Development of Cryopreservation Techniques for Gorgonian (Junceella juncea) Oocytes through Vitrification.
ABSTRACT: Gorgonian corals are slowly declining due to human interaction and environmental impacts. Cryopreservation of gorgonian corals is an ex-situ method of conservation, ensuring future reproduction. The present study assessed the vitrification properties of cryoprotectant (CPT) mixtures using the cryotop, cryoloop and open pulled straw (OPS) cryopereservation methods prior to experimentation on gorgonian (Junceella juncea) oocytes. Investigations of the equilibration and vitrification solutions' (ES and VS) effect on oocytes throughout different incubation periods were conducted. The cryotop method was found to be the most successful in ensuring vitrification. The most favourable VS was composed of propylene glycol (PG), ethylene glycol (EG) and methanol with concentrations of 3.5 M, 1.5 M and 2 M respectively. Experiments were performed using the cryotop method to cryopreserve Junceella juncea oocytes using VS2, the solution had the least impact on oocytes at 5°C rather than at 26°C. The success of the vitrification procedures was determined by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels in cooled-thaw oocytes and the highest viability obtained from the present study was 76.6 ± 6.2%. This study provides information regarding gorgonian corals' tolerance and viability throughout vitrification to further advance the vitrification protocol on whip corals.
Project description:Coral reefs have been declining considerably in recent years because of changes to the environment and climate. The cryopreservation of coral gametes is an essential alternative method that yields immense success in preserving corals. This study focuses on developing vitrification techniques for Junceella fragilis and Ellisella robusta oocytes, and presents a comparison on the cryotolerance of their vitrified oocytes. The results revealed that these coral oocytes could be preserved for a longer period in equilibration solution 2 and vitrification solution (VS) 2 at 5 °C than at 26 °C. Oocyte viability decreased significantly when VS2 was used for >4 min at 26 °C compared with the control. Cryoprotectant tolerance was higher in E. robusta oocytes than in J. fragilis oocytes. However, E. robusta was determined to be more cryo-tolerant, with differences attributed to their habitats, thus making E. robusta is likely a superior candidate species for further study. The results of this study on the effects of coral cryopreservation provide a foundation for developing protocols further for the cryopreservation of the oocytes of gorgonian corals.
Project description:this study was conducted on the effects of vitrification cryotop method on gene expression of mature oocytes in Mus musculus.transcript analyses of three mouse genes, namely Mater, Hook1 and Sod1, were performed upon non-vitrified and vitrified oocytes with different concentrations of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethylene glycol (EG),15%: 7.5% DMSO + 7.5% EG, and 30%: 15% DMSO + 15% EG, using cryotop following normalization of transcripts with Hprt1 by nested quantitative PCR.vitrification caused down-regulation of Mater and Hook1 and up-regulation of Sod1 when lower concentrations of cryoprotectants were used as opposed to the control group. The relative expression of Sod1 in vit(2) (30% v/v) was significantly higher than vit(1) (15% v/v)(.) Quantitative transcript analysis of Mater and Hook1 for the vit(2) condition failed to produce any data. Survival rates were the same for both vitrification treatments and significantly lower than control group.although vit(1) treatment had lower survival rate compared to control group, it demonstrated better stability comparing to vit(2) based on the transcript analysis.
Project description:In cryopreservation of mammalian germ cells, unfertilized oocytes are one of the most available stages because these cryopreserved oocytes can be used for assisted reproductive technologies, including in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. However, it has been generally reported that the fertility and developmental ability of the oocytes are reduced by cryopreservation. Therefore further improvement will be required. Very recently, a new cryoprotective agent (CPA), called as carboxylated ?-poly-L-lysine (COOH-PLL), has been developed to reduce physical and physiological damage by cryopreservation in mammalian stem cells. However, it is unclear the effect of COOH-PLL on fertility and developmental ability of vitrified oocytes. In this study, we used COOH-PLL as a CPA with ethylene glycol (EG) for vitrification of mouse oocytes. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were collected from ICR mice and then vitrified with Cryotop using different concentration of COOH-PLL and EG. A combined treatment with COOH-PLL and EG showed high survival rate (more than 90%) of vitrified-warmed COCs after in vitro fertilization. In addition, the fertility and developmental ability of COCs vitrified with E20P10 [EG 20% (v/v) and COOH-PLL 10% (w/v)] or E15P15 group (EG 15% and COOH-PLL 15%) were significantly higher than those with E10P20 (EG10% and COOH-PLL 20%) or P30 group (PLL30%). The vitrified COCs in E20P10 group developed to term at a high success rate (46.2%) and it was significantly higher than that in control (E30) group (34.8%). Our present study demonstrated for the first time that COOH-PLL is effective for vitrification of mouse oocytes.
