Laser-induced acoustic desorption of natural and functionalized biochromophores.
ABSTRACT: Laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) has recently been established as a tool for analytical chemistry. It is capable of launching intact, neutral, or low charged molecules into a high vacuum environment. This makes it ideally suited to mass spectrometry. LIAD can be used with fragile biomolecules and very massive compounds alike. Here, we apply LIAD time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) to the natural biochromophores chlorophyll, hemin, bilirubin, and biliverdin and to high mass fluoroalkyl-functionalized porphyrins. We characterize the variation in the molecular fragmentation patterns as a function of the desorption and the VUV postionization laser intensity. We find that LIAD can produce molecular beams an order of magnitude slower than matrix-assisted laser desorption (MALD), although this depends on the substrate material. Using titanium foils we observe a most probable velocity of 20 m/s for functionalized molecules with a mass m = 10,000 Da.
Project description:The small molecular analyte 3,5-dibromotyrosine (Br(2)Y) and chitosan-alginate polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) with and without adsorbed Br(2)Y were analyzed by laser desorption postionization-mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS). LDPI-MS using a 7.87 eV laser and tunable 8-12.5 eV synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation found that desorption of clusters from Br(2)Y films allowed detection by ?8 eV single photon ionization. Thermal desorption and electronic structure calculations determined the ionization energy of Br(2)Y to be ~8.3 ± 0.1 eV and further indicated that the lower ionization energies of clusters permitted their detection at ?8 eV photon energies. However, single photon ionization could only detect Br(2)Y adsorbed within PEMs when using either higher photon energies or matrix addition to the sample. All samples were also analyzed by 25 keV Bi(3)(+) secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), with the negative ion spectra showing strong parent ion signal which complemented that observed by LDPI-MS. However, the negative ion SIMS appeared strongly dependent on the high electron affinity of this specific analyte and the analyte's condensed phase environment.
Project description:7.87 to 10.5 eV vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photon energies were used in laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS) to analyze biofilms comprised of binary cultures of interacting microorganisms. The effect of photon energy was examined using both tunable synchrotron and laser sources of VUV radiation. Principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to the MS data to differentiate species in Escherichia coli-Saccharomyces cerevisiae coculture biofilms. PCA of LDPI-MS also differentiated individual E. coli strains in a biofilm comprised of two interacting gene deletion strains, even though these strains differed from the wild type K-12 strain by no more than four gene deletions each out of approximately 2000 genes. PCA treatment of 7.87 eV LDPI-MS data separated the E. coli strains into three distinct groups, two "pure" groups, and a mixed region. Furthermore, the "pure" regions of the E. coli cocultures showed greater variance by PCA at 7.87 eV photon energies compared to 10.5 eV radiation. This is consistent with the expectation that the 7.87 eV photoionization selects a subset of low ionization energy analytes while 10.5 eV is more inclusive, detecting a wider range of analytes. These two VUV photon energies therefore give different spreads via PCA and their respective use in LDPI-MS constitute an additional experimental parameter to differentiate strains and species.
Project description:Analyte signal in a laser desorption/postionization scheme such as infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization (IR-MALDESI) is strongly coupled to the degree of overlap between the desorbed plume of neutral material from a sample and an orthogonal electrospray. In this work, we systematically examine the effect of desorption conditions on IR-MALDESI response to pharmaceutical drugs and endogenous lipids in biological tissue using a design of experiments approach. Optimized desorption conditions have then been used to conduct an untargeted lipidomic analysis of whole body sagittal sections of neonate mouse. IR-MALDESI response to a wide range of lipid classes has been demonstrated, with enhanced lipid coverage received by varying the laser wavelength used for mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). Targeted MS(2) imaging (MS(2)I) of an analyte, cocaine, deposited beneath whole body sections allowed determination of tissue-specific ion response factors, and CID fragments of cocaine were monitored to comment on wavelength-dependent internal energy deposition based on the "survival yield" method.
Project description:A hand-held diode laser is implemented for solid sampling in portable ambient mass spectrometry (MS). Specifically, a pseudocontinuous wave battery-powered surgical laser diode is employed for portable laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD) at 940 nm and compared with nanosecond pulsed laser ablation at 2940 nm. Postionization is achieved in both cases using atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI). The laser ablation atmospheric pressure photoionization (LAAPPI) and LDTD-APPI mass spectra of sage leaves (Salvia officinalis) using a field-deployable quadrupole ion trap MS display many similar ion peaks, as do the mass spectra of membrane grown biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These results indicate that LDTD-APPI method should be useful for in-field sampling of plant and microbial communities, for example, by portable ambient MS. The feasibility of many portable MS applications is facilitated by the availability of relatively low cost, portable, battery-powered diode lasers. LDTD could also be coupled with plasma- or electrospray-based ionization for the analysis of a variety of solid samples.
