Diabetes and congenital heart defects: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and modeling project.
ABSTRACT: Maternal pregestational diabetes (PGDM) is a risk factor for development of congenital heart defects (CHDs). Glycemic control before pregnancy reduces the risk of CHDs. A meta-analysis was used to estimate summary ORs and mathematical modeling was used to estimate population attributable fractions (PAFs) and the annual number of CHDs in the U.S. potentially preventable by establishing glycemic control before pregnancy.A systematic search of the literature through December 2012 was conducted in 2012 and 2013. Case-control or cohort studies were included. Data were abstracted from 12 studies for a meta-analysis of all CHDs.Summary estimates of the association between PGDM and CHDs and 95% credible intervals (95% CrIs) were developed using Bayesian random-effects meta-analyses for all CHDs and specific CHD subtypes. Posterior estimates of this association were combined with estimates of CHD prevalence to produce estimates of PAFs and annual prevented cases. Ninety-five percent uncertainty intervals (95% UIs) for estimates of the annual number of preventable cases were developed using Monte Carlo simulation. Analyses were conducted in 2013. The summary OR estimate for the association between PGDM and CHDs was 3.8 (95% CrI=3.0, 4.9). Approximately 2670 (95% UI=1795, 3795) cases of CHDs could potentially be prevented annually if all women in the U.S. with PGDM achieved glycemic control before pregnancy.Estimates from this analysis suggest that preconception care of women with PGDM could have a measureable impact by reducing the number of infants born with CHDs.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results regarding maternal parity and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). However, a meta-analysis of the association between maternal parity and CHDs in offspring has not been conducted. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles catalogued between their inception and March 8, 2014; we identified relevant published studies that assessed the association between maternal parity and CHD risk. Two authors independently assessed the eligibility of the retrieved articles and extracted data from them. Study-specific relative risk estimates were pooled by random-effects or fixed-effects models. From the 11272 references, a total of 16 case-control studies and 3 cohort studies were enrolled in this meta-analysis. RESULTS: The overall relative risk of CHD in parous versus nulliparous women was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.97-1.06; Q?=?32.34; P?=?0.006; I2?=?53.6%). Furthermore, we observed a significant association between the highest versus lowest parity number, with an overall RR?=?1.20 (95% CI, 1.10-1.31; (Q?=?74.61, P<0.001, I2?=?82.6%). A dose-response analysis also indicated a positive effect of maternal parity on CHD risk, and the overall increase in relative risk per one live birth was 1.06 (95% CI, 1.02-1.09); Q?=?68.09; P<0.001; I2?=?80.9%). We conducted stratified and meta-regression analyses to identify the origin of the heterogeneity among studies. A Galbraith plot was created to graphically assess the sources of heterogeneity. CONCLUSION: In summary, this meta-analysis provided a robust estimate of the positive association between maternal parity and risk of CHD.
Project description:Maternal pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) induces congenital heart defects (CHDs). The molecular mechanism underlying PGDM-induced CHDs is unknown. microRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs, repress gene expression at the posttranscriptional level and play important roles in heart development. We performed a global miRNA profiling study to assist in revealing potential miRNAs modulated by PGDM and possible developmental pathways regulated by miRNAs during heart development. A total of 149 mapped miRNAs in the developing heart were significantly altered by PGDM. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the majority of the 2111 potential miRNA target genes were associated with cardiac development-related pathways including STAT3 and IGF-1 and transcription factors (Cited2, Zeb2, Mef2c, Smad4 and Ets1). Overexpression of the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase 1, reversed PGDM-altered miRNAs, suggesting that oxidative stress is responsible for dysregulation of miRNAs. Thus, our study provides the foundation for further investigation of a miRNA-dependent mechanism underlying PGDM-induced CHDs.