Project description:This study was designed to compare the efficiency of the Cryotop and Calibrated plastic inoculation loop (CPIL) devices for vitrification of rabbit embryos on in vitro development and implantation rate, offspring rate at birth and embryonic and fetal losses. CPIL is a simple tool used mainly by microbiologists to retrieve an inoculum from a culture of microorganisms. In experiment 1, embryos were vitrified using a Cryotop device and a CPIL device. There were no significant differences in hatched/hatching blastocyst stage rates after 48 h of culture among the vitrified groups (62 ± 4.7% and 62 ± 4.9%, respectively); however, the rates were significantly lower (P<0.05) than those of the fresh group (95 ± 3.4%). In experiment 2, vitrified embryos were transferred using laparoscopic technique. The number of implanted embryos was estimated by laparoscopy as number of implantation sites at day 14 of gestation. At birth, total offspring were recorded. Embryonic and fetal losses were calculated as the difference between implanted embryos and embryos transferred and total born at birth and implanted embryos, respectively. The rate of implantation and development to term was similar between both vitrification devices (56 ± 7.2% and 50 ± 6.8% for implantation rate and 40 ± 7.1% and 35 ± 6.5% for offspring rate at birth); but significantly lower than in the fresh group (78 ± 6.6% for implantation rate and 70 ± 7.2% for offspring rate at birth, P<0.05). Likewise, embryonic losses were similar between both vitrification devices (44 ± 7.2% and 50 ± 6.8%), but significantly higher than in the fresh group (23 ± 6.6%, P < 0.05). However, fetal losses were similar between groups (10 ± 4.4%, 15 ± 4.8% and 8 ± 4.2%, for vitrified, Cryotop or CPIL and fresh, respectively). These results indicate that the CPIL device is as effective as the Cryotop device for vitrification of rabbit embryos, but at a cost of €0.05 per device.
Project description:The method of vitrification has been widely used for cryopreservation. However, the effectiveness of this method for mammalian oocytes could be improved by optimizing each step of the process. In the present study, we tested the effects of varying several key parameters to determine the most effective protocol for mouse oocyte vitrification. We found that cryoprotectant containing ethylene glycol and dimethylsulfoxide plus 20% fetal calf serum produced the highest rates of oocyte survival, fertilization, and blastocyst formation. The duration and temperature of oocyte exposure to vitrification and thawing solutions influenced survival rate. The presence of cumulus cells surrounding oocytes and the incubation of thawed oocytes in Toyoda-Yokoyama-Hosoki medium also increased oocyte survival. Open pulled straw and nylon loop methods were more effective than the mini-drop method. Finally, the combination of these improved methods resulted in better spindle morphology when compared to the unimproved methods. These results demonstrate that the outcomes of mouse oocyte vitrification can be improved by a suitable combination of cryopreservation methods, which could be applied to future clinical research with human oocytes.
Project description:Hyperosmotic stress may induce apoptosis of different cells. However, oocytes show tolerance to osmotic stress during cryopreservation by vitrification, which is an assisted reproductive technique. The underlying mechanism is still not understood. Here, we demonstrated that hyperosmosis produced by high concentrations of cryoprotectants, including DMSO, ethylene glycol and sucrose, significantly upregulated the protein levels of aquaporin (AQP) 7, but not AQP3 and AQP9, in mouse oocytes. Knockdown of AQP7 expression by siRNA-injection significantly reduced the survival of oocytes after vitrification. In oocytes, AQP7 was shown to bind with F-actin, a protein involved in almost all biological events. Moreover, we found that hyperosmosis could upregulate the phosphorylation levels of CPE-binding protein (CPEB) and Aurora A. Inhibition of the PI3K and PKC pathways blocked the hyperosmosis-induced upregulation of AQP7 and the phosphorylation of CPEB and Aurora A in oocytes. In conclusion, hyperosmosis could upregulate the expression of AQP7 via Aurora A/CPEB phosphorylation mediated by the PI3K and PKC pathways, and upregulation of AQP7 plays an important role in improving of tolerance to hyperosmotic stress and survival of oocytes during cryopreservation by vitrification.
Project description:Changes in gene expression induced by the Cryotop vitrification procedure in bovine blastocysts using Agilent EmbryoGENE microarray slides. Bovine in vitro-produced embryos at the blastocyst stage (144 to 156 hours post insemination) were vitrified using the Cryotop system and compared with non-vitrified (control) embryos. After vitrification, the embryos were warmed and cultured for an additional 4 hours. Embryos that re-expanded or developed to the expanded blastocyst stage were used for microarray analysis. Four pools of vitrified embryos were hybridized against four pools of control embryos in a dye-swap design.
