The Effect of a Whey Protein Supplement on Bone Mass in Older Caucasian Adults.
ABSTRACT: It has been assumed that the increase in urine calcium (Ca) that accompanies an increase in dietary protein was due to increased bone resorption. However, studies using stable Ca isotopes have found that dietary protein increases Ca absorption without increasing bone resorption.The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of a moderately high protein diet on bone mineral density (BMD).This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of protein supplementation daily for 18 months.The study was conducted at two institutional research centers.Two hundred eight older women and men with a body mass index between 19 and 32 kg/m(2) and a self-reported protein intake between 0.6 and 1.0 g/kg participated in the study.Subjects were asked to incorporate either a 45-g whey protein or isocaloric maltodextrin supplement into their usual diet for 18 months.BMD by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, body composition, and markers of skeletal and mineral metabolism were measured at baseline and at 9 and 18 months.There were no significant differences between groups for changes in L-spine BMD (primary outcome) or the other skeletal sites of interest. Truncal lean mass was significantly higher in the protein group at 18 months (P = .048). C-terminal telopeptide (P = .0414), IGF-1 (P = .0054), and urinary urea (P < .001) were also higher in the protein group at the end of the study period. There was no difference in estimated glomerular filtration rate at 18 months.Our data suggest that protein supplementation above the recommended dietary allowance (0.8 g/kg) may preserve fat-free mass without adversely affecting skeletal health or renal function in healthy older adults.
Project description:Soy foods contain several components (isoflavones and amino acids) that potentially affect bone. Few long-term, large clinical trials of soy as a means of improving bone mineral density (BMD) in late postmenopausal women have been conducted.Our goal was to evaluate the long-term effect of dietary soy protein and/or soy isoflavone consumption on skeletal health in late postmenopausal women.We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 131 healthy ambulatory women aged >60 y. Ninety-seven women completed the trial. After a 1-mo baseline period, subjects were randomly assigned into 1 of 4 intervention groups: soy protein (18 g) + isoflavone tablets (105 mg isoflavone aglycone equivalents), soy protein + placebo tablets, control protein + isoflavone tablets, and control protein + placebo tablets.Consumption of protein powder and isoflavone pills did not differ between groups, and compliance with the study powder and pills was 80-90%. No significant differences in BMD were observed between groups from baseline to 1 y after the intervention or in BMD change between equol and non-equol producers. However, there were significant negative correlations between total dietary protein (per kg) and markers of bone turnover (P < 0.05).Because soy protein and isoflavones (either alone or together) did not affect BMD, they should not be considered as effective interventions for preserving skeletal health in older women. The negative correlation between dietary protein and bone turnover suggests that increasing protein intakes may suppress skeletal turnover. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT00668447.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The chronic use of antipsychotics has been associated with impaired bone mineralization, partially mediated by hyperprolactinemia. We examined if calcium and vitamin D supplementation promote bone mineral accrual in boys with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. METHODS:Between February 2009 and November 2013, medically healthy, 5- to 17-year-old boys were enrolled in a 36-week double-blind, placebo-controlled study, examining the skeletal effects of supplementation with 1250?mg calcium carbonate and 400 IU of vitamin D3 in risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Anthropometric, dietary, physical activity, and psychiatric assessments were conducted at baseline and week 18 and 36. Plasma prolactin and vitamin D concentrations were measured at baseline and week 36. Total body less head bone mineral content (BMC) and radius trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) were measured at baseline, week 18, and week 36, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography, respectively. Linear mixed-effects regression analysis examined the longitudinal effect of treatment on skeletal outcomes. RESULTS:Forty-seven boys (mean age: 11.0?±?2.6 years) were randomized and 38 completed the study. At study entry, the average dietary calcium intake was below the recommended limit, but the average vitamin D concentration was normal. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation failed to significantly increase BMC or trabecular BMD. It also failed to affect several other skeletal and anthropometric outcomes, including plasma vitamin D concentration. CONCLUSIONS:In this 9-month long pilot study, supplementation with a modest dose of calcium and vitamin D did not increase bone mass accrual in risperidone-treated boys with hyperprolactinemia. Alternative approaches should be investigated to optimize bone health in this population to prevent future morbidity and premature mortality. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00799383.
