalling pathways. Long-term effects of HPN on glycaemic control were investigated in diabetic BKS db mice. Glycogen contents in liver and muscle were determined. Furthermore, changes in the number of beta cells were evaluated by Gomori staining. KEY RESULTS:HPN was identified as a specific PTP1B inhibitor. HPN directly interacted with PTP1B by binding to the catalytic domain through hydrogen bonds in a competitive mode. Approximately 56.98% of HPN entered into the cultured C2C12 myotubes. HPN ameliorated the impaired insulin signalling in palmitate-treated C2C12 myocytes. Notably, oral administration of HPN significantly protected mice from hyperglycaemia, dyslipidemia and hyperinsulinaemia. HPN also enhanced the storage of glycogen in liver and muscle. Moreover, HPN obviously improved the beta cell numbers of the pancreatic islets. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS:Our results indicate that HPN is a specific PTP1B inhibitor, with anti-diabetic properties and good cell permeability and oral availability.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Insulin-sensitizing drugs are currently limited, and identifying new candidates is a challenge. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) negatively regulates insulin signalling, and its inhibition is anticipated to improve insulin resistance. Here, the pharmacological properties of CX08005, a novel PTP1B inhibitor, were investigated. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:Recombinant hPTP1B protein was used to study enzyme activity and mode of inhibition. Docking simulation explored the interactions between CX08005 and PTP1B. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated by glucose tolerance test (GTT) in diet-induced obese (DIO) and KKAy mice; glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and whole-body insulin sensitivity (ISWB ) were also determined. A hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp was performed to evaluate insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both whole-body and insulin-sensitive tissues. Furthermore, CX08005's effects on muscle, fat and liver cells were determined in vitro. KEY RESULTS:CX08005 competitively inhibited PTP1B by binding to the catalytic P-loop through hydrogen bonds. In DIO mice, CX08005 ameliorated glucose intolerance dose-dependently (50-200 mg·kg(-1) ·day(-1) ) and decreased the HOMA-IR. In KKAy mice, CX08005 (50 mg·kg(-1) ·day(-1) ) improved glucose intolerance, GSIS, ISWB and hyperglycaemia. CX08005 also enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, increased glucose infusion rate and glucose uptake in muscle and fat in DIO mice (hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp test). CX08005 enhanced insulin-induced glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes, and increased phosphorylation of IR?/IRS1 and downstream molecules in hepatocytes in a dose- and insulin-dependent manner respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:Our results strongly suggest that CX08005 directly enhances insulin action in vitro and in vivo through competitive inhibition of PTP1B.
Project description:3-bromo-4,5-Bis(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl)-1,2-benzenediol (CYC31) is a bromophenol protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitor isolated from the red alga Rhodomela confervoides. Here, the effect of CYC31 on the insulin signaling and fatty-acid-induced disorders in C2C12 myotubes was investigated. Molecular docking assay showed that CYC31 was embedded into the catalytic pocket of PTP1B. A cellular study found that CYC31 increased the activity of insulin signaling and promoted 2-NBDG uptake through GLUT4 translocation in C2C12 myotubes. Further studies showed that CYC31 ameliorated palmitate-induced insulin resistance in C2C12 myotubes. Moreover, CYC31 treatment significantly increased the mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B (CPT-1B) and fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3), which was tightly linked with fatty acid oxidation. These findings suggested that CYC31 could prevent palmitate-induce insulin resistance and could improve fatty acid oxidation through PTP1B inhibition.
Project description:Protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) has been considered as a promising target for treating insulin resistance. In searching for naturally occurring PTB1B antagonists, two new pimarane diterpenoids, named 2?-hydroxy-7-oxo-pimara-8(9),15-diene (1) and 19-hydroxy-2?-acetoxy-7-oxo-pimara-8(9),15-diene (2), were isolated from the seeds of Caesalpinia minax. Their structures were determined by extensive analysis of NMR and HR-ESIMS data, and their absolute configurations were determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Compound 1 was disclosed as a competitive inhibitor of PTP1B with an IC50 (the half-maximal inhibitory concentration) value of 19.44 ± 2.39 µM and a Ki (inhibition constant) value of 13.69 ± 2.72 ?M. Moreover, compound 1 dose-dependently promoted insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes through activating insulin signaling pathway. Compound 1 might be further developed as an insulin sensitizer.