Project description:Background:Congenital heart diseases (CHDs) are the most common congenital anomaly. The causes of CHDs are largely unknown. Higher prenatal body mass index (BMI), smoking and alcohol consumption are associated with increased risk of CHDs. Whether these are causal is unclear. Methods and Results:Seven European birth cohorts including 232,390 offspring (2,469 CHD cases [1.1%]) were included. We applied negative exposure paternal control analyses to explore the intrauterine effects of maternal BMI, smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy, on offspring CHDs and CHD severity. We used logistic regression and combined estimates using a fixed-effects meta-analysis. Analyses of BMI categories resulted in similar increased odds of CHD in overweight (mothers OR: 1.15 (1.01, 1.31) and fathers 1.10 (0.96, 1.27)) and obesity (mothers OR: 1.12 (0.93, 1.36) and fathers 1.16 (0.90, 1.50)). The association of mean BMI with CHD was null. Maternal smoking was associated with increased odds of CHD (OR: 1.11 (0.97, 1.25)) but paternal smoking was not (OR: 0.96 (0.85, 1.07)). The difference increased when removing offspring with genetic/chromosomal defects (mothers OR: 1.15 (1.01, 1.32) and fathers 0.93 (0.83, 1.05)). The positive association with maternal pregnancy smoking appeared to be driven by non-severe CHD cases (OR: 1.22 (1.04, 1.44)). Associations with maternal (OR: 1.16 (0.52, 2.58)) and paternal (OR: 1.23 (0.74, 2.06)) moderate/heavy pregnancy alcohol consumption were similar. Conclusions:We found evidence of an intrauterine effect for maternal smoking on offspring CHDs, but no evidence for higher maternal BMI or alcohol consumption. Our findings provide further support for why smoking cessation is important during pregnancy.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The relationship between dietary glycemic index, glycemic load and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and stroke-related mortality is inconsistent. METHODS: We systematically searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded databases using glycemic index, glycemic load, and cardiovascular disease and reference lists of retrieved articles up to April 30, 2012. We included prospective studies with glycemic index and glycemic load as the exposure and incidence of fatal and nonfatal CHD, stroke, and stroke-related mortality as the outcome variable. Pooled relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using random-effects models. RESULTS: Fifteen prospective studies with a total of 438,073 participants and 9,424 CHD cases, 2,123 stroke cases, and 342 deaths from stroke were included in the meta-analysis. Gender significantly modified the effects of glycemic index and glycemic load on CHD risk, and high glycemic load level was associated with higher risk of CHD in women (RR=1.49, 95%CI 1.27-1.73), but not in men (RR=1.08, 95%CI 0.91-1.27). Stratified meta-analysis by body mass index indicated that among overweight and obese subjects, dietary glycemic load level were associated with increased risk of CHD (RR=1.49, 95%CI 1.27-1.76; P for interaction=0.003). Higher dietary glycemic load, but not glycemic index, was positively associated with stroke (RR=1.19, 95% CI 1.00-1.43). There is a linear dose-response relationship between dietary glycemic load and increased risk of CHD, with pooled RR of 1.05 (95%CI 1.02-1.08) per 50-unit increment in glycemic load level. CONCLUSION: High dietary glycemic load is associated with a higher risk of CHD and stroke, and there is a linear dose-response relationship between glycemic load and CHD risk. Dietary glycemic index is slightly associated with risk of CHD, but not with stroke and stroke-related death. Further studies are needed to verify the effects of gender and body weight on cardiovascular diseases.
Project description:Because of advancements in care, there has been a decline in mortality from congenital heart defects (CHDs) over the past several decades. However, there are no current empirical data documenting the number of people living with CHDs in the United States. Our aim was to estimate the CHD prevalence across all age groups in the United States in the year 2010.The age-, sex-, and severity-specific observed prevalence of CHDs in Québec, Canada, in the year 2010 was assumed to equal the CHD prevalence in the non-Hispanic white population in the United States in 2010. A race-ethnicity adjustment factor, reflecting differential survival between racial-ethnic groups through 5 years of age for individuals with a CHD and that in the general US population, was applied to the estimated non-Hispanic white rates to derive CHD prevalence estimates among US non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics. Confidence intervals for the estimated CHD prevalence rates and case counts were derived from a combination of Taylor series approximations and Monte Carlo simulation.We estimated that ?2.4 million people (1.4 million adults, 1 million children) were living with CHDs in the United States in 2010. Nearly 300?000 of these individuals had severe CHDs.Our estimates highlight the need for 2 important efforts: planning for health services delivery to meet the needs of the growing population of adults with CHD and the development of surveillance data across the life span to provide empirical estimates of the prevalence of CHD across all age groups in the United States.
Project description:Maternal diabetes is associated with congenital heart defects (CHDs) as a group, but few studies have assessed risk for specific CHD phenotypes. We analyzed these relationships using data from the Texas Birth Defects Registry and statewide vital records for deliveries taking place in 1999-2009 (n = 48,249 cases). We used Poisson regression to calculate prevalence ratios for the associations between maternal diabetes (pregestational or gestational) and each CHD phenotype, adjusting for potential confounders. Analyses were repeated by type of diabetes. To address the potential for misclassification bias, we performed logistic regression, using malformed controls. We also conducted meta-analyses, combining our estimates of the association between pregestational diabetes and each CHD phenotype with previous estimates. The prevalence of every CHD phenotype was greater among women with pregestational diabetes than among nondiabetic women. Most of these differences were statistically significant (adjusted prevalence ratios = 2.47-13.20). Associations were slightly attenuated for many CHD phenotypes among women with gestational diabetes. The observed associations did not appear to be the result of misclassification bias. In our meta-analysis, pregestational diabetes was significantly associated with each CHD phenotype. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the teratogenic effects of maternal diabetes and improved counseling for risk of specific CHD phenotypes.