Project description:Experiments were performed to examine the feasibility of mass spectrometry (MS) depth profiling of animal tissue by ~75 fs, 800 nm laser pulses to expose underlying layers of tissue for subsequent MS analysis. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) was used to analyze phospholipids and proteins from both intact bovine eye lens tissue and tissue ablated by ultrashort laser pulses. Laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS) with 10.5 eV single photon ionization was also used to analyze cholesterol and other small molecules in the tissue before and after laser ablation. Scanning electron microscopy was applied to examine the ablation patterns in the tissue and estimate the depth of the ablation craters. Ultrashort pulse laser ablation was found to be able to remove a layer of several tens of micrometers from the surface of eye lens tissue while leaving the underlying tissue relatively undamaged for subsequent MS analysis. MS analysis of cholesterol, phospholipids, peptides, and various unidentified species did not reveal any chemical damage caused by ultrashort pulse laser ablation for analytes smaller than ~6 kDa. However, a drop in intensity of larger protein ions was detected by MALDI-MS following laser ablation. An additional advantage was that ablated tissue displayed up to an order of magnitude higher signal intensities than intact tissue when subsequently analyzed by MS. These results support the use of ultrashort pulse laser ablation in combination with MS analysis to permit depth profiling of animal tissue.
Project description:Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) is widely used for the analysis of large biomolecules in numerous applications. The technique utilizes nanosecond-long laser pulses at various spot sizes to eject and ionize large molecules embedded in a highly absorptive chemical matrix. Despite the methods name, 'molecular desorption' from the matrix crystal surface is not the sole mechanism discussed for material ejection in MALDI, but additional ablation of larger clusters has been reported. Here we present results on the influence of laser fluence and spot size on the mechanisms of the initial material ejection in MALDI and subsequent plume development. We used a laser-based postionization (MALDI-2) as well as a complementary photoacoustic method to monitor the material ejection step. The photoacoustic data reveal a quasi-thermal sublimation process up to a transition fluence. Above this threshold fluence additional ablation processes are observed. Complementary investigations on plume dynamics by MALDI-2 showed an ejection of predominantly fast particles for desorption conditions while ablation produces considerably slower ejecta. Additionally the presented results revealed a peculiar influence of the spot size on analyte fragmentation as well as plume development and allows for new insights into the unexplained spot size effect reported for MALDI.
Project description:The potential of laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS) imaging for small molecule quantification is demonstrated here. The N-methylpiperazine acetamide (MPA) of ampicillin was adsorbed into polyelectrolyte multilayer surface coatings composed of chitosan and alginate, both high molecular weight biopolymers. These MPA-ampicillin spiked multilayers were then shown to inhibit the growth of Enterococcus faecalis biofilms that play a role in early stage infection of implanted medical devices. Finally, LDPI-MS imaging using 7.87 eV single-photon ionization was found to detect MPA-ampicillin within the multilayers before and after biofilm growth with limits of quantification and detection of 0.6 and 0.3 nmol, respectively. The capabilities of LDPI-MS imaging for small molecule quantification are compared to those of MALDI-MS. Furthermore, these results indicate that 7.87 eV LDPI-MS imaging should be applicable to quantification of a range of small molecular species on a variety of complex organic and biological surfaces. Finally, while MS imaging for quantification was demonstrated here using LDPI, it is a generally useful strategy that can be applied to other methods.
Project description:N-glycans are important players in a variety of pathologies including different types of cancer, (auto)immune diseases, and also viral infections. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) is an important tool for high-throughput N-glycan profiling and, upon use of tandem MS, for structure determination. By use of MALDI-MS imaging (MSI) in combination with PNGase F treatment, also spatially correlated N-glycan profiling from tissue sections becomes possible. Here we coupled laser-induced postionization, or MALDI-2, to a trapped ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (timsTOF fleX MALDI-2, Bruker Daltonics). We demonstrate that with MALDI-2 the sensitivity for the detection of molecular [M - H]- species of N-glycans increased by about 3 orders of magnitude. Compared to the current gold standard, the positive ion mode analysis of [M + Na]+ adducts, a sensitivity increase by about a factor of 10 is achieved. By exploiting the advantageous fragmentation behavior of [M - H]- ions, exceedingly rich structural information on the composition of complex N-glycans was moreover obtained directly from thin tissue sections of human cerebellum and upon use of low-energy collision-induced dissociation tandem MS. In another set of experiments, in this case by use of a modified Synapt G2-S QTOF mass spectrometer (Waters), we investigated the influence of relevant input parameters, in particular pressure of the N2 cooling gas in the ion source, delay between the two laser pulses, and that of their pulse energies. In this way, analytical conditions were identified at which molecular ion abundances were maximized and fragmentation reactions minimized. The use of negative ion mode MALDI-2-MSI could constitute a valuable tool in glycobiology research.
Project description:This paper describes a novel technique for joining similar and dissimilar metal foils, namely micro clinching with cutting by laser shock forming. A series of experiments were conducted to study the deformation behavior of single layer material, during which many important process parameters were determined. The process window of the 1060 pure aluminum foils and annealed copper foils produced by micro clinching with cutting was analyzed. Moreover, similar material combination (annealed copper foils) and dissimilar material combination (1060 pure aluminum foils and 304 stainless steel foils) were successfully achieved. The effect of laser energy on the interlock and minimum thickness of upper foils was investigated. In addition, the mechanical strength of different material combinations joined by micro clinching with cutting was measured in single lap shearing tests. According to the achieved results, this novel technique is more suitable for material combinations where the upper foil is thicker than lower foil. With the increase of laser energy, the interlock increased while the minimum thickness of upper foil decreased gradually. The shear strength of 1060 pure aluminum foils and 304 stainless steel foils combination was three times as large as that of 1060 pure aluminum foils and annealed copper foils combination.