Influenza virus-host interactome screen as a platform for antiviral drug development.
ABSTRACT: Host factors required for viral replication are ideal drug targets because they are less likely than viral proteins to mutate under drug-mediated selective pressure. Although genome-wide screens have identified host proteins involved in influenza virus replication, limited mechanistic understanding of how these factors affect influenza has hindered potential drug development. We conducted a systematic analysis to identify and validate host factors that associate with influenza virus proteins and affect viral replication. After identifying over 1,000 host factors that coimmunoprecipitate with specific viral proteins, we generated a network of virus-host protein interactions based on the stage of the viral life cycle affected upon host factor downregulation. Using compounds that inhibit these host factors, we validated several proteins, notably Golgi-specific brefeldin A-resistant guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 (GBF1) and JAK1, as potential antiviral drug targets. Thus, virus-host interactome screens are powerful strategies to identify targetable host factors and guide antiviral drug development.
Project description:Influenza viruses cause epidemics and pandemics. Like all viruses, influenza viruses rely on the host cellular machinery to support their life cycle. Accordingly, identification of the host functions co-opted for viral replication is of interest to understand the mechanisms of the virus life cycle and to find new targets for the development of antiviral compounds. Among the various approaches used to explore host factor involvement in the influenza virus replication cycle, perhaps the most powerful is RNAi-based genome-wide screening, which has shed new light on the search for host factors involved in virus replication. In this review, we examine the cellular genes identified to date as important for influenza virus replication in genome-wide screens, assess pathways that were repeatedly identified in these studies, and discuss how these pathways might be involved in the individual steps of influenza virus replication, ultimately leading to a comprehensive understanding of the virus life cycle.
Project description:The influenza virus transcribes and replicates its genome inside the nucleus of infected cells. Both activities are performed by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that is composed of the three subunits PA, PB1, and PB2, and recent studies have shown that it requires host cell factors to transcribe and replicate the viral genome. To identify these cellular partners, we generated a comprehensive physical interaction map between each polymerase subunit and the host cellular proteome. A total of 109 human interactors were identified by yeast two-hybrid screens, whereas 90 were retrieved by literature mining. We built the FluPol interactome network composed of the influenza virus polymerase (PA, PB1, and PB2) and the nucleoprotein NP and 234 human proteins that are connected through 279 viral-cellular protein interactions. Analysis of this interactome map revealed enriched cellular functions associated with the influenza virus polymerase, including host factors involved in RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription and mRNA processing. We confirmed that eight influenza virus polymerase-interacting proteins are required for virus replication and transcriptional activity of the viral polymerase. These are involved in cellular transcription (C14orf166, COPS5, MNAT1, NMI, and POLR2A), translation (EIF3S6IP), nuclear transport (NUP54), and DNA repair (FANCG). Conversely, we identified PRKRA, which acts as an inhibitor of the viral polymerase transcriptional activity and thus is required for the cellular antiviral response.
Project description:Influenza A viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) is responsible for transcription and replication of the viral genome in infected cells and depend on host factors for its functions. Identification of the host factors interacting with vRNP not only improves understanding of virus-host interactions, but also provides insights into novel mechanisms of viral pathogenicity and the development of new antiviral strategies. Here, we have identified eighty host factors that co-purified with vRNP using affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry. LYAR, a cell growth-regulating nucleolar protein, has been shown to be important for influenza A virus replication. During influenza A virus infection, LYAR expression is increased and it partly translocates from the nucleolus to nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. Furthermore, LYAR interacts with RNP subunits, resulting in enhancing viral RNP assembly, thereby facilitating viral RNA synthesis. Taken together, our studies identify a novel vRNP binding host partner important for influenza A virus replication, and further reveal the mechanism of LYAR regulating influenza A viral RNA synthesis by facilitating viral RNP assembly.IMPORTANCE Influenza A virus (IAV) must utilize the host cell machinery to replicate, but many of the mechanisms of the IAV-host interaction remain poorly understood. Improved understanding of interactions between host factors and vRNP not only increases our basic knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of virus replication and pathogenicity, but also provides insights into possible novel antiviral targets that are necessary due to the widespread emergence of drug-resistant IAV strains. Herein, we have identified LYAR, a cell growth-regulating nucleolar protein, which interacts with viral RNP components and is important for efficient replication of IAVs, and whose role in the IAV life cycle has never been reported. In addition, we further reveal the role of LYAR in viral RNA synthesis. Our results extend and improve the current knowledge on the mechanisms of IAV transcription and replication.