Project description:Congenital heart defects (CHDs) occur in approximately 8 per 1000 live births. Improvements in detection and treatment have increased survival. Few national estimates of the healthcare costs for infants, children and adolescents with CHDs are available.We estimated hospital costs for hospitalizations using pediatric (0-20 years) hospital discharge data from the 2009 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) for hospitalizations with CHD diagnoses. Estimates were up-weighted to be nationally representative. Mean costs were compared by demographic factors and presence of critical CHDs (CCHDs).Up-weighting of the KID generated an estimated 4,461,615 pediatric hospitalizations nationwide, excluding normal newborn births. The 163,980 (3.7%) pediatric hospitalizations with CHDs accounted for approximately $5.6 billion in hospital costs, representing 15.1% of costs for all pediatric hospitalizations in 2009. Approximately 17% of CHD hospitalizations had a CCHD, but it varied by age: approximately 14% of hospitalizations of infants, 30% of hospitalizations of patients aged 1 to 10 years, and 25% of hospitalizations of patients aged 11 to 20 years. Mean costs of CHD hospitalizations were higher in infancy ($36,601) than at older ages and were higher for hospitalizations with a CCHD diagnosis ($52,899). Hospitalizations with CCHDs accounted for 26.7% of all costs for CHD hospitalizations, with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, coarctation of the aorta, and tetralogy of Fallot having the highest total costs.Hospitalizations for children with CHDs have disproportionately high hospital costs compared with other pediatric hospitalizations, and the 17% of hospitalizations with CCHD diagnoses accounted for 27% of CHD hospital costs.
Project description:Improved treatment of congenital heart defects (CHDs) has resulted in women with CHDs living to childbearing age. However, no US population-based systems exist to estimate pregnancy frequency or complications among women with CHDs. Cases were identified in multiple data sources from 3 surveillance sites: Emory University (EU) whose catchment area included 5 metropolitan Atlanta counties; Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MA) whose catchment area was statewide; and New York State Department of Health (NY) whose catchment area included 11 counties. Cases were categorized into one of 5 mutually exclusive CHD severity groups collapsed to severe versus not severe; specific ICD-9-CM codes were used to capture pregnancy, gestational complications, and nongestational co-morbidities in women, age 11 to 50 years, with a CHD-related ICD-9-CM code. Pregnancy, CHD severity, demographics, gestational complications, co-morbidities, and insurance status were evaluated. ICD-9-CM codes identified 26,655 women with CHDs, of whom 5,672 (21.3%, range: 12.8% in NY to 22.5% in MA) had codes indicating a pregnancy. Over 3 years, age-adjusted proportion pregnancy rates among women with severe CHDs ranged from 10.0% to 24.6%, and 14.2% to 21.7% for women with nonsevere CHDs. Pregnant women with CHDs of any severity, compared with nonpregnant women with CHDs, reported more noncardiovascular co-morbidities. Insurance type varied by site and pregnancy status. These US population-based, multisite estimates of pregnancy among women with CHD indicate a substantial number of women with CHDs may be experiencing pregnancy and complications. In conclusion, given the growing adult population with CHDs, reproductive health of women with CHD is an important public health issue.
Project description:BACKGROUND: We conducted this meta-analysis to address the open question of a possible association between maternal socioeconomic status and congenital heart defects (CHDs). METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE from their inception to January 1, 2014 for case-control and cohort studies that assessed the association between maternal socioeconomic status and the risk of CHDs. Study-specific relative risk estimates were polled according to random-effect or fixed-effect models. RESULTS: From 3343 references, a total of 31 case-control studies and 2 cohort studies were enrolled in this meta-analysis, including more than 50,000 cases. We observed that maternal educational attainment, family income and maternal occupation were negatively associated with an 11% (pooled RR?=?1.11, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.21), 5% (pooled RR?=?1.05, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.09) and 51% (pooled RR?=?1.51, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.24) increased risk of CHDs, respectively. In a subgroup analysis by geographic region, the results were inconsistent for the European region (RR?=?1.29, 95% CI: 0.99-1.69) and USA/Canada region (RR?=?1.06, 95% CI: 0.97, 1.16) in maternal educational attainment. CONCLUSION: In summary, this meta-analysis suggests that a lower degree of maternal socioeconomic status is modestly associated with an increased risk of CHDs. However, further investigations are needed to confirm the association.
Project description:Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are common birth defects and are associated with high hospital costs. The objectives of this study were to assess hospitalization costs, across the lifespan, of patients with CHDs in Arkansas.Data from the 2006 to 2011 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Arkansas State Inpatient Databases were used. We included hospitalizations of patients whose admission occurred between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2011, and included a principal or secondary CHD ICD-9-CM diagnosis code (745.0-747.49, except 747.0 and 745.5 for preterm infants). Hospitalizations were excluded if they involved out-of-state residents, normal newborn births, or if missing data included age at admission, state of residence, or hospital charges. Children were defined as those?<?18 years-old at time of admission.Between 2006 and 2011, there were 2,242,484 inpatient hospitalizations in Arkansas. There were 9071 (0.4%) hospitalizations with a CHD, including 5,158 hospitalizations of children (2.2% of hospitalizations among children) and 3,913 hospitalizations of adults (0.2% of hospitalizations of adults). Hospital costs for these CHD hospitalizations totaled $355,543,696. The average annual cost of CHD hospitalizations in Arkansas was $59,257,283 during this time period. Infants accounted for 72% of all CHD-related hospital costs; total costs of CHD hospitalizations for children were almost five times those of hospitalization costs for adults with CHD.Hospitalizations with CHDs account for a disproportionate share of hospital costs in Arkansas. Hospitalizations of children with CHD accounted for a higher proportion of total hospitalizations than did hospitalizations of adults with CHD.