High rate and durable, binder free anode based on silicon loaded MoO3 nanoplatelets.
ABSTRACT: In order to make fast-charging batteries a reality for electric vehicles, durable, more energy dense and high-current density resistant anodes need to be developed. With such purpose, a low lithiation potential of 0.2 V vs. Li/Li(+) for MoO3 nanoplatelet arrays is reported here for anodes in a lithium ion battery. The composite material here presented affords elevated charge capacity while at the same time withstands rapid cycling for longer periods of time. Li2MoO4 and Li(1.333)Mo(0.666)O2 were identified as the products of lithiation of pristine MoO3 nanoplatelets and silicon-decorated MoO3, respectively, accounting for lower than previously reported lithiation potentials. MoO3 nanoplatelet arrays were deposited using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition. Due to excellent voltage compatibility, composite lithium ion battery anodes comprising molybdenum oxide nanoplatelets decorated with silicon nanoparticles (0.3% by wt.) were prepared using an ultrasonic spray. Silicon decorated MoO3 nanoplatelets exhibited enhanced capacity of 1037 mAh g(-1) with exceptional cyclability when charged/discharged at high current densities of 10 A g(-1).
Project description:Silicon clathrates contain cage-like structures that can encapsulate various guest atoms or molecules. An electrochemical evaluation of type I silicon clathrates based on Ba8Al y Si46-y as the anode material for lithium-ion batteries is presented here. Postcycling characterization with nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray diffraction shows no discernible structural or volume changes even after electrochemical insertion of 44 Li (?1 Li/Si) into the clathrate structure. The observed properties are in stark contrast with lithiation of other silicon anodes, which become amorphous and suffer from large volume changes. The electrochemical reactions are proposed to occur as single phase reactions at approximately 0.2 and 0.4 V versus Li/Li+ during lithiation and delithiation, respectively, distinct from diamond cubic or amorphous silicon anodes. Reversible capacities as high as 499 mAh g-1 at a 5 mA g-1 rate were observed for silicon clathrate with composition Ba8Al8.54Si37.46, corresponding to ?1.18 Li/Si. These results show that silicon clathrates could be promising durable anodes for lithium-ion batteries.
Project description:Since the launch of lithium-ion batteries, elements (such as silicon, tin, or aluminum) that can be alloyed with lithium have been expected as anode materials, owing to larger capacity. However, their successful application has not been accomplished because of drastic structural degradation caused by cyclic large volume change during battery reactions. To prolong lifetime of alloy anodes, we must circumvent the huge volume strain accompanied by insertion/extraction of lithium. Here we report that by using aluminum-foil anodes, the volume expansion during lithiation can be confined to the normal direction to the foil and, consequently, the electrode cyclability can be markedly enhanced. Such a unidirectional volume-strain circumvention requires an appropriate hardness of the matrix and a certain tolerance to off-stoichiometry of the resulting intermetallic compound, which drive interdiffusion of matrix component and lithium along the normal-plane direction. This metallurgical concept would invoke a paradigm shift to future alloy-anode battery technologies.
Project description:Silicon anodes with an extremely high theoretical specific capacity of 4,200 mAh g-1 have been considered as one of the most promising anode materials for next-generation lithium-ion batteries. However, the large volume expansion during lithiation hinders its practical application. In this work, pomegranate-like Si@SiOx composites were prepared using a simple spray drying process, during which silicon nanoparticles reacted with oxygen and generated SiOx on the surface. The thickness of the SiOx layer was tuned by adjusting the drying temperature. In the unique architecture, the SiOx which serves as the protection layer and the void space in pomegranate-like structure could alleviate the volume expansion during repeated lithium insertion/extraction. As a lithium-ion battery anode, pomegranate-like Si@SiOx composites dried at 180°C delivered a high specific capacity of 1746.5 mAh g-1 after 300 cycles at 500 mA g-1.
Project description:The high theoretical capacity and low discharge potential of silicon have attracted much attention on Si-based anodes. Herein, hollow porous SiO2 nanocubes have been prepared via a two-step hard-template process and evaluated as electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries. The hollow porous SiO2 nanocubes exhibited a reversible capacity of 919?mAhg(-1) over 30 cycles. The reasonable property could be attributed to the unique hollow nanostructure with large volume interior and numerous crevices in the shell, which could accommodate the volume change and alleviate the structural strain during Li ions' insertion and extraction, as well as allow rapid access of Li ions during charge/discharge cycling. It is found that the formation of irreversible or reversible lithium silicates in the anodes determines the capacity of a deep-cycle battery, fast transportation of Li ions in hollow porous SiO2 nanocubes is beneficial to the formation of Li2O and Si, contributing to the high reversible capacity.
Project description:Highly monodisperse porous silicon nanospheres (MPSSs) are synthesized via a simple and scalable hydrolysis process with subsequent surface-protected magnesiothermic reduction. The spherical nature of the MPSSs allows for a homogenous stress-strain distribution within the structure during lithiation and delithiation, which dramatically improves the electrochemical stability. To fully extract the real performance of the MPSSs, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were added to enhance the electronic conductivity within the composite electrode structure, which has been verified to be an effective way to improve the rate and cycling performance of anodes based on nano-Si. The Li-ion battery (LIB) anodes based on MPSSs demonstrate a high reversible capacity of 3105?mAh g(-1). In particular, reversible Li storage capacities above 1500?mAh g(-1) were maintained after 500 cycles at a high rate of C/2. We believe this innovative approach for synthesizing porous Si-based LIB anode materials by using surface-protected magnesiothermic reduction can be readily applied to other types of SiOx nano/microstructures.
