Stimulation of soluble guanylyl cyclase protects against obesity by recruiting brown adipose tissue.
ABSTRACT: Obesity is characterized by a positive energy balance and expansion of white adipose tissue (WAT). In contrast, brown adipose tissue (BAT) combusts energy to produce heat. Here we show that a small molecule stimulator (BAY 41-8543) of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), which produces the second messenger cyclic GMP (cGMP), protects against diet-induced weight gain, induces weight loss in established obesity, and also improves the diabetic phenotype. Mechanistically, the haeme-dependent sGC stimulator BAY 41-8543 enhances lipid uptake into BAT and increases whole-body energy expenditure, whereas ablation of the haeme-containing ?1-subunit of sGC severely impairs BAT function. Notably, the sGC stimulator enhances differentiation of human brown adipocytes as well as induces 'browning' of primary white adipocytes. Taken together, our data suggest that sGC is a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of obesity and its comorbidities.
Project description:Sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with intravascular hemolysis and oxidative inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) signaling. BAY 54-6544 is a small-molecule activator of oxidized soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), which, unlike endogenous NO and the sGC stimulator, BAY 41-8543, preferentially binds and activates heme-free, NO-insensitive sGC to restore enzymatic cGMP production. We tested orally delivered sGC activator, BAY 54-6544 (17 mg/kg/d), sGC stimulator, BAY 41-8543, sildenafil, and placebo for 4-12 weeks in the Berkeley transgenic mouse model of SCD (BERK-SCD) and their hemizygous (Hemi) littermate controls (BERK-Hemi). Right ventricular (RV) maximum systolic pressure (RVmaxSP) was measured using micro right-heart catheterization. RV hypertrophy (RVH) was determined using Fulton's index and RV corrected weight (ratio of RV to tibia). Pulmonary artery vasoreactivity was tested for endothelium-dependent and -independent vessel relaxation. Right-heart catheterization revealed higher RVmaxSP and RVH in BERK-SCD versus BERK-Hemi, which worsened with age. Treatment with the sGC activator more effectively lowered RVmaxSP and RVH, with 90-day treatment delivering superior results, when compared with other treatments and placebo groups. In myography experiments, acetylcholine-induced (endothelium-dependent) and sodium-nitroprusside-induced (endothelium-independent NO donor) relaxation of the pulmonary artery harvested from placebo-treated BERK-SCD was impaired relative to BERK-Hemi but improved after therapy with sGC activator. By contrast, no significant effect for sGC stimulator or sildenafil was observed in BERK-SCD. These findings suggest that sGC is oxidized in the pulmonary arteries of transgenic SCD mice, leading to blunted responses to NO, and that the sGC activator, BAY 54-6544, may represent a novel therapy for SCD-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension and cardiac remodeling.
Project description:Dysfunction of the NO/sGC/cGMP signaling pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Therefore, agents stimulating cGMP synthesis via sGC are important therapeutic options for treatment of PH patients. An unwanted effect of this novel class of drugs is their systemic hypotensive effect. We tested the hypothesis that aerosolized intra-tracheal delivery of the sGC stimulator BAY41-8543 could diminish its systemic vasodilating effect.Pharmacodynamics and -kinetics of BAY41-8543 after single intra-tracheal delivery was tested in healthy rats. Four weeks after a single injection of monocrotaline (MCT, 60 mg/kg s.c.), rats were randomized to a two-week treatment with either placebo, BAY 41-8543 (10 mg/kg per os (PO)) or intra-tracheal (IT) instillation (3 mg/kg or 1 mg/kg).Circulating concentrations of the drug 10 mg/kg PO and 3 mg/kg IT were comparable. BAY 41-8543 was detected in the lung tissue and broncho-alveolar fluid after IT delivery at higher concentrations than after PO administration. Systemic arterial pressure transiently decreased after oral BAY 41-8543 and was unaffected by intratracheal instillation of the drug. PO 10 mg/kg and IT 3 mg/kg regimens partially reversed pulmonary hypertension and improved heart function in MCT-injected rats. Minor efficacy was noted in rats treated IT with 1 mg/kg. The degree of pulmonary vascular remodeling was largely reversed in all treatment groups.Intratracheal administration of BAY 41-8543 reverses PAH and vascular structural remodeling in MCT-treated rats. Local lung delivery is not associated with systemic blood pressure lowering and represents thus a further development of PH treatment with sGC stimulators.
