Evaluation of Non-vascular Fibula Graft for Mandibular Reconstruction.
ABSTRACT: Functional and cosmetic defects in maxillofacial region are caused by various ailments like trauma, neoplasm, developmental, infections and iatrogenic causes. Reconstruction of these defects with free flaps remains the gold standard but demerits like need for surgical expertise and equipment, prolonged duration of surgery, compliance of the patient and increased cost are associated with microvascular reconstruction. Hence reconstruction with nonvascular bone grafts can be considered when defect is nonirradiated and <9 cm and with sufficient soft tissue cover available.To retrospectively evaluate clinical, radiological outcome and complications encountered with mandibular reconstruction using non vascular fibula graft.This retrospective study included 7 patients who were treated in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Narayana Dental College and Hospital, Nellore, AP between 2011 and 2013 with histologically proven benign osteolytic lesions of mandible that require a segmental mandibulectomy and primary reconstruction using autogenous non-vascularised fibular graft. The clinical case records of the patients and personal patient assessment forms (Quality of Life Assessment Forms) were analysed. They were recalled every 3rd, 6th and 9th month after surgery for evaluation of clinical, radiological outcome of the graft and complications occurring at recipient and donor sites.In all the 7 patients, the lower border continuity was maintained except in one where the graft was dislodged. Tongue movements in all the patients were unrestricted. Jaw movements were affected in cases of ramus defects with slight deviation to operated side and reduced mouth opening. Radiological observations revealed no significant changes in 3 months except for slight reduction in graft height. The radioopaque bridging with continuity of lower border of mandible was noticed in 6th month indicating the take of the graft. This was achieved in every case except in one where the graft was lost due to dislodged reconstruction plate. In 9th month the edges of the graft i.e., graft to native mandible junction showed more resorption (3 mm) especially where there is >2 mm of gap. Whereas increase in height of graft in other areas especially in graft to graft junction was seen. Significant graft resorption was seen in two cases. There were no major complications associated with the donor site.Avascular fibula graft although a second choice to vascularised fibula, is a favourable option for mandible defects of 6-10 cm under optimum conditions especially in developing countries where financial and/or surgical resources are limited. An attempt for primary reconstruction with this is never futile as it prevents aesthetic deformity even in the event of failure and thus makes secondary reconstruction easy. However in order to confirm the results a prospective study with large scale of patients is necessary.
Project description:Defects requiring reconstruction in the mandible are commonly encountered and may result from resection of benign or malignant lesions, trauma, or osteoradionecrosis. Mandibular defects can be classified according to location and extent, as well as involvement of mucosa, skin, and tongue. Vascularized bone flaps, in general, provide the best functional and aesthetic outcome, with the fibula flap remaining the gold standard for mandible reconstruction. In this review, we discuss classification and approach to reconstruction of mandibular defects. We also elaborate upon four commonly used free osteocutaneous flaps, inclusive of fibula, iliac crest, scapula, and radial forearm. Finally, we discuss indications and use of osseointegrated implants as well as recent advances in mandibular reconstruction.
Project description:Background:Management of gap nonunion of tibia is difficult for the surgeons, and time consuming for patients with unpredictable results. There are various methods to treat gap nonunion, but each one has its own limitations. We report the outcomes of ipsilateral fibular transposition (Huntington's procedure) for reconstruction of major tibial defects. Methods:It is a retrospective study including 4 patients who underwent ipsilateral vascularized transposition of fibula for gap nonunion of tibia. Fibula was transferred to tibia as vascularized pedicle graft in one-staged procedure. Results:Single stage fibular transposition was performed in four patients. The transferred fibula united in all patients. Mean follow-up after fibular transposition was 1.2 years. Partial weight bearing started after an average of 5.25 months till hypertrophy of fibula is seen on radiographs than full weight bearing started. The mean time to healing was 7.5 months (range: 5-10 months). Tibialization of fibula occurred in all patients as evident on radiographs. Conclusions:Huntington procedure is a simple and technically easy for large tibial defects. It does not require microsurgical skill and implants. The union of transferred fibula is faster than conventional graft as it is a vascularized graft. It is a rational choice for the treatment of large tibial defects in selected cases.
