Mapping the functional domains of the Golgi stacking factor GRASP65.
ABSTRACT: The Golgi reassembly stacking protein (GRASP) family has been implicated in the stacking of Golgi cisternae and the regulation of Golgi disassembly/reassembly during mitosis in mammalian cells. GRASP65 is a dimer that can directly link adjacent surfaces through trans-oligomerization in a mitotically regulated manner. Here we show that the N-terminal GRASP domain (amino acids 1-201) is both necessary and sufficient for dimerization and trans-oligomerization but is not mitotically regulated. The C-terminal serine/proline-rich domain (amino acids 202-446) cannot dimerize nor can it link adjacent surfaces. It does, however, confer mitotic regulation on the GRASP domain through multiple sites phosphorylated by the mitotic kinases, cdc2/B1, and the polo-like kinase. Transient expression corroborated these results by showing that the GRASP domain alone inhibited mitotic fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus.
Project description:GRASP65 and GRASP55 were classified as Golgi reassembly stacking proteins which play crucial and complementary roles in the stacking of Golgi cisternae. They also participate in vesicle tethering, mitotic progression, the disassembly and reassembly of the Golgi apparatus during mitosis and unconventional secretory pathway regulation. In this study, the expression, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the GRASP65 GRASP domain from Rattus norvegicus are presented. The crystals diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution and belonged to space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 44.99, b = 104.29, c = 37.93 Å, ? = ? = ? = 90°. Furthermore, molecular replacement was employed to determine the structure of the GRASP65 GRASP domain from R. norvegicus.
Project description:In mammalian cells, the Golgi reassembly stacking protein 65 (GRASP65) has been implicated in both Golgi stacking and ribbon linking by forming trans-oligomers through the N-terminal GRASP domain. Because the GRASP domain is globular and relatively small, but the gaps between stacks are large and heterogeneous, it remains puzzling how GRASP65 physically links Golgi stacks into a ribbon. To explore the possibility that other proteins may help GRASP65 in ribbon linking, we used biochemical methods and identified the actin elongation factor Mena as a novel GRASP65-binding protein. Mena is recruited onto the Golgi membranes through interaction with GRASP65. Depleting Mena or disrupting actin polymerization resulted in Golgi fragmentation. In cells, Mena and actin were required for Golgi ribbon formation after nocodazole washout; in vitro, Mena and microfilaments enhanced GRASP65 oligomerization and Golgi membrane fusion. Thus Mena interacts with GRASP65 to promote local actin polymerization, which facilitates Golgi ribbon linking.
Project description:In vitro assays identified the Golgi peripheral protein GRASP65 as a Golgi stacking factor that links adjacent Golgi cisternae by forming mitotically regulated trans-oligomers. These conclusions, however, require further confirmation in the cell. In this study, we showed that the first 112 amino acids at the N-terminus (including the first PDZ domain, PDZ1) of the protein are sufficient for oligomerization. Systematic electron microscopic analysis showed that the expression of non-regulatable GRASP65 mutants in HeLa cells enhanced Golgi stacking in interphase and inhibited Golgi fragmentation during mitosis. Depletion of GRASP65 by small interference RNA (siRNA) reduced the number of cisternae in the Golgi stacks; this reduction was rescued by expressing exogenous GRASP65. These results provided evidence and a molecular mechanism by which GRASP65 stacks Golgi cisternal membranes. Further experiments revealed that inhibition of mitotic Golgi disassembly by expressing non-regulatable GRASP65 mutants did not affect equal partitioning of the Golgi membranes into the daughter cells. However, it delayed mitotic entry and suppressed cell growth; this effect was diminished by dispersing the Golgi apparatus with Brefeldin A treatment prior to mitosis, suggesting that Golgi disassembly at the onset of mitosis plays a role in cell cycle progression.
Project description:In mammalian cells, the Golgi reassembly stacking protein of 65 kDa (GRASP65) has been implicated in both Golgi stacking and ribbon linking by forming trans-oligomers. To better understand its function and regulation, we used biochemical methods to identify the DnaJ homolog subfamily A member 1 (DjA1) as a novel GRASP65-binding protein. In cells, depletion of DjA1 resulted in Golgi fragmentation, short and improperly aligned cisternae, and delayed Golgi reassembly after nocodazole washout. In vitro, immunodepletion of DjA1 from interphase cytosol reduced its activity to enhance GRASP65 oligomerization and Golgi membrane fusion, while adding purified DjA1 enhanced GRASP65 oligomerization. DjA1 is a cochaperone of Heat shock cognate 71-kDa protein (Hsc70), but the activity of DjA1 in Golgi structure formation is independent of its cochaperone activity or Hsc70, rather, through DjA1-GRASP65 interaction to promote GRASP65 oligomerization. Thus, DjA1 interacts with GRASP65 to enhance Golgi structure formation through the promotion of GRASP65 trans-oligomerization.
Project description:The stacking of Golgi cisternae involves GRASP65 and GRASP55. The oligomerization of the N-terminal GRASP domain of these proteins, which consists of two tandem PDZ domains, is required to tether the Golgi membranes. However, the molecular basis for GRASP assembly is unclear. Here, we determined the crystal structures of the GRASP domain of GRASP65 and GRASP55. The structures reveal similar homotypic interactions: the GRASP domain forms a dimer in which the peptide-binding pockets of the two neighboring PDZ2 domains face each other, and the dimers are further connected by the C-terminal tail of one GRASP domain inserting into the binding pocket of the PDZ1 domain in another dimer. Biochemical analysis suggests that both types of contacts are relatively weak but are needed in combination for GRASP-mediated Golgi stacking. Our results unveil a novel mode of membrane tethering by GRASP proteins and provide insight into the mechanism of Golgi stacking.
