Metabolic engineering of mannitol production in Lactococcus lactis: influence of overexpression of mannitol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase in different genetic backgrounds.
ABSTRACT: To obtain a mannitol-producing Lactococcus lactis strain, the mannitol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (mtlD) from Lactobacillus plantarum was overexpressed in a wild-type strain, a lactate dehydrogenase(LDH)-deficient strain, and a strain with reduced phosphofructokinase activity. High-performance liquid chromatography and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed that small amounts (<1%) of mannitol were formed by growing cells of mtlD-overexpressing LDH-deficient and phosphofructokinase-reduced strains, whereas resting cells of the LDH-deficient transformant converted 25% of glucose into mannitol. Moreover, the formed mannitol was not reutilized upon glucose depletion. Of the metabolic-engineering strategies investigated in this work, mtlD-overexpressing LDH-deficient L. lactis seemed to be the most promising strain for mannitol production.
Project description:Lactococcus lactis has great potential for high-yield production of mannitol, which has not yet been fully realized. In this study, we characterize how the mannitol genes in L. lactis are organized and regulated and use this information to establish efficient mannitol production. Although the organization of the mannitol genes in L. lactis was similar to that in other Gram-positive bacteria, <i>mtlF</i> and <i>mtlD</i>, encoding the enzyme IIA component (EIIA<sup>mtl</sup>) of the mannitol phosphotransferase system (PTS) and the mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase, respectively, were separated by a transcriptional terminator, and the mannitol genes were found to be organized in two transcriptional units: an operon comprising <i>mtlA</i>, encoding the enzyme IIBC component (EIIBC<sup>mtl</sup>) of the mannitol PTS, <i>mtlR</i>, encoding a transcriptional activator, and <i>mtlF</i>, as well as a separately expressed <i>mtlD</i> gene. The promoters driving expression of the two transcriptional units were somewhat similar, and both contained predicted catabolite responsive element (<i>cre</i>) genes. The presence of carbon catabolite repression was demonstrated and was shown to be relieved in stationary-phase cells. The transcriptional activator MtlR (<i>mtlR</i>), in some Gram-positive bacteria, is repressed by phosphorylation by EIIA<sup>mtl</sup>, and when we knocked out <i>mtlF</i>, we indeed observed enhanced expression from the two promoters, which indicated that this mechanism was in place. Finally, by overexpressing the <i>mtlD</i> gene and using stationary-phase cells as biocatalysts, we attained 10.1 g/liter mannitol with a 55% yield, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the highest titer ever reported for L. lactis. Summing up, the results of our study should be useful for improving the mannitol-producing capacity of this important industrial organism. <b>IMPORTANCE</b> Lactococcus lactis is the most studied species of the lactic acid bacteria, and it is widely used in various food fermentations. To date, there have been several attempts to persuade L. lactis to produce mannitol, a sugar alcohol with important therapeutic and food applications. Until now, to achieve mannitol production in L. lactis with significant titer and yield, it has been necessary to introduce and express foreign genes, which precludes the use of such strains in foods, due to their recombinant status. In this study, we systematically characterize how the mannitol genes in L. lactis are regulated and demonstrate how this impacts mannitol production capability. We harnessed this information and managed to establish efficient mannitol production without introducing foreign genes.
Project description:Manipulation of NADH-dependent steps, and particularly disruption of the las-located lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) gene in Lactococcus lactis, is common to engineering strategies envisaging the accumulation of reduced end products other than lactate. Reverse transcription-PCR experiments revealed that three out of the four genes assigned to lactate dehydrogenase in the genome of L. lactis, i.e., the ldh, ldhB, and ldhX genes, were expressed in the parental strain MG1363. Given that genetic redundancy is often a major cause of metabolic instability in engineered strains, we set out to develop a genetically stable lactococcal host tuned for the production of reduced compounds. Therefore, the ldhB and ldhX genes were sequentially deleted in L. lactis FI10089, a strain with a deletion of the ldh gene. The single, double, and triple mutants, FI10089, FI10089?ldhB, and FI10089?ldhB?ldhX, showed similar growth profiles and displayed mixed-acid fermentation, ethanol being the main reduced end product. Hence, the alcohol dehydrogenase-encoding gene, the adhE gene, was inactivated in FI10089, but the resulting strain reverted to homolactic fermentation due to induction of the ldhB gene. The three lactate dehydrogenase-deficient mutants were selected as a background for the production of mannitol and 2,3-butanediol. Pathways for the biosynthesis of these compounds were overexpressed under the control of a nisin promoter, and the constructs were analyzed with respect to growth parameters and product yields under anaerobiosis. Glucose was efficiently channeled to mannitol (maximal yield, 42%) or to 2,3-butanediol (maximal yield, 67%). The theoretical yield for 2,3-butanediol was achieved. We show that FI10089?ldhB is a valuable basis for engineering strategies aiming at the production of reduced compounds.