Project description:Nanostructured porous silicon materials have recently advanced as hosts for Li-metal plating. However, limitations involve detrimental silicon self-pulverization, Li-dendrites, and the ability to achieve wafer-level integration of non-composite, pure silicon anodes. compo. Herein, full cells featuring low-resistance, wafer-scale porous crystalline silicon (PCS) anodes are embedded with a nanoporous Li-plating and diffusion-regulating surface layer upon combined wafer surface cleaning (SC) and anodization. LL Lithiophilic surface formation is illustrated via correlation of surface groups and X-ray structure. Low-cost SC-PCS anodes require no composite formulation, and pre-lithiation enables sustainable Li-metal plating/stripping on the lithiophilic surface and in SC-PCS bulk nanostructure. Anodization time and C-rate determined competitive full cell performance: NMC811 | 4800 s SC-PCS: 195 mAh/g (99.9% coulombic efficiency [C.E.], C/3, 50 cycles), 165 mAh/g, 587 Wh/kg (97.1% C.E., C/3 and C/2 rate, 350 cycles), 24 ??cm2 SC-PCS-resistivity (900 cycles); 160 ?m LCO | 500 s SC-PCS: 102 mAh/g (94.1% C.E., 1C, 350 cycles).
Project description:To increase the energy storage density of lithium-ion batteries, silicon anodes have been explored due to their high capacity. One of the main challenges for silicon anodes are large volume variations during the lithiation processes. Recently, several high-performance schemes have been demonstrated with increased life cycles utilizing nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanowires, and thin films. However, a method that allows the large-scale production of silicon anodes remains to be demonstrated. Herein, we address this question by suggesting new scalable nanomaterial-based anodes. Si nanoparticles were grown on nanographite flakes by aerogel fabrication route from Si powder and nanographite mixture using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). This silicon-nanographite aerogel electrode has stable specific capacity even at high current rates and exhibit good cyclic stability. The specific capacity is 455 mAh g-1 for 200th cycles with a coulombic efficiency of 97% at a current density 100?mA?g-1.
Project description:Silicon microwire arrays embedded in Cu present exceptional performance as anode material in Li ion batteries. The processes occurring during the first charging cycles of batteries with this anode are essential for good performance. This paper sheds light on the electrochemical and structural properties of the anodes during the first charging cycles. Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffractommetry, and fast Fourier transformation impedance spectroscopy are used for the characterization. It was found that crystalline phases with high Li content are obtained after the first lithiation cycle, while for the second lithiation just crystalline phases with less Li are observable, indicating that the lithiated wires become amorphous upon cycling. The formation of a solid electrolyte interface of around 250 nm during the first lithiation cycle is evidenced, and is considered a necessary component for the good cycling performance of the wires. Analog to voltammetric techniques, impedance spectroscopy is confirmed as a powerful tool to identify the formation of the different Si-Li phases.
Project description:From surface hardening of steels to doping of semiconductors, atom insertion in solids plays an important role in modifying chemical, physical, and electronic properties of materials for a variety of applications. High densities of atomic insertion in a solid can result in dramatic structural transformations and associated changes in mechanical behavior: This is particularly evident during electrochemical cycling of novel battery electrodes, such as alloying anodes, conversion oxides, and sulfur and oxygen cathodes. Silicon, which undergoes 400% volume expansion when alloying with lithium, is an extreme case and represents an excellent model system for study. Here, we show that fracture locations are highly anisotropic for lithiation of crystalline Si nanopillars and that fracture is strongly correlated with previously discovered anisotropic expansion. Contrary to earlier theoretical models based on diffusion-induced stresses where fracture is predicted to occur in the core of the pillars during lithiation, the observed cracks are present only in the amorphous lithiated shell. We also show that the critical fracture size is between about 240 and 360 nm and that it depends on the electrochemical reaction rate.
Project description:Sn-based oxide materials as an anode of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) suffer from the unavoidable mechanical stress originated from huge volume changes during lithiation/delithiation reactions. We synthesized the hierarchical SnO nanobranches (NBs) decorated with Sn nanoparticles on Cu current collector using a vapor transport method. The Sn-decorated SnO NBs as an anode of LIB showed good electrochemical performance with high reversible capacity retention of as high as 502 mAh/g and rate capability of 455 mAh/g at a current density of 2.0 A/g after 50 cycles. Through the morphological and crystal structure analyses after the charge and discharge processes, it was found that the morphology of Sn-decorated SnO NBs was transformed to nanoporous layered-structure, composed of Sn and lithium oxide, during the repeated lithiation/delithiation reactions. The free-volume of Sn-decorated SnO NBs and nanoporous layered-structure effectively accommodate the huge volume changes and enhance the electrochemical cyclability by facilitating the diffusion of Li-ions.