Simultaneous determination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in dried plasma and urine spots.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is an antimicrobial drug combination commonly prescribed in children and adults. The study objectives were to validate and apply an HPLC-MS/MS method to quantify TMP-SMX in dried plasma spots (DPS) and dried urine spots (DUS), and perform a comparability analysis with liquid matrices. RESULTS:For TMP the validated range was 100-50,000 ng/ml for DPS and 500-250,000 ng/ml for DUS; for SMX, the validated range was 1000-500,000 ng/ml for both DPS and DUS. Good agreement was noted between DPS/DUS and liquid plasma and urine samples for TMP, while only modest agreement was observed for SMX in both matrices. CONCLUSION:A precise, accurate and reproducible method was developed to quantify TMP-SMX in DPS and DUS samples.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Two methods are described for homogentisic acid (HGA) determination in dried urine spots (DUS) on paper from Alkaptonuria (AKU) patients, devised for quick early diagnosis. AKU is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase, yielding in accumulation of HGA. Its massive excretion causes urine darkening by exposure to air or alkalinization, and is a diagnostic marker. The deposition of polymers produced after HGA oxidation within the connective tissues causes ochronotic arthritis, a degenerative joint disease manifesting in adulthood and only rarely in childhood. No early diagnosis is usually accomplished, awareness following symptom development. DESIGN AND METHODS:Two methods were designed for HGA determination in DUS: (1) a rapid semi-quantitative reliable method based on colour development in alkali and quantification by comparison with dried paper spots from HGA solutions of known concentration and (2) a quantitative and sensitive HPLC-linked method, previously devised for purine and pyrimidine analysis in urine and plasma. RESULTS:Colour intensity developed by DUS after alkali addition was proportional to HGA concentration, and calculated amounts were in good agreement with quantitative analysis performed by RP-HPLC on DUS and on urines as such. CONCLUSIONS:DUS, often used for different diagnostic purpose, are easily prepared and safely delivered. The simple and quick colour method proposed provides reliable HGA assessment and is fit for large screening. HGA concentration determined in 10 AKU patient DUS by both methods 1 and 2 was in agreement with direct urine assay and in the range reported by literature.A reliable HGA quantification based on colour development in paper urine spots is validated by HPLC-linked HGA quantification, and proposed as a quick diagnostic tool for AKU patients.
Project description:Although dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) is used primarily in children, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) data on DP use in young children are lacking.We conducted a prospective PK/PD study of piperaquine in 107 young children in Uganda. Samples were collected up to 28 days after 218 episodes of malaria treatment, which occurred during follow-up periods of up to 5 months. Malaria follow-up was conducted actively to day 28 and passively to day 63.The median capillary piperaquine concentration on day 7 after treatment was 41.9 ng/mL. Low piperaquine concentrations were associated with an increased risk of recurrent malaria for up to 42 days, primarily in those receiving trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) prophylaxis. In children not receiving TMP-SMX, low piperaquine concentrations were only modestly associated with an increased risk of recurrent malaria. However, for children receiving TMP-SMX, associations were strong and evident for all sampling days, with PQ concentrations of ? 27.3 ng/mL on day 7 associated with a greatly increased risk of recurrent malaria. Notably, of 132 cases of recurrent malaria, 119 had detectable piperaquine concentrations at the time of presentation with recurrent malaria.These piperaquine PK/PD data represent the first in children <2 years of age. Piperaquine exposure on day 7 correlated with an increased risk of recurrent malaria after DP treatment in children receiving TMP-SMX prophylaxis. Interestingly, despite strong associations, infants remained at risk for malaria, even if they had residual levels of piperaquine.
Project description:The measurements of lysine metabolites provide valuable information for the rapid diagnosis of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE). Here, we aimed to develop a sensitive method to simultaneously quantify multiple lysine metabolites in PDE, including ?-aminoadipic semialdehyde (a-AASA), piperideine-6-carboxylate (P6C), pipecolic acid (PA) and ?-aminoadipic acid (?-AAA) in plasma, serum, dried blood spots (DBS), urine and dried urine spots (DUS). Fifteen patients with molecularly confirmed PDE were detected using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Compared to the control groups, the concentrations of a-AASA, P6C and the sum of a-AASA and P6C (AASA-P6C) in all types of samples from PDE patients were markedly elevated. The PA and a-AAA concentrations ranges overlapped partially between PDE patients and control groups. The concentrations of all the analytes in plasma and serum, as well as in urine and DUS were highly correlated. Our study provided more options for the diverse sample collection in the biochemical tests according to practical requirements. With treatment modality of newly triple therapy investigated, biomarker study might play important role not only on diagnosis but also on treatment monitoring and fine tuning the diet. The persistently elevated analytes with good correlation between plasma and DBS, as well as urine and DUS made neonatal screening using DBS and DUS possible.