Project description:The fibula osteocutaneous flap has revolutionized the options of mandibular segmental defect bridging in osteoradionecrosis (ORN). In selected cases, however, the fibula flap is not an option because of atherosclerosis or other features that compromise the vascularity of the lower leg and foot. The aim of this study is to present an alternative method of mandibular segmental reconstruction employing a latissimus dorsi (LD) flap and subsequent particulate iliac free bone graft reconstruction. In 15 patients with ORN, a mandibular segmental defect was bridged with a reconstruction plate, and the defect site was primed with a LD musculocutaneous flap wrapped around the reconstruction plate to bring in vascularized tissue and optimize healing conditions for a subsequent particulate iliac free bone graft reconstruction. The management of defect closure was successful in all 15 patients. Twelve patients had a subsequent bone grafting from the posterior ileum for repair of defects up to 14 cm length. Three patients had no bone graft for various reasons. In three patients dental rehabilitation was achieved with implant supported prosthodontic appliances. Ten patients met the success criteria of uneventful graft healing with restitution of osseous continuity, mandibular height, symmetry and function, and avoidance of reconstruction plate fracture.
Project description:Reconstruction of cranial and maxillofacial defects is a challenging task. The standard reconstruction method has been bone grafting. In this review, we shall describe the biological principles of bone graft healing, as pertinent to craniofacial reconstruction. Different types and sources of bone grafts will be discussed, as well as new methods of bone defect reconstruction.
Project description:We investigated the workflow of computer-assisted mandibular reconstruction that was performed with a patient-specific mandibular reconstruction plate fabricated with computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques and a fibula flap. We assessed the feasibility of this technique from virtual planning to the completion of surgery. Computed tomography (CT) scans of a cadaveric skull and fibula were obtained for the virtual simulation of mandibular resection and reconstruction using ProPlan CMF software (Materialise(®)/DePuy Synthes(®)). The virtual model of the reconstructed mandible provided the basis for the computer-aided design of a patient-specific reconstruction plate that was milled from titanium using a five-axis milling machine and CAM techniques. CAD/CAM techniques were used for producing resection guides for mandibular resection and cutting guides for harvesting a fibula flap. Mandibular reconstruction was simulated in a cadaveric wet laboratory. No problems were encountered during the procedure. The plate was fixed accurately to the residual bone without difficulty. The fibula segments were attached to the plate rapidly and reliably. The fusion of preoperative and postoperative CT datasets demonstrated high reconstruction precision. Computer-assisted mandibular reconstruction with CAD/CAM-fabricated patient-specific reconstruction plates appears to be a promising approach for mandibular reconstruction. Clinical trials are required to determine whether these promising results can be translated into successful practice and what further developments are needed.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the changes in the jaws and the upper airways of unilateral temporomandibular joint ankylosis patients who underwent condylar reconstruction via autogenous coronoid process grafts using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). STUDY DESIGN:The 27 included patients underwent CBCT examinations at three stages: T0 (within two weeks before surgery), T1 (two weeks after surgery), and T2 (an average of 13 months after surgery). Forty items related to the maxillofacial hard tissues and the upper airway collected at the three times and the coronoid process graft volumes after surgery were compared. RESULTS:Some integral items related to the mandibular hard tissues exhibited statistical difference shortly after surgery. Some integral items related to maxillofacial hard tissues changing obviously long period after surgery may result from graft remodeling. Asymmetry-related item regarding local neo-condyle and some airway items were significantly different between T0 and T1. Due to variations in graft remodeling, some related local asymmetry items and airway items differed significantly between T0 and T2. CONCLUSIONS:Anteriorly and inferiorly located neo-condyles and a trend toward the pronation of the mandible were observed and the narrowness of the upper airway was improved shortly after surgery. The grafts remodeled differently and some integral and asymmetry items related to neo-condyle changed. The improvements in the upper airway were slightly reduced.