Project description:<h4>Rationale</h4>Nitric oxide-independent agonists of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) have been developed.<h4>Objectives</h4>We tested whether inhalation of novel dry-powder microparticle formulations containing sGC stimulators (BAY 41-2272, BAY 41-8543) or an sGC activator (BAY 58-2667) would produce selective pulmonary vasodilation in lambs with acute pulmonary hypertension. We also evaluated the combined administration of BAY 41-8543 microparticles and inhaled nitric oxide (iNO). Finally, we examined whether inhaling BAY 58-2667 microparticles would produce pulmonary vasodilation when the response to iNO is impaired.<h4>Methods</h4>In awake, spontaneously breathing lambs instrumented with vascular catheters and a tracheostomy tube, U-46619 was infused intravenously to increase mean pulmonary arterial pressure to 35 mm Hg.<h4>Measurements and main results</h4>Inhalation of microparticles composed of either BAY 41-2272, BAY 41-8543, or BAY 58-2667 and excipients (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, albumin, lactose) produced dose-dependent pulmonary vasodilation and increased transpulmonary cGMP release without significant effect on mean arterial pressure. Inhalation of microparticles containing BAY 41-8543 or BAY 58-2667 increased systemic arterial oxygenation. The magnitude and duration of pulmonary vasodilation induced by iNO were augmented after inhaling BAY 41-8543 microparticles. Intravenous administration of 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), which oxidizes the prosthetic heme group of sGC, markedly reduced the pulmonary vasodilator effect of iNO. In contrast, pulmonary vasodilation and transpulmonary cGMP release induced by inhaling BAY 58-2667 microparticles were greatly enhanced after treatment with ODQ.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Inhalation of microparticles containing agonists of sGC may provide an effective novel treatment for patients with pulmonary hypertension, particularly when responsiveness to iNO is impaired by oxidation of sGC.
Project description:Strategies for driving white adipose tissue (WAT) to acquire brown-like characteristics are a promising approach to reduce obesity. Liraglutide has been reported to active brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and WAT browning by rapid intracerebroventricular injection in mice. In this study, we investigated the effects and possible mechanisms of liraglutide on WAT browning by chronic treatment. Here, we show that liraglutide significantly decreases body weight of mice and reduces the size of white adipocytes. By quantity polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting analysis, cell immunofluorescence or immunocytochemical staining, we found liraglutide induced WAT browning because it up-regulated lipolytic activity, BAT, as well as mitochondrial marker genes in inguinal and peripheral renal WAT. We also confirmed liraglutide induced browning of 3T3-L1 because it enhanced expression of BAT and mitochondrial specific genes. In further, we observed that, soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) and protein kinase G I (PKGI) were up-regulated by liraglutide in vivo and in vitro; stimulation of sGC elevated expression of BAT markers and PKGI, which suggested that liraglutide induced WAT browning via sGC-dependent pathway. Taken together, this study expands our knowledge on the mechanism of liraglutide inducing WAT browning, and provides a theoretical support for clinical usage of liraglutide on obesity treatment.
Project description:Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is the signal transduction enzyme most responsible for mediating the effects of nitric oxide (NO). Recently, NO-independent small molecule activators of sGC have been developed that have promising clinical activities. We have shown that the secreted matrix protein thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) binds to CD47 and potently inhibits NO stimulation of sGC in endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and platelets. Here we show that TSP-1 signalling via CD47 inhibits sGC activation by NO-independent sGC activating small molecules.Vascular smooth muscle cells and washed human platelets were pretreated with TSP-1 (2.2 nM) in the presence of haeme-dependent sGC activators (YC-1, BAY 41-2272), and a haeme-independent activator (meso-porphyrin IX), and cGMP levels were measured. The effect of sGC activators on platelet aggregation and contraction of VSMC embedded in collagen gels was also assayed in the presence and absence of TSP-1.Thrombospondin-1 inhibited sGC activator-dependent increase in cGMP in VSMC and platelets. TSP-1 pretreatment also inhibited the ability of these agents to delay thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. TSP-1 pretreatment reduced the ability of sGC activating agents to abrogate VSMC contraction in vitro.This work demonstrates that TSP-1 is a universal inhibitor of sGC, blocking both haeme-dependent and haeme-independent activation. These data coupled with the reported increases in TSP-1 with age, diabetes, ischaemia/reperfusion, and atherosclerosis implies that the therapeutic potential of all drugs that activate sGC could be compromised in disease states where TSP-1/CD47 signalling is elevated.