Project description:Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) is used as prophylaxis against Pneumocystis jiroveci during chemotherapy. Many groups recommend withholding TMP/SMX during high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX) for concerns that it will delay methotrexate clearance. We compared methotrexate exposure following HDMTX (NCT00549848) in 424 patients including 783 courses that were given concurrently and 602 courses that were not given concurrently with TMP/SMX. Among 176 patients (555 courses) on the low-risk arm (HDMTX=2.5 g/m/24 h), there was no difference in clearance (110.7 [1.8%] vs. 108.2 [0.9%] mL/min/m, P=0.3) nor in 42 hour methotrexate concentration (0.37 [5.1%] vs. 0.40 (5.0%) ?M, P=0.23). Among 248 patients (830 courses) on the standard/high-risk arm (HDMTX ~5 g/m/24 h), there was slightly higher clearance (95.5 [1.4%] vs. 91.2 [0.8%] mL/min/m, P=0.005) in those receiving TMP/SMX, with no difference in the 42 hour methotrexate concentration (0.59 [4.1%] vs. 0.66 [4.2%] ?M, P=0.06). There was no difference in neutrophil counts based on TMP/SMX during HDMTX (P=0.83). TMP/SMX also did not have a significant impact on myelosuppression of low-dose methotrexate (40 mg/m) given during continuation therapy among 230 patients enrolled on a prior study (NCT00137111). Thus, we found no evidence for an interaction between methotrexate and TMP/SMX given prophylactically.
Project description:Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) prophylaxis in HIV-uninfected, exposed (HUE) children variably reduces clinical malaria burden despite antifolate resistance, but data regarding achieved serum levels and adherence are lacking. Serum samples from 70 HUE children aged 3-12 months from Rakai, Uganda, enrolled in an observational study were assayed for random SMX levels using a colorimetric assay. Adherence with TMP-SMX prophylaxis data (yes/no) was also collected. Of 148 visits with concurrent SMX levels available, 56% had self-reported adherence with TMP-SMX therapy. Among these 82 visits, mean (standard deviation) level was 19.78 (19.22) µg/mL, but 33% had SMX levels below half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for Plasmodium falciparum with some, but not all, of the reported antifolate resistance mutations reported in Uganda. With TMP-SMX prophylaxis, suboptimal adherence is concerning. Sulfamethoxazole levels below IC50s required to overcome malaria parasites with multiple antifolate resistance mutations may be significant. Further study of TMP-SMX in this context is needed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency in arylsulfatase A activity, leading to accumulation of sulfatide substrates. Diagnostic and monitoring procedures include demonstration of reduced arylsulfatase A activity in peripheral blood leukocytes or detection of sulfatides in urine. However, the development of a screening test is challenging because of instability of the enzyme in dried blood spots (DBS), the widespread occurrence of pseudodeficiency alleles, and the lack of available urine samples from newborn screening programs. METHODS:We measured individual sulfatide profiles in DBS and dried urine spots (DUS) from MLD patients with LC-MS/MS to identify markers with the discriminatory power to differentiate affected individuals from controls. We also developed a method for converting all sulfatide molecular species into a single species, allowing quantification in positive-ion mode upon derivatization. RESULTS:In DBS from MLD patients, we found up to 23.2-fold and 5.1-fold differences in total sulfatide concentrations for early- and late-onset MLD, respectively, compared with controls and pseudodeficiencies. Corresponding DUS revealed up to 164-fold and 78-fold differences for early- and late-onset MLD patient samples compared with controls. The use of sulfatides converted to a single species simplified the analysis and increased detection sensitivity in positive-ion mode, providing a second option for sulfatide analysis. CONCLUSIONS:This study of sulfatides in DBS and DUS suggests the feasibility of the mass spectrometry method for newborn screening of MLD and sets the stage for a larger-scale newborn screening pilot study.
