Insights into ParB spreading from the complex structure of Spo0J and parS.
ABSTRACT: Spo0J (stage 0 sporulation protein J, a member of the ParB superfamily) is an essential component of the ParABS (partition system of ParA, ParB, and parS)-related bacterial chromosome segregation system. ParB (partition protein B) and its regulatory protein, ParA, act cooperatively through parS (partition S) DNA to facilitate chromosome segregation. ParB binds to chromosomal DNA at specific parS sites as well as the neighboring nonspecific DNA sites. Various ParB molecules can associate together and spread along the chromosomal DNA. ParB oligomer and parS DNA interact together to form a high-order nucleoprotein that is required for the loading of the structural maintenance of chromosomes proteins onto the chromosome for chromosomal DNA condensation. In this report, we characterized the binding of parS and Spo0J from Helicobacter pylori (HpSpo0J) and solved the crystal structure of the C-terminal domain truncated protein (Ct-HpSpo0J)-parS complex. Ct-HpSpo0J folds into an elongated structure that includes a flexible N-terminal domain for protein-protein interaction and a conserved DNA-binding domain for parS binding. Two Ct-HpSpo0J molecules bind with one parS. Ct-HpSpo0J interacts vertically and horizontally with its neighbors through the N-terminal domain to form an oligomer. These adjacent and transverse interactions are accomplished via a highly conserved arginine patch: RRLR. These interactions might be needed for molecular assembly of a high-order nucleoprotein complex and for ParB spreading. A structural model for ParB spreading and chromosomal DNA condensation that lead to chromosome segregation is proposed.
Project description:Before cell division in many bacteria, the ParBs spread on a large segment of DNA encompassing the origin-proximal parS site(s) to form the partition assembly that participates in chromosome segregation. Little is known about the structural organization of chromosomal partition assembly. We report solution X-ray and neutron scattering data characterizing the size parameters and internal organization of a nucleoprotein assembly formed by the mycobacterial chromosomal ParB and a 120-meric DNA containing a parS-encompassing region from the mycobacterial genome. The cross-sectional radii of gyration and linear mass density describing the rod-like ParB-DNA assembly were determined from solution scattering. A "DNA outside, protein inside" mode of partition assembly organization consistent with the neutron scattering hydrogen/deuterium contrast variation data is discussed. In this organization, the high scattering DNA is positioned towards the outer region of the partition assembly. The new results presented here provide a basis for understanding how ParBs organize the parS-proximal chromosome, thus setting the stage for further interactions with the DNA condensins, the origin tethering factors and the ParA.
Project description:Organization and segregation of replicated chromosomes are essential processes during cell division in all organisms. Similar to eukaryotes, bacteria possess centromere-like DNA sequences (parS) that cluster at the origin of replication and the structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) complexes for faithful chromosome segregation. In Bacillus subtilis, parS sites are bound by the partitioning protein Spo0J (ParB), and we show here that Spo0J recruits the SMC complex to the origin. We demonstrate that the SMC complex colocalizes with Spo0J at the origin and that insertion of parS sites near the replication terminus targets SMC to this position leading to defects in chromosome organization and segregation. Consistent with these findings, the subcellular localization of the SMC complex is disrupted in the absence of Spo0J or the parS sites. We propose a model in which recruitment of SMC to the origin by Spo0J-parS organizes the origin region and promotes efficient chromosome segregation.
Project description:Higher-order chromosome folding and segregation are tightly regulated in all domains of life. In bacteria, details on nucleoid organization regulatory mechanisms and function remain poorly characterized, especially in non-model species. Here, we investigate the role of DNA-partitioning protein ParB and SMC condensin complexes in the actinobacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum. Chromosome conformation capture reveals SMC-mediated long-range interactions around ten centromere-like parS sites clustered at the replication origin (oriC). At least one oriC-proximal parS site is necessary for reliable chromosome segregation. We use chromatin immunoprecipitation and photoactivated single-molecule localization microscopy to show the formation of distinct, parS-dependent ParB-nucleoprotein subclusters. We further show that SMC/ScpAB complexes, loaded via ParB at parS sites, mediate chromosomal inter-arm contacts (as previously shown in Bacillus subtilis). However, the MukBEF-like SMC complex MksBEFG does not contribute to chromosomal DNA-folding; instead, this complex is involved in plasmid maintenance and interacts with the polar oriC-tethering factor DivIVA. Our results complement current models of ParB-SMC/ScpAB crosstalk and show that some condensin complexes evolved functions that are apparently uncoupled from chromosome folding.