Project description:Streptococcus mutans, the causative agent of dental caries, utilizes carbohydrates by means of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS). The PTS facilitates vectorial translocation of metabolizable carbohydrates to form the corresponding sugar-phosphates, which are subsequently converted to glycolytic intermediates. The PTS consists of both sugar-specific and sugar-independent components. Complementation of an Escherichia coli mtlD mutation with a streptococcal recombinant DNA library allowed isolation of the mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (mtlD) and the adjacent sugar-specific mannitol factor III gene (mtlF) from S. mutans. Subsequent transposon mutagenesis of the complementing DNA fragment with Tn5seq1 defined the region that encodes the mtlD-complementing activity, the streptococcal mtlD gene. Nucleotide sequence analysis of this region revealed two complete open reading frames (ORFs) from within the streptococcal mannitol PTS operon. One ORF encodes the mtlD gene product, a 43.0-kDa protein which exhibits similarity to the E. coli and Enterococcus faecalis mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenases. The second ORF encodes a 15.8-kDa protein which exhibits similarity to mannitol factor III proteins from several bacterial species. In vitro transcription-translation assays were used to produce proteins of the sizes predicted by the streptococcal ORFs. These data indicate that the S. mutans mannitol PTS utilizes an enzyme II-factor III complex similar to the mannitol system found in other gram-positive organisms, as opposed to that of E. coli, which utilizes an independent enzyme II system.
Project description:Vibrio cholerae utilizes mannitol through an operon of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase (PTS) type. A gene, mtlD, encoding mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase was identified within the 3.9 kb mannitol operon of V. cholerae. The mtlD gene was cloned from V. cholerae O395, and the recombinant enzyme was functionally expressed in E. coli as a 6×His-tagged protein and purified to homogeneity. The recombinant protein is a monomer with a molecular mass of 42.35 kDa. The purified recombinant MtlD reduced fructose 6-phosphate (F6P) using NADH as a cofactor with a K(m) of 1.54 +/- 0.1 mM and V(max) of 320.8 +/- 7.81 micronmol/min/mg protein. The pH and temperature optima for F6P reduction were determined to be 7.5 and 37°C, respectively. Using quantitative real-time PCR analysis, mtlD was found to be constitutively expressed in V. cholerae, but the expression was up-regulated when grown in the presence of mannitol. The MtlD expression levels were not significantly different between V. cholerae O1 and non-O1 strains.
Project description:Mannitol (Mtl) fermentation, with the subsequent production of acid, is a species signature of Staphylococcus aureus, and discriminates it from most other members of the genus. Inactivation of the gene mtlD, encoding Mtl-1-P dehydrogenase was found to markedly reduce survival in the presence of the antimicrobial fatty acid, linoleic acid. We demonstrate that the sugar alcohol has a potentiating action for this membrane-acting antimicrobial. Analysis of cellular metabolites revealed that, during exponential growth, the mtlD mutant accumulated high levels of Mtl and Mtl-P. The latter metabolite was not detected in its isogenic parent strain or a deletion mutant of the entire mtlABFD operon. In addition, the mtlD mutant strain exhibited a decreased MIC for H2O2, however virulence was unaffected in a model of septic arthritis.