Project description:As an important secretory organ, skeletal muscle has drawn attention as a potential target tissue for type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM). Recent peptidomics approaches have been applied to identify secreted peptides with potential bioactive. However, comprehensive analysis of the secreted peptides from skeletal muscle tissues of db/db mice and elucidation of their possible roles in insulin resistance remains poorly characterized. Here, we adopted a label-free discovery using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technology and identified 63 peptides (42 up-regulated peptides and 21 down-regulated peptides) differentially secreted from cultured skeletal muscle tissues of db/db mice. Analysis of relative molecular mass (Mr), isoelectric point (pI) and distribution of Mr vs pI of differentially secreted peptides presented the general feature. Furthermore, Gene ontology (GO) and pathway analyses for the parent proteins made a comprehensive functional assessment of these differential peptides, indicating the enrichment in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and striated muscle contraction processes. Intercellular location analysis pointed out most precursor proteins of peptides were cytoplasmic or cytoskeletal. Additionally, cleavage site analysis revealed that Lysine (N-terminal)-Alanine (C-terminal) and Lysine (N-terminal)-Leucine (C-terminal) represents the preferred cleavage sites for identified peptides and proceeding peptides respectively. Mapped to the precursors' sequences, most identified peptides were observed cleaved from creatine kinase m-type (KCRM) and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A (Aldo A). Based on UniProt and Pfam database for specific domain structure or motif, 44 peptides out of total were positioned in the functional motif or domain from their parent proteins. Using C2C12 myotubes as cell model in vitro, we found several candidate peptides displayed promotive or inhibitory effects on insulin and mitochondrial-related pathways by an autocrine manner. Taken together, this study will encourage us to investigate the biologic functions and the potential regulatory mechanism of these secreted peptides from skeletal muscle tissues, thus representing a promising strategy to treat insulin resistance as well as the associated metabolic disorders.
Project description:<h4>Aim</h4>des-O-methyllasiodiplodin (DML) from Cerbera manghas has shown antagonistic activity against mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). Considering the involvement of MR in the insulin tolerance, we attempted to investigate the potential of DML in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).<h4>Methods</h4>Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology and reporter gene-based assays were used to study protein-small molecule interactions. HepG2 and 3T3-L1 cells were treated with H2O2 (0.2 mmol/L) or aldosterone (10 nmol/L) for 24 h. The expression of MR in the cells was downregulated with siRNA. The anti-inflammatory effect of the compound was evaluated, respectively. db/db mice were administered DML (30 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) for 4 weeks. Serum biochemical parameters and insulin sensitivity were examined. The expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, TNF-? and IL-6) and ROS-related genes (NADPH p47 subunit and transcriptional factor PU.1) in adipose tissues and livers were analyzed using real-time RT-PCR.<h4>Results</h4>In HepG2 and 3T3-L1 cells, both H2O2 and aldosterone markedly stimulates the expression of MCP-1, TNF?, IL-6, p47 and PU.1 genes. Co-treatment with DML (10 ?mol/L) significantly reduced the H2O2- or aldosterone-induced expression of these genes. SPR-based assay confirmed the antagonistic activity of DML against the interaction between SRC-1 and MR-LBD. Furthermore, DML decreased aldosterone-induced MR transcriptional activity in a dose-dependent manner. Downregulation of MR with siRNA in the cells prevented or significantly attenuated aldosterone-stimulated expression of these genes, whereas DML did no longer affect the expression of these genes except that of IL-6. Oral administration of DML effectively reduced the levels of blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in db/db mice. The treatment also rectified the expression of pro-inflammatory factor and ROS-related genes in db/db mice.<h4>Conclusion</h4>DML effectively lowers the blood glucose level in db/db mice possibly via ameliorating the expression of obesity-related pro-inflammatory cytokines, highlighting the potential of the marine natural product as a drug lead for the treatment of metabolic disorders.
Project description:The inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is considered a valid strategy to combat insulin resistance and type II diabetes. We show here that a dichloromethane extract of Ratanhiae radix ( RR_EX) dose-dependently inhibits human recombinant PTP1B in vitro and enhances insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in murine myocytes. By determination of the PTP1B inhibiting potential of 11 recently isolated lignan derivatives from RR_EX, the observed activity of the extract could be partly assigned to ratanhiaphenol III. This compound inhibited PTP1B in vitro with an IC (50) of 20.2 µM and dose-dependently increased insulin receptor phosphorylation as well as insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in cultured myotubes. This is the first report to reveal an antidiabetic potential for a constituent of rhatany root, traditionally used against inflammatory disorders, by showing its capability of inhibiting PTP1B.