Project description:Proper chromosome segregation is essential in all living organisms if daughter cells are each to inherit a full copy of genetic information. In Caulobacter crescentus, the ParA-ParB-parS system is required for proper chromosome segregation and cell viability. The bacterial centromere-like parS DNA locus is the first to be segregated following chromosome replication. parS is recognized and bound by ParB protein, which in turn interacts with ParA to partition the ParB-parS nucleoprotein complex to each daughter cell. In this study, we investigated the genome-wide distribution of ParB on the Caulobacter chromosome using a combination of in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-seq) and in vitro DNA affinity purification with deep sequencing (IDAP-seq). We confirmed two previously identified parS sites and discovered at least three more sites that cluster ~8 kb from the origin of replication. We showed that Caulobacter ParB nucleates at parS sites, then associates non-specifically with flanking DNA to form a high-order nucleoprotein complex that occupies an extensive ~10 kb DNA segment on the left chromosomal arm. Lastly, using transposon mutagenesis coupled with deep sequencing (Tn-seq), we identified a ~500 kb region surrounding the origin of replication and a ~100 kb region surrounding the terminus of the Caulobacter chromosome that are tolerable to the insertion of a second parS cluster without severely affecting cell viability. Our results demonstrate that the genomic distribution of the bacterial centromere-like parS is highly restricted and is crucial for chromosome segregation in Caulobacter. Overall design: Chromatin-immunoprecipitation with deep sequencing experiments (ChIP-seq) were performed on exponential-growing Caulobacter crescentus and Escherichia coli (see the supplementary Materials and Methods for the exact treatment that were applied to each strain). In vitro affinity purification with deep sequencing (IDAP-seq) were performed using sonication-fragmented genomic DNA from Caulobacter crescentus and purified ParB-His6 (or no protein in the case of a negative control). Random transposon mutagensis with deep sequencing (Tn5-seq) were performed for wild-type (WT) and Δsmc Caulobacter crescentus. Half a million to a million of single colonies of WT and Δsmc Caulobacter crescentus were collected from PYE plates, pooled together and their genomic DNA were extracted for Tn5-seq.
Project description:The segregation of newly replicated chromosomes in bacterial cells is a highly coordinated spatiotemporal process. In the majority of bacterial species, a tripartite ParAB-parS system, composed of an ATPase (ParA), a DNA-binding protein (ParB), and its target(s) parS sequence(s), facilitates the initial steps of chromosome partitioning. ParB nucleates around parS(s) located in the vicinity of newly replicated oriCs to form large nucleoprotein complexes, which are subsequently relocated by ParA to distal cellular compartments. In this review, we describe the role of ParB in various processes within bacterial cells, pointing out interspecies differences. We outline recent progress in understanding the ParB nucleoprotein complex formation and its role in DNA segregation, including ori positioning and anchoring, DNA condensation, and loading of the structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) proteins. The auxiliary roles of ParBs in the control of chromosome replication initiation and cell division, as well as the regulation of gene expression, are discussed. Moreover, we catalog ParB interacting proteins. Overall, this work highlights how different bacterial species adapt the DNA partitioning ParAB-parS system to meet their specific requirements.
Project description:Chromosome segregation in bacteria occurs concomitantly with DNA replication, and the duplicated regions containing the replication origin oriC are generally the first to separate and migrate to their final specific location inside the cell. In numerous bacterial species, a three-component partition machinery called the ParABS system is crucial for chromosome segregation. This is the case in the gammaproteobacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, where impairing the ParABS system is very detrimental for growth, as it increases the generation time and leads to the formation of anucleate cells and to oriC mispositioning inside the cell. In this study, we investigate in vivo the ParABS system in P. aeruginosa. Using chromatin immuno-precipitation coupled with high throughput sequencing, we show that ParB binds to four parS site located within 15 kb of oriC in vivo, and that this binding promotes the formation of a high order nucleoprotein complex. We show that one parS site is enough to prevent anucleate cell formation, therefore for correct chromosome segregation. By displacing the parS site from its native position on the chromosome, we demonstrate that parS is the first chromosomal locus to be separated upon DNA replication, which indicates that it is the site of force exertion of the segregation process. We identify a region of approximatively 650 kb surrounding oriC in which the parS site must be positioned for chromosome segregation to proceed correctly, and we called it "competence zone" of the parS site. Mutant strains that have undergone specific genetic rearrangements allow us to propose that the distance between oriC and parS defines this "competence zone". Implications for the control of chromosome segregation in P. aeruginosa are discussed.
