Project description:Morganella morganii is a commensal bacterium and opportunistic pathogen often present in the gut of humans and animals. We report the 4.3 Mbp draft genome sequence of a M. morganii isolated in association with an Escherichia coli from broilers in Portugal that showed macroscopic lesions consistent with colisepticemia. The analysis of the genome matched the multidrug resistance phenotype and enabled the identification of several clinically important and potentially mobile acquired antibiotic resistance genes, including the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinant qnrD1. Mobile genetic elements, prophages, and pathogenicity factors were also detected, improving our understanding toward this human and animal opportunistic pathogen.
Project description:Morganella morganii is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen shown to cause a wide range of clinical and community-acquired infections. This study was aimed at sequencing and comparing the genomes of three M. morganii strains isolated from the urine samples of patients with community-acquired urinary tract infections. Draft genome sequencing was conducted using the Illumina HiSeq platform. The genomes of MM 1, MM 4, and MM 190 strains have a size of 3.82-3.97 Mb and a GC content of 50.9-51%. Protein-coding sequences (CDS) represent 96.1% of the genomes, RNAs are encoded by 2.7% of genes and pseudogenes account for 1.2% of the genomes. The pan-genome containes 4,038 CDS, of which 3,279 represent core genes. Six to ten prophages and 21-33 genomic islands were identified in the genomes of MM 1, MM 4, and MM 190. More than 30 genes encode capsular biosynthesis proteins, an average of 60 genes encode motility and chemotaxis proteins, and about 70 genes are associated with fimbrial biogenesis and adhesion. We determined that all strains contained urease gene cluster ureABCEFGD and had a urease activity. Both MM 4 and MM 190 strains are capable of hemolysis and their activity correlates well with a cytotoxicity level on T-24 bladder carcinoma cells. These activities were associated with expression of RTX toxin gene hlyA, which was introduced into the genomes by a phage similar to Salmonella phage 118970_sal4.
Project description:The complete genome sequence of Morganella morganii DG56-16 was sequenced. This strain was isolated from the liver of a dead crocodile lizard (Shinisaurus crocodilurus). The genome size was 3.9 Mb, with a G+C content of 50.9%.
Project description:Transposon mutagenesis of a clinical isolate of Morganella morganii, G1492 (tigecycline MIC of 4 microg/ml), yielded two insertion knockout mutants for which tigecycline MICs were 0.03 microg/ml. Transposon insertions mapped to acrA, which is constitutively overexpressed in G1492, suggesting a role of the AcrAB efflux pump in decreased susceptibility to tigecycline in M. morganii.
Project description:Morganella morganii produces an inducible, chromosomally encoded AmpC beta-lactamase. We describe in this study three new variants of AmpC within this species with apparent pIs of 6.6 (M19 from M. morganii strain PP19), 7.4 (M29 from M. morganii strain PP29), and 7.8 (M37 from M. morganii strain PP37). After gene sequencing, deduced amino acid sequences displayed one to six substitutions when compared to the available Morganella AmpC sequences. An AmpR-encoding gene was also found upstream of ampC, including the LysR regulators' helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain and the putative T-N11-A-protected region in the ampR-ampC intercistronic sequence. All three AmpC variants were purified from in vitro-generated derepressed mutants and showed overall similar kinetic parameters. None of the observed amino acid changes, occurring at the surface of the protein, appear to have a major influence in their catalytic properties. Morganella AmpCs exhibit the highest catalytic efficiencies (k(cat)/K(m)) on classical penicillins, cefoxitin, narrow-spectrum cephalosporins, and cefotaxime. Cefotaxime was more effectively hydrolyzed than other oxyimino-cephalosporins, whereas cefepime was 3 log-fold less efficiently hydrolyzed than other cephalosporins such as cephalothin. Several differences with other AmpC beta-lactamases were found. Ampicillin was more efficiently hydrolyzed than benzylpenicillin. High k(cat)/K(m) values were observed for oxacillin and piperacillin, which are usually poor substrates for AmpC. A fairly efficient hydrolysis of imipenem was detected as well. Aztreonam, carbenicillin, and tazobactam were effective transient inactivators of these variants.
Project description:A clinical isolate of Morganella morganii, with reduced susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins and aztreonam, was found to produce an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase with a pI of 6.4. The nucleotide sequence of the encoding gene was that of the gene encoding TEM-21. This is the first molecular characterization of an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase in M. morganii.
Project description:We report the detection and molecular characterization of extended spectrum ?-lactamases in a series of 112 clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from the Hôpital Principal de Dakar, Senegal, including five CTX-M-15-producing Morganella morganii isolates, which are reported for the first time in this country.