Project description:The present study investigated the effects of cajanonic acid A (CAA), extracted from the leaves of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp with a purity of 98.22%, on the regulatory mechanisms of glucose and lipid metabolism. HepG2 cells transfected with a protein?tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) overexpression plasmid were established. The cells, induced with insulin resistance by dexamethasone (Dex) treatment, together with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) model rats and ob/ob mice, were used in the present study. The effects of CAA treatment on the differentiation of 3T3?L1 adipocytes were determined using Oil Red O. The expression levels of insulin signaling factors were detected via reverse transcription?quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses. The results revealed that the overexpression of PTP1B contributed to insulin resistance, which was reversed by CAA treatment via inhibiting the activity of PTP1B and by regulating the expression of associated insulin signaling factors. The treatment of cell lines with Dex led to increased expression of PTP1B but decreased glucose consumption, and decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1, and phosphoinositide 3?kinase. Treatment with CAA not only reduced the fasting blood glucose levels and protected organs from damage, but also reduced the serum fasting levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and low?density lipoprotein cholesterol in the T2DM rats. CAA treatment also inhibited adipocyte differentiation and decreased the mRNA levels of various adipogenic genes. Furthermore, CAA treatment restored the transduction of insulin signaling by regulating the expression of PTP1B and associated insulin signaling factors. Treatment with CAA also reduced the problems associated with hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. In conclusion, CAA may be used to cure T2DM via restoring insulin resistance and preventing obesity.
Project description:p70 S6 kinase (S6K1) is a serine/threonine kinase that phosphorylates the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) at serine 1101 and desensitizes insulin receptor signaling. S6K1 hyperactivation due to overnutrition leads to hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. Our recent study showed that A77 1726, the active metabolite of the anti-rheumatoid arthritis (RA) drug leflunomide, is an inhibitor of S6K1. Whether leflunomide can control hyperglycemia and sensitize the insulin receptor has not been tested. Here we report that A77 1726 increased AKTS473/T308 and S6K1T389 phosphorylation but decreased S6S235/236 and IRS-1S1101 phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, C2C12 and L6 myotubes. A77 1726 increased insulin receptor tyrosine phosphorylation and binding of the p85 subunit of the PI-3 kinase to IRS-1. A77 1726 enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in L6 myotubes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) translocation to the plasma membrane of L6 cells. Finally, we investigated the anti-hyperglycemic effect of leflunomide on ob/ob and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetes mouse models. Leflunomide treatment normalized blood glucose levels and overcame insulin resistance in glucose and insulin tolerance tests in ob/ob and HFD-fed mice but had no effect on mice fed a normal chow diet (NCD). Leflunomide treatment increased AKTS473/T308 phosphorylation in the fat and muscle of ob/ob mice but not in normal mice. Our results suggest that leflunomide sensitizes the insulin receptor by inhibiting S6K1 activity in vitro, and that leflunomide could be potentially useful for treating patients with both RA and diabetes.
Project description:The mechanism by which adipocyte-derived endocrine factors promote insulin resistance in skeletal muscle are not fully understood. MiR-27a is highly expressed in sera of obese individuals with prediabetes and T2DM, and mainly derived by adipose tissues. Thus, miR-27a secreted into circulation by adipose tissue may regulate insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Methods: The association between miR-27a and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle was determined in obese children, high-fat diet-induced miR-27a knockdown obese mice, db/db mice and C2C12 cells overexpressing miR-27a. The crosstalk mediated by exosomal miR-27a between adipose tissue and skeletal muscle was determined in C2C12 cells incubated with conditioned medium prepared from palmitate-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Results: We showed that serum miR-27a level correlated positively with obesity and insulin resistance in obese children, and that elevated serum miR-27a levels correlated with insulin resistance in leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice, and with obesity and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6J mice. MiR-27a released from adipocytes of high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6J mice was associated with triglyceride accumulation. MiR-27a derived from these adipocytes induced insulin resistance in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells through miR-27a-mediated repression of PPAR? and its downstream genes involved in the development of obesity. Conclusions: These results identify a novel crosstalk signaling pathway between adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in the development of insulin resistance, and indicate that adipose tissue-derived miR-27a may play a key role in the development of obesity-triggered insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.