Project description:Proper chromosome segregation during cell division is essential in all domains of life. In the majority of bacterial species, faithful chromosome segregation is mediated by the tripartite ParABS system, consisting of an ATPase protein ParA, a CTPase and DNA-binding protein ParB, and a centromere-like parS site. The parS site is most often located near the origin of replication and is segregated first after chromosome replication. ParB nucleates on parS before binding to adjacent non-specific DNA to form a multimeric nucleoprotein complex. ParA interacts with ParB to drive the higher-order ParB-DNA complex, and hence the replicating chromosomes, to each daughter cell. Here, we review the various models for the formation of the ParABS complex and describe its role in segregating the origin-proximal region of the chromosome. Additionally, we discuss outstanding questions and challenges in understanding bacterial chromosome segregation.
Project description:DNA partitioning CTPases of the ParB family mediate the segregation of bacterial chromosomes and low-copy number plasmids. They act as DNA-sliding clamps that are loaded at parS motifs in the centro-meric region of target DNA molecules and then spread laterally to form large nucleoprotein complexes that serve as docking points for the DNA segregation machinery. Here, we identify conformational changes that underlie the CTP- and parS-dependent closure of ParB clamps. Moreover, we solve crystal structures of ParB in the pre- and post-hydrolysis state and provide insight into the catalytic mechanism underlying nucleotide hydrolysis. The characterization of CTPase-deficient ParB variants reveals that CTP hydrolysis serves as a timing mechanism to control the sliding time of ParB. Hyperstable clamps are trapped on the DNA, leading to excessing spreading and severe chromosome segregation defects in vivo. These findings clarify the role of the ParB CTPase cycle in partition complex dynamics and function and thus complete our understanding of this prototypic CTP-dependent molecular switch. Overall design: Examination of ParB whole genome binding/occupancy (ChIP-Seq) in the model organism Myxococcus xanthus
Project description:Chromosome and plasmid segregation in bacteria are mostly driven by ParABS systems. These DNA partitioning machineries rely on large nucleoprotein complexes assembled on centromere sites (parS). However, the mechanism of how a few parS-bound ParB proteins nucleate the formation of highly concentrated ParB clusters remains unclear despite several proposed physico-mathematical models. We discriminated between these different models by varying some key parameters in vivo using the F plasmid partition system. We found that "Nucleation & caging" is the only coherent model recapitulating in vivo data. We also showed that the stochastic self-assembly of partition complexes (i) is a robust mechanism, (ii) does not directly involve ParA ATPase, (iii) results in a dynamic structure of discrete size independent of ParB concentration, and (iv) is not perturbed by active transcription but is by protein complexes. We refined the "Nucleation & caging" model and successfully applied it to the chromosomally encoded Par system of Vibrio cholerae, indicating that this stochastic self-assembly mechanism is widely conserved from plasmids to chromosomes.
Project description:What regulates chromosome segregation dynamics in bacteria is largely unknown. Here, we show in Caulobacter crescentus that the polarity factor TipN regulates the directional motion and overall translocation speed of the parS/ParB partition complex by interacting with ParA at the new pole. In the absence of TipN, ParA structures can regenerate behind the partition complex, leading to stalls and back-and-forth motions of parS/ParB, reminiscent of plasmid behaviour. This extrinsic regulation of the parS/ParB/ParA system directly affects not only division site selection, but also cell growth. Other mechanisms, including the pole-organizing protein PopZ, compensate for the defect in segregation regulation in ?tipN cells. Accordingly, synthetic lethality of PopZ and TipN is caused by severe chromosome segregation and cell division defects. Our data suggest a mechanistic framework for adapting a self-organizing oscillator to create motion suitable for chromosome segregation.