Project description:PURPOSE: The objectives were to test how the source of oocytes and semen impacted vitrification of large numbers of bovine oocytes and subsequent IVF and early embryo development to test procedures that may assist with assisted reproductive technologies in humans. METHODS: Bovine oocytes were vitrified from follicles of different diameters, small (< or =4 mm) and medium (4 to 10 mm), using nylon mesh. Oocytes were exposed to the cryoprotectant composed of 40% (v/v) ethylene glycol, 18% (w/v) Ficoll-70, and 0.3 M sucrose in three stepwise dilutions. Thawing was conducted with a series of 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 M sucrose dilutions in 20% fetal bovine serum. RESULTS: The cleavage (39.1% vs. 58.5%) and blastocyst rates (5.1% vs. 22.9%) were significantly lower for the vitrified oocytes. Follicle size had a significant impact on the development of embryos. Sires had significant effects on embryonic developmental rates. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that differences in development exist due to follicle source and sire used for IVF after vitrification.
Project description:Symbioses with the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium form the foundation of tropical coral reef communities. Symbiodinium photosynthesis fuels the growth of an array of marine invertebrates, including cnidarians such as scleractinian corals and octocorals (e.g., gorgonian and soft corals). Studies examining the symbioses between Caribbean gorgonian corals and Symbiodinium are sparse, even though gorgonian corals blanket the landscape of Caribbean coral reefs. The objective of this study was to compare photosynthetic characteristics of Symbiodinium in four common Caribbean gorgonian species: Pterogorgia anceps, Eunicea tourneforti, Pseudoplexaura porosa, and Pseudoplexaura wagenaari. Symbiodinium associated with these four species exhibited differences in Symbiodinium density, chlorophyll a per cell, light absorption by chlorophyll a, and rates of photosynthetic oxygen production. The two Pseudoplexaura species had higher Symbiodinium densities and chlorophyll a per Symbiodinium cell but lower chlorophyll a specific absorption compared to P. anceps and E. tourneforti. Consequently, P. porosa and P. wagenaari had the highest average photosynthetic rates per cm2 but the lowest average photosynthetic rates per Symbiodinium cell or chlorophyll a. With the exception of Symbiodinium from E. tourneforti, isolated Symbiodinium did not photosynthesize at the same rate as Symbiodinium in hospite. Differences in Symbiodinium photosynthetic performance could not be attributed to Symbiodinium type. All P. anceps (n?=?9) and P. wagenaari (n?=?6) colonies, in addition to one E. tourneforti and three P. porosa colonies, associated with Symbiodinium type B1. The B1 Symbiodinium from these four gorgonian species did not cluster with lineages of B1 Symbiodinium from scleractinian corals. The remaining eight E. tourneforti colonies harbored Symbiodinium type B1L, while six P. porosa colonies harbored type B1i. Understanding the symbioses between gorgonian corals and Symbiodinium will aid in deciphering why gorgonian corals dominate many Caribbean reefs.
Project description:The bacterial microbiome is an essential component of many corals, although knowledge of the microbiomes in scleractinian corals far exceeds that for octocorals. This study characterized the bacterial communities present in shallow water Caribbean gorgonian octocorals over time and space, in addition to determining the bacterial assemblages in gorgonians exposed to environmental perturbations. We found that seven shallow water Caribbean gorgonian species maintained distinct microbiomes and predominantly harbored two bacterial genera, Mycoplasma and Endozoicomonas. Representatives of these taxa accounted for over 70% of the sequences recovered, made up the three most common operational taxonomic units (OTUs), and were present in most of the gorgonian species. Gorgonian species sampled in different seasons and/or in different years, exhibited significant shifts in the abundances of these bacterial OTUs, though there were few changes to overall bacterial diversity, or to the specific OTUs present. These shifts had minimal impact on the relative abundance of inferred functional proteins within the gorgonian corals. Sequences identified as Escherichia were ubiquitous in gorgonian colonies sampled from a lagoon but not in colonies sampled from a back reef. Exposure to increased temperature and/or ultraviolet radiation (UVR) or nutrient enrichment led to few significant changes in the gorgonian coral microbiomes. While there were some shifts in the abundance of the prevalent bacteria, more commonly observed was "microbial switching" between different OTUs identified within the same bacterial genus. The relative stability of gorgonian coral bacterial microbiome may potentially explain some of the resistance and resilience of Caribbean gorgonian corals against changing environmental conditions.