Project description:Influenza viruses exploit host cell machinery to replicate, resulting in epidemics of respiratory illness. In turn, the host expresses antiviral restriction factors to defend against infection. To find host cell modifiers of influenza A H1N1 viral infection, we used a functional genomic screen and identified over 120 influenza A virus-dependency factors with roles in endosomal acidification, vesicular trafficking, mitochondrial metabolism, and RNA splicing. We discovered that the interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins IFITM1, 2, and 3 restrict an early step in influenza A viral replication. The IFITM proteins confer basal resistance to influenza A virus but are also inducible by interferons type I and II and are critical for interferon's virustatic actions. Further characterization revealed that the IFITM proteins inhibit the early replication of flaviviruses, including dengue virus and West Nile virus. Collectively this work identifies a family of antiviral restriction factors that mediate cellular innate immunity to at least three major human pathogens.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Host factors of influenza virus replication are often found in key topological positions within protein-protein interaction networks. This work explores how protein states can be manipulated through controllability analysis: the determination of the minimum manipulation needed to drive the cell system to any desired state. Here, we complete a two-part controllability analysis of two protein networks: a host network representing the healthy cell state and an influenza A virus-host network representing the infected cell state. In this context, controllability analyses aim to identify key regulating host factors of the infected cell's progression. This knowledge can be utilized in further biological analysis to understand disease dynamics and isolate proteins for study as drug target candidates. RESULTS:Both topological and controllability analyses provide evidence of wide-reaching network effects stemming from the addition of viral-host protein interactions. Virus interacting and driver host proteins are significant both topologically and in controllability, therefore playing important roles in cell behavior during infection. Functional analysis finds overlap of results with previous siRNA studies of host factors involved in influenza replication, NF-kB pathway and infection relevance, and roles as interferon regulating genes. 24 proteins are identified as holding regulatory roles specific to the infected cell by measures of topology, controllability, and functional role. These proteins are recommended for further study as potential antiviral drug targets. CONCLUSIONS:Seasonal outbreaks of influenza A virus are a major cause of illness and death around the world each year with a constant threat of pandemic infection. This research aims to increase the efficiency of antiviral drug target discovery using existing protein-protein interaction data and network analysis methods. These results are beneficial to future studies of influenza virus, both experimental and computational, and provide evidence that the combination of topology and controllability analyses may be valuable for future efforts in drug target discovery.
Project description:Influenza A virus is an RNA virus that encodes up to 11 proteins and this small coding capacity demands that the virus use the host cellular machinery for many aspects of its life cycle. Knowledge of these host cell requirements not only informs us of the molecular pathways exploited by the virus but also provides further targets that could be pursued for antiviral drug development. Here we use an integrative systems approach, based on genome-wide RNA interference screening, to identify 295 cellular cofactors required for early-stage influenza virus replication. Within this group, those involved in kinase-regulated signalling, ubiquitination and phosphatase activity are the most highly enriched, and 181 factors assemble into a highly significant host-pathogen interaction network. Moreover, 219 of the 295 factors were confirmed to be required for efficient wild-type influenza virus growth, and further analysis of a subset of genes showed 23 factors necessary for viral entry, including members of the vacuolar ATPase (vATPase) and COPI-protein families, fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) proteins, and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3)-beta. Furthermore, 10 proteins were confirmed to be involved in post-entry steps of influenza virus replication. These include nuclear import components, proteases, and the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) IIbeta (CAMK2B). Notably, growth of swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus is also dependent on the identified host factors, and we show that small molecule inhibitors of several factors, including vATPase and CAMK2B, antagonize influenza virus replication.
Project description:All viruses rely on host cell proteins and their associated mechanisms to complete the viral life cycle. Identifying the host molecules that participate in each step of virus replication could provide valuable new targets for antiviral therapy, but this goal may take several decades to achieve with conventional forward genetic screening methods and mammalian cell cultures. Here we describe a novel genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen in Drosophila that can be used to identify host genes important for influenza virus replication. After modifying influenza virus to allow infection of Drosophila cells and detection of influenza virus gene expression, we tested an RNAi library against 13,071 genes (90% of the Drosophila genome), identifying over 100 for which suppression in Drosophila cells significantly inhibited or stimulated reporter gene (Renilla luciferase) expression from an influenza-virus-derived vector. The relevance of these findings to influenza virus infection of mammalian cells is illustrated for a subset of the Drosophila genes identified; that is, for three implicated Drosophila genes, the corresponding human homologues ATP6V0D1, COX6A1 and NXF1 are shown to have key functions in the replication of H5N1 and H1N1 influenza A viruses, but not vesicular stomatitis virus or vaccinia virus, in human HEK 293 cells. Thus, we have demonstrated the feasibility of using genome-wide RNAi screens in Drosophila to identify previously unrecognized host proteins that are required for influenza virus replication. This could accelerate the development of new classes of antiviral drugs for chemoprophylaxis and treatment, which are urgently needed given the obstacles to rapid development of an effective vaccine against pandemic influenza and the probable emergence of strains resistant to available drugs.