Project description:To determine the effects of dietary-induced weight loss (D) and weight loss plus exercise (D + E) compared to exercise alone (E) on bone mineral density (BMD) in older adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA).Data come from 284 older (66.0 ± 6.2 years), overweight/obese (body mass index (BMI) 33.4 ± 3.7 kg/m2), adults with knee OA enrolled in the Intensive Diet and Exercise for Arthritis (IDEA) study. Participants were randomized to 18 months of walking and strength training (E; n = 95), dietary-induced weight loss targeting 10% of baseline weight (D; n = 88) or a combination of the two (D + E; n = 101). Body weight and composition (DXA), regional BMD, were obtained at baseline and 18 months.E, D, and D + E groups lost 1.3 ± 4.5 kg, 9.1 ± 8.6 kg and 10.4 ± 8.0 kg, respectively (P < 0.01). Significant treatment effects were observed for BMD in both hip and femoral neck regions, with the D and D + E groups showing similar relative losses compared to E (both P < 0.01). Despite reduced BMD, fewer overall participants had T-scores indicative of osteoporosis after intervention (9 at 18 months vs 10 at baseline). Within the D and D + E groups, changes in hip and femoral neck, but not spine, BMD correlated positively with changes in body weight (r = 0.21 and 0.54 respectively, both P ? 0.01).Weight loss via an intensive dietary intervention, with or without exercise, results in bone loss at the hip and femoral neck in overweight and obese, older adults with OA. Although the exercise intervention did not attenuate weight loss-associated reductions in BMD, classification of osteoporosis and osteopenia remained unchanged.NCT00381290.
Project description:The AIN-93G reference (REF) diet is used to allow the comparison within and between studies of different research groups but its levels of vitamin D (vit D) and calcium (Ca) may be higher than required for healthy bone structure and bone mineral density (BMD).To determine if lower dietary levels of Ca (3.5, 3 or 2.5?g?Ca/kg diet) at 1 of 2 levels of vit D (100 or 400?IU/kg diet) supports similar development of bone structure and BMD compared to AIN-93G reference (REF) diet in female CD-1 mice at 2 and 4?months of age.Within a trial, weanling female mice (n?=?12-15/group) were randomized to 1 of 4 diets until necropsy at 4?months of age: Trial 1: 100?IU?vit D/kg?+?3.5, 3 or 2.5?g?Ca/kg diet or 1000?IU?vit D/kg?+?5?g?Ca/kg diet (REF); and Trial 2: 400?IU?vit D/kg?+?3.5, 3 or 2.5?g?Ca/kg diet or 1000?IU?vit D/kg?+?5?g/kg diet (REF). At age 2 and 4?months, in vivo bone structure and BMD were assessed using micro-computed tomography (?CT) at the proximal and midpoint tibia. At age 4?months, lumbar vertebra 4 (L4) and mandible structure were analyzed ex vivo, femur strength at midpoint and neck was assessed and serum 25(OH)D3 and PTH were quantified.For Trial 1 (100?IU?vit D/kg), there were no differences in tibia structure at age 2 and 4?months nor L4 or mandible structure or femur strength at the midpoint or neck at 4?months of age despite lower serum 25(OH)D3 among all groups compared to REF. For Trial 2 (400?IU?vit D/kg), mice fed 2.5?g?Ca/kg diet had lower (p?<?0.05) Ct.Ar/Tt.Ar and Ct.Th at the tibia midpoint compared to REF. Furthermore, Ct.Th. was greater in REF and 3.5?g?Ca/kg diet compared to 2.5?g?Ca/kg diet at age 2 but not 4?months of age. At L4, BV/TV was lower (p?<?0.05) in the 3?g?Ca/kg diet group compared to REF at age 4?months. There were no differences among groups for serum 25(OH)D3 or femur strength at the midpoint or neck. Serum PTH was not elevated compared to REF in either Trial.Lowering both dietary vit D (100?IU/kg) and Ca (2.5?g/kg) in AIN-93G diet did not result in differences in bone development of female CD-1 mice at early adulthood. Translational relevance of bone studies conducted using the AIN-93G diet may be affected by its high vit D and Ca content.
Project description:Controversy exists concerning the effects of higher total protein intake (TPro) on bone health, which may be associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD). However, whey protein (WP) may induce bone formation because of its basic component, milk basic protein.This study assessed the effects of WP supplementation, TPro, and change in TPro (postsupplementation - presupplementation) on BMD and bone mineral content (BMC; total body, lumbar spine, total femur, and femoral neck) in overweight and class I obese middle-aged adults following an exercise intervention.This analysis used data from a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled 36-wk WP supplementation trial, wherein participants consumed a 1.7-MJ (400-kcal) supplement (0, 20, 40, or 60 g WP/d) along with their otherwise unrestricted diet while participating in a resistance and aerobic exercise intervention (3 d/wk). TPro was the summation of WP and habitual dietary intakes (4-d food record). Statistical analyses for WP were based on group and bone data [n = 186, 108 women; mean ± SD age: 49 ± 8 y; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2): 30.1 ± 2.8], whereas TPro was based on dietary and bone data (n = 113, 70 women; age 50 ± 8 y; BMI 30.1 ± 2.9).WP supplementation, regardless of dose, did not influence BMD or BMC following the intervention. By using a multiple linear regression model, TPro (expressed as g/d or g · kg-1 · d-1) and change in TPro (expressed as g/d) were not associated with responses over time in total or regional BMD or BMC. By using a cluster analysis approach [<1.0 (n = 41), 1.0-1.2 (n = 28), and ?1.2 g · kg-1 · d-1 (n = 44)], TPro was also not associated with responses in total or regional BMD or BMC over time.WP supplementation and total dietary protein intake did not negatively or beneficially influence bone quantity in overweight and obese adults during a 9-mo exercise intervention. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00812409.