Project description:<b>Objective:</b> Chiral analysis is a crucial method to differentiate selegiline intake from drug abuse. A dried urine spot (DUS) analytical method based on spotting urine samples (10 ?L) onto dried spot collection cards, and followed by air-drying and extraction, was developed and validated for the determination of selegiline, desmethylselegiline, R/S-methamphetamine, and R/S-amphetamine. <b>Methods:</b> Methanol (0.5 mL) was found to be the ideal extraction solvent for target extraction from DUSs under orbital-horizontal stirring on a lateral shaker at 1,450 rpm for 30 min. Determinations were performed by direct electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) under positive electrospray ionization conditions using multiple reaction monitoring mode. The chromatographic system consisted of a Chirobiotic<sup>TM</sup> V2 column (2.1 × 250 mm, 5 ?m) and a mobile phase of methanol containing 0.1% (v/v) glacial acetic acid and 0.02% (v/v) ammonium hydroxide. <b>Results and conclusions:</b> The calibration curves were linear from 50 to 5,000 ng/mL, with <i>r</i> > 0.995 for all analytes, imprecisions ? 15% and accuracies between -11.4 and 11.7%. Extraction recoveries ranged from 48.6 to 105.4% with coefficients of variation (CV) ? 13.7%, and matrix effects ranged from 45.4 to 104.1% with CV ? 10.3%. The lower limit of quantification was 50 ng/mL for each analyte. The present method is simple, rapid (accomplished in 12 min), sensitive, and validated by a pharmacokinetic study in human urine collected after a single oral administration of SG.
Project description:Importance:Oral ?-lactam antibiotics are traditionally not recommended to treat Enterobacterales bacteremia because of concerns over subtherapeutic serum concentrations, but there is a lack of outcomes data, specifically after initial treatment with parenteral antibiotics. Given the limited data and increasing limitations of fluoroquinolones or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), oral ?-lactam antibiotics may be a valuable additional treatment option. Objective:To compare definitive therapy with oral ?-lactam antibiotics vs fluoroquinolones or TMP-SMX for Enterobacterales bacteremia from a suspected urine source. Design, Setting, and Participants:A retrospective cohort study was conducted from January 1, 2007, to September 30, 2015, at 114 Veterans Affairs hospitals among 4089 adults with Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, or Proteus spp bacteremia and matching urine culture results. Additional inclusion criteria were receipt of active parenteral antibiotic(s) followed by conversion to an oral antibiotic. Exclusion criteria were previous Enterobacterales bacteremia, urologic abscess, or chronic prostatitis. Data were analyzed from April 15, 2019, to July 26, 2020. Exposures:Conversion of therapy to an oral ?-lactam antibiotic vs fluoroquinolones or TMP-SMX after 1 to 5 days of parenteral antibiotics. Main Outcomes and Measures:The main outcome was a composite of either 30-day all-cause mortality or 30-day recurrent bacteremia. Propensity-based overlap weights were used to adjust for differences between groups. Log binomial regression models were used to estimate adjusted relative risks (aRRs) and adjusted risk differences (aRDs). Results:Of the 4089 eligible patients (3731 men [91.2%]; median age, 71 years [interquartile range, 63-81 years]), 955 received an oral ?-lactam antibiotic, and 3134 received fluoroquinolones or TMP-SMX. The primary outcome occurred for 42 patients (4.4%) who received ?-lactam antibiotics and 94 patients (3.0%) who received fluoroquinolones or TMP-SMX (aRD, 0.99% [95% CI, -0.42% to 2.40%]; aRR, 1.31 [95% CI, 0.87-1.95]). Mortality rates were 3.0% (n?=?29) for patients receiving ?-lactam antibiotics vs 2.6% (n?=?82) for those receiving fluoroquinolones or TMP-SMX (aRD, 0.06% [95% CI, -1.13% to 1.26%]; aRR, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.67-1.56]). Recurrent bacteremia rates were 1.5% (n?=?14) among those receiving ?-lactam antibiotics vs 0.4% (n?=?12) among those receiving fluoroquinolones or TMP-SMX (aRD, 1.03% [95% CI, 0.24%-1.82%]; aRR, 3.43 [95% CI, 0.42-27.90]). Conclusions and Relevance:In this cohort study of adults with E coli, Klebsiella spp, or Proteus spp bacteremia from a suspected urine source, the relative risk of recurrent bacteremia was not significantly higher with ?-lactam antibiotics compared with fluoroquinolones or TMP-SMX, and the absolute risk and risk difference were small (ie, <3%). No significant difference in mortality was observed. Oral ?-lactam antibiotics may be a reasonable step-down treatment option, primarily when alternative options are limited by resistance or adverse effects. Further study is needed because statistical power was limited owing to a low number of recurrent bacteremia events.