Project description:Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) is a multidrug resistance integrative mobilizable element that harbors a great diversity of antimicrobial resistance gene clusters described in numerous Salmonella enterica serovars and also in Proteus mirabilis. A serious threat to public health was revealed in the recent description in P. mirabilis of a SGI1-derivative multidrug resistance island named PGI1 (Proteus genomic island 1) carrying extended-spectrum-?-lactamase (ESBL) and metallo-?-lactamase resistance genes, blaVEB-6 and blaNDM-1, respectively. Here, we report the first description of Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) in a multidrug-resistant clinical Morganella morganii subsp. morganii strain isolated from a patient in France in 2013. Complete-genome sequencing of the strain revealed SGI1 variant SGI1-L carrying resistance genes dfrA15, floR, tetA(G), blaPSE-1 (now referred to as blaCARB-2), and sul1, conferring resistance to trimethoprim, phenicols, tetracyclines, amoxicillin, and sulfonamides, respectively. The SGI1-L variant was integrated into the usual chromosome-specific integration site at the 3' end of the trmE gene. Beyond Salmonella enterica and Proteus mirabilis, the SGI1 integrative mobilizable element may thus also disseminate its multidrug resistance phenotype in another genus belonging to the Proteae tribe of the family Enterobacteriaceae. IMPORTANCE Since its initial identification in epidemic multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 strains, several SGI1 variants, SGI1 lineages, and SGI1-related elements (SGI2, PGI1, and AGI1) have been described in many bacterial genera (Salmonella, Proteus, Morganella, Vibrio, Shewanella, etc.). They constitute a family of multidrug resistance site-specific integrative elements acquired by horizontal gene transfer, SGI1 being the best-characterized element. The horizontal transfer of SGI1/PGI1 elements into other genera is of public health concern, notably with regard to the spread of critically important resistance genes such as ESBL and carbapenemase genes. The identification of SGI1 in Morganella morganii raises the issue of (i) the potential for SGI1 to emerge in other human pathogens and (ii) its bacterial host range. Further surveillance and research are needed to understand the epidemiology, the spread, and the importance of the members of this SGI1 family of integrative elements in contributing to antibiotic resistance development.
Project description:The increasing prevalence and transmission of the carbapenem resistance gene bla NDM-5 has led to a severe threat to public health. So far, bla NDM-5 has been widely detected in various species of Enterobacterales and different hosts across various cities. However, there is no report on the bla NDM-5- harboring Morganella morganii. In January 2016, the first NDM-5-producing Morganella morganii L241 was found in a stool sample of a patient diagnosed as recurrence of liver cancer in China. Identification of the species was performed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Carbapenemase genes were identified through both PCR and sequencing. To investigate the characteristics and complete genome sequence of the bla NDM-5-harboring clinical isolate, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, S1 nuclease pulsed field gel electrophoresis, Southern blotting, transconjugation experiment, complete genome sequencing, and comparative genomic analysis were performed. M. morganii L241 was found to be resistant to broad-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems. The complete genome of L241 is made up from both a 3,850,444 bp circular chromosome and a 46,161 bp self-transmissible IncX3 plasmid encoding bla NDM-5, which shared a conserved genetic context of bla NDM-5 (?IS3000-?ISAba125-IS5-bla NDM-5-ble-trpF-dsbC-IS26). BLASTn analysis showed that IncX3 plasmids harboring bla NDM genes have been found in 15 species among Enterobacterales from 13 different countries around the world thus far. In addition, comparative genomic analysis showed that M. morganii L241 exhibits a close relationship to M. morganii subsp. morganii KT with 107 SNPs. Our research demonstrated that IncX3 is a key element in the worldwide dissemination of bla NDM-5 among various species. Further research will be necessary to control and prevent the spread of such plasmids.
Project description:BACKGROUND:M. morganii is a bacterium frequently associated with urinary infections in humans. While many human strains are sequenced, only the genomes of few poultry strains are available. Here, we performed a detailed characterization of five highly resistant Morganella morganii strains isolated in association with Escherichia coli from diseased domestic Austrian poultry flocks, namely geese, turkeys and chicken layers. Additionally, we sequenced the genomes of these strains by NGS and analyzed phylogenetic clustering, resistance and virulence genes in the context of host-specificity. RESULTS:Two strains were identified to be Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) and one as AmpC beta-lactamases (AMP-C) phenotype, while two were ESBL negative. By integrating the genome sequences of these five poultry strains with all the available M. morganii genomes, we constructed a phylogenetic tree that clearly separates the Morganella genus into two clusters (M1 and M2), which approximately reflect the proposed subspecies classification (morganii and sibonii). Additionally, we found no association between phylogenetic structure and host, suggesting interspecies transmission. All five poultry strains contained genes for resistance to aminocoumarins, beta-lactams, colistin, elfamycins, fluoroquinolones, phenicol, rifampin and tetracycline. A comparative genomics analysis of virulence genes showed acquisition of novel virulence genes involved in secretion system and adherence in cluster M2. We showed that some of these genes were acquired by horizontal gene transfer from closely related Morganellaceae species and propose that novel virulence genes could be responsible for expansion of tissue tropism in M. morganii. Finally, we detected variability in copy number and high sequence divergence in toxin genes and provided evidence for positive selection in insecticidal toxins genes, likely reflecting host-related adaptations. CONCLUSIONS:In summary, this study describes i) the first isolation and characterization of M. morganii from goose and turkey, ii) a large-scale genetic analysis of M. morganii and an attempt to generate a global picture of the M. morganii intraspecific phylogenetic structure.