Project description:In contrast to white adipose tissue, brown adipose tissue (BAT) is known to play critical roles for both basal and inducible energy expenditure. Obesity is associated with reduction of BAT function; however, it is not well understood how obesity promotes BAT dysfunction, especially at the molecular level. Here we show that the transcription regulator TRIP-Br2 mediates ER stress-induced inhibition of lipolysis and thermogenesis in BAT. Using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo approaches, we demonstrate that obesity-induced inflammation upregulates brown adipocytes TRIP-Br2 expression via the ER stress pathway and amelioration of ER stress in mice completely abolishes high fat diet-induced upregulation of TRIP-Br2 in BAT. We find that increased TRIP-Br2 significantly inhibits brown adipocytes thermogenesis. Finally, we show that ablation of TRIP-Br2 ameliorates ER stress-induced inhibition on lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation, oxidative metabolism, and thermogenesis in brown adipocytes. Taken together, our current study demonstrates a role for TRIP-Br2 in ER stress-induced BAT dysfunction, and inhibiting TRIP-Br2 could be a potential approach for counteracting obesity-induced BAT dysfunction.
Project description:Both classical brown adipocytes and brown-like beige adipocytes are considered as promising therapeutic targets for obesity; however, their development, relative importance and functional coordination are not well understood. Here we show that a modest expression of miR-378/378* in adipose tissue specifically increases classical brown fat (BAT) mass, but not white fat (WAT) mass. Remarkably, BAT expansion, rather than miR-378 per se, suppresses formation of beige adipocytes in subcutaneous WAT. Despite this negative feedback, the expanded BAT depot is sufficient to prevent both genetic and high-fat diet-induced obesity. At the molecular level, we find that miR-378 targets phosphodiesterase Pde1b in BAT but not in WAT. Indeed, miR-378 and Pde1b inversely regulate brown adipogenesis in vitro in the absence of phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine. Our work identifies miR-378 as a key regulatory component underlying classical BAT-specific expansion and obesity resistance, and adds novel insights into the physiological crosstalk between BAT and WAT.
Project description:The adipokine adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) has been implicated in obesity-related cardio-metabolic complications. Here we show that A-FABP increases thermogenesis by promoting the conversion of T4 to T3 in brown adipocytes. We find that A-FABP levels are increased in both white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissues and the bloodstream in response to thermogenic stimuli. A-FABP knockout mice have reduced thermogenesis and whole-body energy expenditure after cold stress or after feeding a high-fat diet, which can be reversed by infusion of recombinant A-FABP. Mechanistically, A-FABP induces the expression of type-II iodothyronine deiodinase in BAT via inhibition of the nuclear receptor liver X receptor ?, thereby leading to the conversion of thyroid hormone from its inactive form T4 to active T3. The thermogenic responses to T4 are abrogated in A-FABP KO mice, but enhanced by A-FABP. Thus, A-FABP acts as a physiological stimulator of BAT-mediated adaptive thermogenesis.
Project description:Brown adipose tissue (BAT), a major site for mammalian non-shivering thermogenesis, could be a target for prevention and treatment of human obesity. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2), a Ca(2+)-permeable non-selective cation channel, plays vital roles in the regulation of various cellular functions. Here, we show that TRPV2 is expressed in brown adipocytes and that mRNA levels of thermogenic genes are reduced in both cultured brown adipocytes and BAT from TRPV2 knockout (TRPV2KO) mice. The induction of thermogenic genes in response to β-adrenergic receptor stimulation is also decreased in TRPV2KO brown adipocytes and suppressed by reduced intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations in wild-type brown adipocytes. In addition, TRPV2KO mice have more white adipose tissue and larger brown adipocytes and show cold intolerance, and lower BAT temperature increases in response to β-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Furthermore, TRPV2KO mice have increased body weight and fat upon high-fat-diet treatment. Based on these findings, we conclude that TRPV2 has a role in BAT thermogenesis and could be a target for human obesity therapy.
Project description:Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy and promotes cardio-metabolic health4. However, loss of BAT during obesity and aging is a principal hurdle for BAT-centered obesity therapies. So far not much is known about BAT apoptosis and signals released by apoptotic brown adipocytes. Here, untargeted metabolomics demonstrated that apoptotic brown adipocytes release a specific pattern of metabolites with purine metabolites being highly enriched. Interestingly, this apoptotic secretome enhances expression of the thermogenic program in healthy adipocytes to maintain tissue functionality. This effect is mediated by the purine inosine which stimulates energy expenditure (EE) in brown adipocytes. Phosphoproteomic analysis demonstrated activation of the cAMP/protein kinase A signaling pathway and of pro-thermogenic transcription factors by inosine.