Project description:Previously published methods for determination of efavirenz (EFV) in human dried blood spots (DBS) use costly and complex liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. We describe the validation and evaluation of a simple and inexpensive high-performance liquid chromatography method for EFV quantification in human DBS and dried plasma spots (DPS), using ultraviolet detection appropriate for resource-limited settings.One hundred microliters of heparinized whole blood or plasma were spotted onto blood collection cards, dried, punched, and eluted. Eluates are injected onto a C-18 reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography column. EFV is separated isocratically using a potassium phosphate and acetonitrile mobile phase. Ultraviolet detection is at 245 nm. Quantitation is by use of external calibration standards. Following validation, the method was evaluated using whole blood and plasma from HIV-positive patients undergoing EFV therapy.Mean recovery of drug from DBS is 91.5%. The method is linear over the validated concentration range of 0.3125-20.0 ?g/mL. A good correlation (Spearman r = 0.96) between paired plasma and DBS EFV concentrations from the clinical samples was observed, and hematocrit level was not found to be a significant determinant of the EFV DBS level. The mean observed C DBS/C plasma ratio was 0.68. A good correlation (Spearman r = 0.96) between paired plasma and DPS EFV concentrations from the clinical samples was observed. The mean percent deviation of DPS samples from plasma samples is 1.68%.Dried whole blood spot or dried plasma spot sampling is well suited for monitoring EFV therapy in resource-limited settings, particularly when high sensitivity is not essential.
Project description:Melioidosis, an infectious disease caused by the Gram-negative bacillus Burkholderia pseudomallei, is difficult to cure. Antimicrobial treatment comprises intravenous drugs for at least 10 days, followed by oral drugs for at least 12 weeks. The standard oral regimen based on trial evidence is trimethoprim-sulfamethoxaxole (TMP-SMX) plus doxycycline. This regimen is used in Thailand but is associated with side-effects and poor adherence by patients, and TMP-SMX alone is recommended in Australia. We compared the efficacy and side-effects of TMP-SMX with TMP-SMX plus doxycycline for the oral phase of melioidosis treatment.For this multi-centre, double-blind, non-inferiority, randomised placebo-controlled trial, we enrolled patients (aged ?15 years) from five centres in northeast Thailand with culture-confirmed melioidosis who had received a course of parenteral antimicrobial drugs. Using a computer-generated sequence, we randomly assigned patients to receive TMP-SMX plus placebo or TMP-SMX plus doxycycline for 20 weeks (1:1; block size of ten, stratified by study site). We followed patients up every 4 months for 1 year and annually thereafter to the end of the study. The primary endpoint was culture-confirmed recurrent melioidosis, and the non-inferiority margin was a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.7. This study is registered with www.controlled-trials.com, number ISRCTN86140460.We enrolled and randomly assigned 626 patients: 311 to TMP-SMX plus placebo and 315 to TMP-SMX plus doxycycline. 16 patients (5%) in the TMP-SMX plus placebo group and 21 patients (7%) in the TMP-SMX plus doxycycline group developed culture-confirmed recurrent melioidosis (HR 0.81; 95% CI 0.42-1.55). The criterion for non-inferiority was met (p=0.01). Adverse drug reactions were less common in the TMP-SMX plus placebo group than in the TMP-SMX plus doxycycline group (122 [39%] vs 167 [53%]).Our findings suggest that TMP-SMX is not inferior to TMP-SMX plus doxycycline for the oral phase of melioidosis treatment, and is preferable on the basis of safety and tolerance by patients.Thailand Research Fund, the Melioidosis Research Center, the Center of Excellence in Specific Health Problems in Greater Mekong Sub-region cluster, and the Wellcome Trust.