Project description:In recent years genome-wide RNAi screens have revealed hundreds of cellular factors required for influenza virus infections in human cells. The long-term goal is to establish some of them as drug targets for the development of the next generation of antivirals against influenza. We found that several members of the polo-like kinases (PLK), a family of serine/threonine kinases with well-known roles in cell cycle regulation, were identified as hits in four different RNAi screens and we therefore studied their potential as drug target for influenza. We show that knockdown of PLK1, PLK3, and PLK4, as well as inhibition of PLK kinase activity by four different compounds, leads to reduced influenza virus replication, and we map the requirement of PLK activity to early stages of the viral replication cycle. We also tested the impact of the PLK inhibitor BI2536 on influenza virus replication in a human lung tissue culture model and observed strong inhibition of virus replication with no measurable toxicity. This study establishes the PLKs as potential drug targets for influenza and contributes to a more detailed understanding of the intricate interactions between influenza viruses and their host cells.
Project description:Influenza virus, the causative agent of the common flu, is a worldwide health problem with significant economic consequences. Studies of influenza virus biology have revealed elaborate mechanisms by which the virus interacts with its host cell as it inhibits the synthesis of cellular proteins, evades the innate antiviral response, and facilitates production of viral RNAs and proteins. With the advent of DNA array technology it is now possible to obtain a large-scale view of how viruses alter the environment within the host cell. In this study, the cellular response to influenza virus infection was examined by monitoring the steady-state mRNA levels for over 4,600 cellular genes. Infections with active and inactivated influenza viruses identified changes in cellular gene expression that were dependent on or independent of viral replication, respectively. Viral replication resulted in the downregulation of many cellular mRNAs, and the effect was enhanced with time postinfection. Interestingly, several genes involved in protein synthesis, transcriptional regulation, and cytokine signaling were induced by influenza virus replication, suggesting that some may play essential or accessory roles in the viral life cycle or the host cell's stress response. The gene expression pattern induced by inactivated viruses revealed induction of the cellular metallothionein genes that may represent a protective response to virus-induced oxidative stress. Genome-scale analyses of virus infections will help us to understand the complexities of virus-host interactions and may lead to the discovery of novel drug targets or antiviral therapies.
Project description:Accumulating data suggest that tripartite-motif-containing (TRIM) proteins participate in host responses to viral infections, either by acting as direct antiviral restriction factors or through regulating innate immune signaling of the host. Of >70 TRIMs, TRIM56 is a restriction factor of several positive-strand RNA viruses, including three members of the family Flaviviridae(yellow fever virus, dengue virus, and bovine viral diarrhea virus) and a human coronavirus (OC43), and this ability invariably depends upon the E3 ligase activity of TRIM56. However, the impact of TRIM56 on negative-strand RNA viruses remains unclear. Here, we show that TRIM56 puts a check on replication of influenza A and B viruses in cell culture but does not inhibit Sendai virus or human metapneumovirus, two paramyxoviruses. Interestingly, the anti-influenza virus activity was independent of the E3 ligase activity, B-box, or coiled-coil domain. Rather, deletion of a 63-residue-long C-terminal-tail portion of TRIM56 abrogated the antiviral function. Moreover, expression of this short C-terminal segment curtailed the replication of influenza viruses as effectively as that of full-length TRIM56. Mechanistically, TRIM56 was found to specifically impede intracellular influenza virus RNA synthesis. Together, these data reveal a novel antiviral activity of TRIM56 against influenza A and B viruses and provide insights into the mechanism by which TRIM56 restricts these medically important orthomyxoviruses.Options to treat influenza are limited, and drug-resistant influenza virus strains can emerge through minor genetic changes. Understanding novel virus-host interactions that alter influenza virus fitness may reveal new targets/approaches for therapeutic interventions. We show here that TRIM56, a tripartite-motif protein, is an intrinsic host restriction factor of influenza A and B viruses. Unlike its antiviral actions against positive-strand RNA viruses, the anti-influenza virus activity of TRIM56 was independent of the E3 ligase activity. Rather, expression of a short segment within the very C-terminal tail of TRIM56 inhibited the replication of influenza viruses as effectively as that of full-length TRIM56 by specifically targeting viral RNA synthesis. These data reveal the remarkable multifaceted activity of TRIM56, which has developed multiple domains to inhibit multiple viral families. They also raise the possibility of developing a broad-spectrum, TRIM56-based antiviral approach for addition to influenza prophylaxis and/or control strategies.