Project description:Golgi reassembly stacking protein of 65 kDa (GRASP65) and Golgi reassembly stacking protein of 55 kDa (GRASP55) were originally identified as Golgi stacking proteins; however, subsequent GRASP knockdown experiments yielded inconsistent results with respect to the Golgi structure, indicating a limitation of RNAi-based depletion. In this study, we have applied the recently developed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 technology to knock out GRASP55 and GRASP65, individually or in combination, in HeLa and HEK293 cells. We show that double knockout of GRASP proteins disperses the Golgi stack into single cisternae and tubulovesicular structures, accelerates protein trafficking, and impairs accurate glycosylation of proteins and lipids. These results demonstrate a critical role for GRASPs in maintaining the stacked structure of the Golgi, which is required for accurate posttranslational modifications in the Golgi. Additionally, the GRASP knockout cell lines developed in this study will be useful tools for studying the role of GRASP proteins in other important cellular processes.
Project description:In vitro studies have suggested that Golgi stack formation involves two homologous peripheral Golgi proteins, GRASP65 and GRASP55, which localize to the cis and medial-trans cisternae, respectively. However, no mechanism has been provided on how these two GRASP proteins work together to stack Golgi cisternae. Here, we show that depletion of either GRASP55 or GRASP65 by siRNA reduces the number of cisternae per Golgi stack, whereas simultaneous knockdown of both GRASP proteins leads to disassembly of the entire stack. GRASP55 stacks Golgi membranes by forming oligomers through its N-terminal GRASP domain. This process is regulated by phosphorylation within the C-terminal serine/proline-rich domain. Expression of nonphosphorylatable GRASP55 mutants enhances Golgi stacking in interphase cells and inhibits Golgi disassembly during mitosis. These results demonstrate that GRASP55 and GRASP65 stack mammalian Golgi cisternae via a common mechanism.
Project description:GRASP65 (Golgi reassembly and stacking protein of 65?KDa) is a cis-Golgi protein with roles in Golgi structure, membrane trafficking and cell signalling. It is cleaved by caspase-3 early in apoptosis, promoting Golgi fragmentation. We now show that cleavage is needed for Fas-mediated apoptosis: expression of caspase-resistant GRASP65 protects cells, whereas expression of membrane proximal caspase-cleaved GRASP65 fragments dramatically sensitises cells. GRASP65 coordinates passage through the Golgi apparatus of proteins containing C-terminal hydrophobic motifs, via its tandem PDZ type 'GRASP' domains. Fas/CD95 contains a C-terminal leucine-valine pairing so its trafficking might be coordinated by GRASP65. Mutagenesis of the Fas/CD95 LV motif reduces the number of cells with Golgi-associated Fas/CD95, and generates a receptor that is more effective at inducing apoptosis; however, siRNA-mediated silencing or expression of mutant GRASP65 constructs do not alter the steady state distribution of Fas/CD95. We also find no evidence for a GRASP65-Fas/CD95 interaction at the molecular level. Instead, we find that the C-terminal fragments of GRASP65 produced following caspase cleavage are targeted to mitochondria, and ectopic expression of these sensitises HeLa cells to Fas ligand. Our data suggest that GRASP65 cleavage promotes Fas/CD95-mediated apoptosis via release of C-terminal fragments that act at the mitochondria, and we identify Bcl-X(L) as a candidate apoptotic binding partner for GRASP65.
Project description:GRASP65 phosphorylation during mitosis and dephosphorylation after mitosis are required for Golgi disassembly and reassembly during the cell cycle. At least eight phosphorylation sites on GRASP65 have been identified, but whether they are modified in a coordinated fashion during mitosis is so far unknown. In this study, we raised phospho-specific antibodies that recognize phosphorylated T220/T224, S277 and S376 residues of GRASP65, respectively. Biochemical analysis showed that cdc2 phosphorylates all three sites, while plk1 enhances the phosphorylation. Microscopic studies using these antibodies for double and triple labeling demonstrate sequential phosphorylation and dephosphorylation during the cell cycle. S277 and S376 are phosphorylated from late G2 phase through metaphase until telophase when the new Golgi is reassembled. T220/224 is not modified until prophase, but is highly modified from prometaphase to anaphase. In metaphase, phospho-T220/224 signal localizes on both Golgi haze and mitotic Golgi clusters that represent dispersed Golgi vesicles and Golgi remnants, respectively, while phospho-S277 and S376 labeling is more concentrated on mitotic Golgi clusters. Expression of a phosphorylation-resistant GRASP65 mutant T220A/T224A inhibited mitotic Golgi fragmentation to a much larger extent than the expression of the S277A and S376A mutants. In cytokinesis, T220/224 dephosphorylation occurs prior to that of S277, but after S376. This study provides evidence that GRASP65 is sequentially phosphorylated and dephosphorylated during mitosis at different sites to orchestrate Golgi disassembly and reassembly during cell division, with phosphorylation of the T220/224 site being most critical in the process.
Project description:The mammalian Golgi complex is comprised of a ribbon of stacked cisternal membranes often located in the pericentriolar region of the cell. Here, we report that during apoptosis the Golgi ribbon is fragmented into dispersed clusters of tubulo-vesicular membranes. We have found that fragmentation is caspase dependent and identified GRASP65 (Golgi reassembly and stacking protein of 65 kD) as a novel caspase substrate. GRASP65 is cleaved specifically by caspase-3 at conserved sites in its membrane distal COOH terminus at an early stage of the execution phase. Expression of a caspase-resistant form of GRASP65 partially preserved cisternal stacking and inhibited breakdown of the Golgi ribbon in apoptotic cells. Our results suggest that GRASP65 is an important structural component required for maintenance of Golgi apparatus integrity.