Project description:Central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) is a benign proliferation of fibroblasts and multinucleated giant cells that almost exclusively occurs in the jaws. It commonly occurs in young adults showing a female predilection in the anterior mandible. Multifocal CGCGs in maxillofacial region are very rare and suggestive of systemic diseases such as hyperparathyroidism, an inherited syndrome such as Noonan-like multiple giant cell lesion syndrome or other disorders. Only 10 cases of multifocal CGCGs in the maxillofacial region without any concomitant systemic disease have been reported in the English literature. Here, we report an unusual case of 36 year-old female presented with non-syndromic synchronous, multifocal CGCGs in the left posterior mandible and left posterior maxilla without any concomitant systemic disease. Relevant literature is reviewed and the incidence, clinical features, radiological features, differential diagnosis and management of CGCGs are discussed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Segmental mandibulectomy impairs health-related quality of life (QoL), by altering speech, mastication, swallowing, and facial aesthetics. Fibula free flap (FFF) used for mandible reconstruction is known to improve outcomes; however, minimal information exists in the literature regarding patient-reported outcomes. We aim to assess how current studies evaluate patient perception following segmental mandibulectomy and FFF mandible reconstruction. METHODS:Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, a search was conducted for publications involving FFF mandible reconstruction from 2005 to 2017 using PubMed, Cochrane, EMBASE, Web of Science, and PsychInfo. RESULTS:Of 2212 articles identified initially, only 7 studies were deemed suitable. Six studies used the University of Washington Quality of Life questionnaire, 3 Oral Health Impact Profile, and 1 used European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Head and Neck (EORTC-H&N35). CONCLUSIONS:There is a paucity of information in published reports on QoL outcomes following mandible reconstruction with FFF. In the era of patient-centered health care, observations warrant attention from researchers for physician-assessed patient-reported measures to factor in QoL expectation during surgical decision-making about the choice of reconstruction.
Project description:Background:Extensive through-and-through oromandibular defects after advanced oral carcinoma excision pose a reconstructive challenge for the head and neck surgeon. These complex oromandibular wounds often involve the mandible, oral and/or aerodigestive mucosa, and the external skin. As a result, these defects are often not amenable to reconstruction with a single flap due to the volume of soft tissue needed and the three-dimensional reconstructive requirement. The use of two free flaps has often been suggested to overcome this reconstructive challenge. A simpler and less technically demanding way to deal with this may involve the use of a free flap in combination with a pedicled regional flap. We present our experience of the use of a simultaneous microvascular fibula free flap (FFF) with a pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMC) for addressing these defects. Methods:A retrospective chart review was performed of patients treated with a FFF and PMMC combination for the reconstruction of oromandibular defects at the University of Mississippi Medical Center (Jackson, MS) between October 2013 and February 2016. A minimum follow-up of 12 months was required. Data collected included the extent and location of tumor involvement, size of the postablative defect, tumor histology, clinical and pathological staging, length of follow-up, functional outcomes, and associated complications. Results:A total of three patients were identified to have been treated with the above technique. Defects repaired involved through-and-through mandibular defects with associated oral mucosa and external skin defects. In all cases, the FFF was used for restoring bony continuity with the skin paddle used to reconstruct the intraoral lining. The PMMC was used for reconstruction of the external skin defect and for providing soft tissue bulk. The average size of the fibula skin paddle used for intraoral reconstruction was 7.7?cm × 11.7?cm. The average size of the PMMC paddle was 7.3 × 9?cm. The mean follow-up was 21.7 months. Both the FFF and PMMC survived in all cases, although postoperative wound healing complications occurred in two of the three patients. There was one partial flap loss. Two patients regained good oral intake while one patient tolerated oral intake but was PEG tube-dependent. Conclusions:The combination of pectoralis major myocutaneous flap and a vascularized free fibular flap is a viable option for the reconstruction of complex through-and-through oromandibular defects. This technique may be useful when a single microvascular free flap is not sufficient for reconstruction of such defects.
Project description:Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) is an osteoinductive growth factor used in oral and maxillofacial surgery. It offers a feasible alternative for various regenerative procedures, including reconstruction of mandibular defects. In this study, we report a case of a large Pindborg tumor involving the left mandible. The treatment consisted of surgical resection, followed by off-label use of rhBMP-2 in addition to bone marrow aspirate concentrate, together with an allograft in a titanium mesh. The patient was rehabilitated with dental implants, and a good clinical outcome was achieved. We found no evidence of bone resorption or complications in both clinical and radiographic evaluations during the one-year follow-up period. In conclusion, we have demonstrated the efficacy of using rhBMP-2 combined with bone marrow aspirate concentrate, and an allograft with a titanium mesh, for the reconstruction of long mandibular bone defects. Not only is this combination feasible, but it also has the advantages of lower morbidity and cost.