Project description:AIM:Ensuring adequate calcium (Ca) intake during childhood and adolescence is critical to acquire good peak bone mass to prevent osteoporosis during older age. As one of the primary strategies to build and maintain healthy bones, we aimed to determine whether dietary Ca intake has an influence on bone mineral density (BMD) in children and adolescents. METHODS:We conducted a cross-sectional study composed of 10,092 individuals from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Dietary Ca intake and total BMD were as independent and dependent variables, respectively. To evaluate the association between them, we conducted weighted multivariate linear regression models and smooth curve fittings. RESULTS:There was a significantly positive association between dietary Ca intake and total BMD. The strongest association was observed in 12-15y whites, 8-11y and 16-19y Mexican Americans, and 16-19y other race/ethnicity, in whom each quintile of calcium intake was increased. We also found there were significant inflection points in females, blacks, and 12-15y adolescents group, which means that their total BMD would decrease when the dietary Ca intake was more than 2.6-2.8 g/d. CONCLUSIONS:This cross-sectional study indicated that a considerable proportion of children and adolescents aged 8-19 years would attain greater total BMD if they increased their dietary calcium intake. However, higher dietary calcium intake (more than 2.6-2.8 g/d) is associated with lower total BMD in females, blacks, and 12-15y adolescents group.
Project description:Weight reduction induces bone loss by several factors, and the effect of higher protein (HP) intake during caloric restriction on bone mineral density (BMD) is not known. Previous study designs examining the longer-term effects of HP diets have not controlled for total calcium intake between groups and have not examined the relationship between bone and endocrine changes. In this randomized, controlled study, we examined how BMD (areal and volumetric), turnover markers, and hormones [insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and estradiol] respond to caloric restriction during a 1-year trial using two levels of protein intake. Forty-seven postmenopausal women (58.0 ± 4.4 years; body mass index of 32.1 ± 4.6 kg/m(2) ) completed the 1-year weight-loss trial and were on a higher (HP, 24%, n = 26) or normal protein (NP, 18%, n = 21) and fat intake (28%) with controlled calcium intake of 1.2 g/d. After 1 year, subjects lost 7.0% ± 4.5% of body weight, and protein intake was 86 and 60 g/d in the HP and NP groups, respectively. HP compared with NP diet attenuated loss of BMD at the ultradistal radius, lumbar spine, and total hip and trabecular volumetric BMD and bone mineral content of the tibia. This is consistent with the higher final values of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 and lower bone-resorption marker (deoxypyridinoline) in the HP group than in the NP group (p <?.05). These data show that a higher dietary protein during weight reduction increases serum IGF-1 and attenuates total and trabecular bone loss at certain sites in postmenopausal women.
Project description:Protein may play a beneficial role in the prevention of bone loss and in slowing down osteoporosis. The effect of dietary protein may be different in older adults compared to younger adults, since this population has a greater need for protein. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the impact of a dietary protein intake above the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of 0.8?g/kg body weight/day from any source on Bone Mineral Density (BMD)/Bone Mineral Content (BMC), bone turnover markers, and fracture risk in older adults compared to a lower dietary protein intake. A systematic search was conducted through October 2018 in 3 databases: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE. We included all prospective cohort studies and Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) among adults aged ?65?years that examined the relation between protein intake on bone health outcomes. Two investigators independently conducted abstract and full-text screenings, data extractions, and risk of bias assessments. Authors were contacted for missing data. After screening of 523 records, twelve cohort studies and one RCT were included. Qualitative evaluation showed a positive trend between higher protein intakes and higher femoral neck and total hip BMD. Meta-analysis of four cohort studies showed that higher protein intakes resulted in a significant decrease in hip fractures (pooled hazard ratio: 0.89; 95% confidence interval: 0.84, 0.94). This systematic review supports that a protein intake above the current RDA may reduce hip fracture risk and may play a beneficial role in BMD maintenance and loss in older adults.