Project description:Background:Mannitol is a C(6) polyol that is used in the food and medical sector as a sweetener and antioxidant, respectively. The sustainable production of mannitol, especially via the direct conversion of CO2 by photosynthetic cyanobacteria, has become increasingly appealing. However, previous work aiming to achieve mannitol production in the marine Synechococcus sp. PCC7002 via heterologous expression of mannitol-1-phosphate-5-dehydrogenase (mtlD) and mannitol-1-phosphatase (m1p, in short: a 'mannitol cassette'), proved to be genetically unstable. In this study, we aim to overcome this genetic instability by conceiving a strategy to stabilize mannitol production using Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 as a model cyanobacterium. Results:Here, we explore the stabilizing effect that mannitol production may have on cells faced with osmotic stress, in the freshwater cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. We first validated that mannitol can function as a compatible solute in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, and in derivative strains in which the ability to produce one or both of the native compatible solutes was impaired. Wild-type Synechocystis, complemented with a mannitol cassette, indeed showed increased salt tolerance, which was even more evident in Synechocystis strains in which the ability to synthesize the endogenous compatible solutes was impaired. Next we tested the genetic stability of all these strains with respect to their mannitol productivity, with and without salt stress, during prolonged turbidostat cultivations. The obtained results show that mannitol production under salt stress conditions in the Synechocystis strain that cannot synthesize its endogenous compatible solutes is remarkably stable, while the control strain completely loses this ability in only 6 days. DNA sequencing results of the control groups that lost the ability to synthesize mannitol revealed that multiple types of mutation occurred in the mtlD gene that can explain the disruption of mannitol production. Conclusions:Mannitol production in freshwater Synechocsytis sp. PCC6803 confers it with increased salt tolerance. Under this strategy, genetically instability which was the major challenge for mannitol production in cyanobacteria is tackled. This paper marks the first report of utilization of the response to salt stress as a factor that can increase the stability of mannitol production in a cyanobacterial cell factory.
Project description:Mannitol is the major compatible solute, next to glutamate, synthesized by the opportunistic human pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii under low water activities. The key enzyme for mannitol biosynthesis, MtlD, was identified. MtlD is highly similar to the bifunctional mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase/phosphatase from Acinetobacter baylyi. After deletion of the mtlD gene from A. baumannii ATCC 19606<sup>T</sup> cells no longer accumulated mannitol and growth was completely impaired at high salt. Addition of glycine betaine restored growth, demonstrating that mannitol is an important compatible solute in the human pathogen. MtlD was heterologously produced and purified. Enzyme activity was strictly salt dependent. Highest stimulation was reached at 600 mmol/L NaCl. Addition of different sodium as well as potassium salts restored activity, with highest stimulations up to 41 U/mg protein by sodium glutamate. In contrast, an increase in osmolarity by addition of sugars did not restore activity. Regulation of mannitol synthesis was also assayed at the transcriptional level. Reporter gene assays revealed that expression of mtlD is strongly dependent on high osmolarity, not discriminating between different salts or sugars. The presence of glycine betaine or its precursor choline repressed promoter activation. These data indicate a dual regulation of mannitol production in A. baumannii, at the transcriptional and the enzymatic level, depending on high osmolarity.
Project description:Costa2014 - Computational Model of L. lactis
This model is described in the article:
An extended dynamic model of
Lactococcus lactis metabolism for mannitol and 2,3-butanediol
Costa RS, Hartmann A, Gaspar P,
Neves AR, Vinga S.
Mol Biosyst 2014 Mar; 10(3):
Biomedical research and biotechnological production are
greatly benefiting from the results provided by the development
of dynamic models of microbial metabolism. Although several
kinetic models of Lactococcus lactis (a Lactic Acid Bacterium
(LAB) commonly used in the dairy industry) have been developed
so far, most of them are simplified and focus only on specific
metabolic pathways. Therefore, the application of mathematical
models in the design of an engineering strategy for the
production of industrially important products by L. lactis has
been very limited. In this work, we extend the existing kinetic
model of L. lactis central metabolism to include industrially
relevant production pathways such as mannitol and
2,3-butanediol. In this way, we expect to study the dynamics of
metabolite production and make predictive simulations in L.
lactis. We used a system of ordinary differential equations
(ODEs) with approximate Michaelis-Menten-like kinetics for each
reaction, where the parameters were estimated from multivariate
time-series metabolite concentrations obtained by our team
through in vivo Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). The results
show that the model captures observed transient dynamics when
validated under a wide range of experimental conditions.
Furthermore, we analyzed the model using global perturbations,
which corroborate experimental evidence about metabolic
responses upon enzymatic changes. These include that mannitol
production is very sensitive to lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in
the wild type (W.T.) strain, and to mannitol
phosphoenolpyruvate: a phosphotransferase system (PTS(Mtl)) in
a LDH mutant strain. LDH reduction has also a positive control
on 2,3-butanediol levels. Furthermore, it was found that
overproduction of mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (MPD) in a
LDH/PTS(Mtl) deficient strain can increase the mannitol levels.
The results show that this model has prediction capability over
new experimental conditions and offers promising possibilities
to elucidate the effect of alterations in the main metabolism
of L. lactis, with application in strain optimization.
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Project description:Enzyme IIIMtl is part of the mannitol phosphotransferase system of Enterococcus faecalis. It is phosphorylated in a reaction sequence requiring enzyme I and heat-stable phosphocarrier protein (HPr). The phospho group is transferred from enzyme IIIMtl to enzyme IIMtl, which then catalyzes the uptake and concomitant phosphorylation of mannitol. The internalized mannitol-1-phosphate is oxidized to fructose-6-phosphate by mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase. In this report we describe the cloning of the mtlF and mtlD genes, encoding enzyme IIIMtl and mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase of E. faecalis, by a complementation system designed for cloning of gram-positive phosphotransferase system genes. The complete nucleotide sequences of mtlF, mtlD, and flanking regions were determined. From the gene sequences, the primary translation products are deduced to consist of 145 amino acids (enzyme IIIMtl) and 374 amino acids (mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase). Amino acid sequence comparison confirmed a 41% similarity of E. faecalis enzyme IIIMtl to the hydrophilic enzyme IIIMtl-like portion of enzyme IIMtl of Escherichia coli and 45% similarity to enzyme IIIMtl of Staphylococcus carnosus. The putative N-terminal NAD+ binding domain of mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase of E. faecalis shows a high degree of similarity with the N terminus of E. coli mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (T. Davis, M. Yamada, M. Elgort, and M. H. Saier, Jr., Mol. Microbiol. 2:405-412, 1988) and the N-terminal part of the translation product of S. carnosus mtlD, which was also determined in this study. There is 40% similarity between the dehydrogenases of E. faecalis and E. coli over the whole length of the enzymes. The organization of mannitol-specific genes in E. faecalis seems to be similar to the organization in S. carnosus. The open reading frame for enzyme IIIMtl E. faecalis is followed by a stem-loop structure, analogous to a typical Rho-independent terminator. We conclude that the mannitol-specific genes are organized in an operon and that the gene order is mtlA orfX mtlF mtlD.
Project description:A putative mannitol operon of the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase (PTS) type was cloned from Vibrio cholerae O395, and its activity was studied in Escherichia coli. The 3.9-kb operon comprising three genes is organized as mtlADR. Based on the sequence analysis, these were identified as genes encoding a putative mannitol-specific enzyme IICBA (EII(Mtl)) component (MtlA), a mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (MtlD), and a mannitol operon repressor (MtlR). The transport of [(3)H]mannitol by the cloned mannitol operon in E. coli was 13.8 ± 1.4 nmol/min/mg protein. The insertional inactivation of EII(Mtl) abolished mannitol and sorbitol transport in V. cholerae O395. Comparison of the mannitol utilization apparatus of V. cholerae with those of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria suggests highly conserved nature of the system. MtlA and MtlD exhibit 75% similarity with corresponding sequences of E. coli mannitol operon genes, while MtlR has 63% similarity with MtlR of E. coli. The cloning of V. cholerae mannitol utilization system in an E. coli background will help in elucidating the functional properties of this operon.