Eukaryote-Made Thermostable DNA Polymerase Enables Rapid PCR-Based Detection of Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma and Other Bacteria in the Amniotic Fluid of Preterm Labor Cases.
ABSTRACT: Intra-amniotic infection has long been recognized as the leading cause of preterm delivery. Microbial culture is the gold standard for the detection of intra-amniotic infection, but several days are required, and many bacterial species in the amniotic fluid are difficult to cultivate.We developed a novel nested-PCR-based assay for detecting Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, other bacteria and fungi in amniotic fluid samples within three hours of sample collection. To detect prokaryotes, eukaryote-made thermostable DNA polymerase, which is free from bacterial DNA contamination, is used in combination with bacterial universal primers. In contrast, to detect eukaryotes, conventional bacterially-made thermostable DNA polymerase is used in combination with fungal universal primers. To assess the validity of the PCR assay, we compared the PCR and conventional culture results using 300 amniotic fluid samples.Based on the detection level (positive and negative), 93.3% (280/300) of Mycoplasma, 94.3% (283/300) of Ureaplasma, 89.3% (268/300) of other bacteria and 99.7% (299/300) of fungi matched the culture results. Meanwhile, concerning the detection of bacteria other than Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma, 228 samples were negative according to the PCR method, 98.2% (224/228) of which were also negative based on the culture method. Employing the devised primer sets, mixed amniotic fluid infections of Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma and/or other bacteria could be clearly distinguished. In addition, we also attempted to compare the relative abundance in 28 amniotic fluid samples with mixed infection, and judged dominance by comparing the Ct values of quantitative real-time PCR.We developed a novel PCR assay for the rapid detection of Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, other bacteria and fungi in amniotic fluid samples. This assay can also be applied to accurately diagnose the absence of bacteria in samples. We believe that this assay will positively contribute to the treatment of intra-amniotic infection and the prevention of preterm delivery.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To assess whether antibiotics used for treatment in asymptomatic second-trimester women positive for Mycoplasma or Ureaplasma spp. detected by amniotic-fluid PCR prevents preterm delivery. DESIGN:A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING:10 maternal fetal medicine centers in France. POPULATION:Women with a singleton pregnancy who underwent amniocentesis between 16 and 20 weeks' gestation (weeks) for Down syndrome screening. A sample of 238 women with PCR-positive findings per treatment group was needed to show a 50% reduction in the preterm delivery rate. METHODS:Amniotic fluid was tested. Women with positive findings on real-time PCR of amniotic fluid for Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum were randomized to receive josamycin or placebo. Amniotic fluid was also tested for 16S PCR. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The primary outcome was delivery before 37 weeks. RESULTS:In total, 1043 women underwent amniotic-fluid screening with specific PCR detection between July 2008 and July 2011: PCR detection failed in 27 (2.6%), and 20 (1.9%) underwent termination of pregnancy. Among the 1016 women with PCR results, 980 had available data for the primary outcome (delivery before 37 weeks) and 29 (3.0%) were positive for Ureaplasma and/or Mycoplasma spp. Because of the low rate of women with PCR-positive findings, the trial was stopped prematurely. In total, 19 women were randomized to receive placebo (n = 8) or josamycin (n = 11) and their characteristics were comparable, as was the rate of preterm delivery and secondary outcomes. In comparing all PCR-positive and -negative women regardless of treatment, PCR positivity for Ureaplasma and/or Mycoplasma spp. was not associated with any adverse pregnancy or neonatal outcome. Amniotic-fluid screening by 16S PCR showed no other bacterial colonization associated with preterm birth. CONCLUSIONS:Because of a low amniotic fluid colonization rate, the trial was interrupted. Maternal amniotic-fluid colonization by Mycoplasma and/or Ureaplasma spp. at 16-20 weeks in asymptomatic women is rare and not associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00718705.
Project description:Ureaplasma species are the bacteria most frequently isolated from human amniotic fluid in asymptomatic pregnancies and placental infections. Ureaplasma parvum serovars 3 and 6 are the most prevalent serovars isolated from men and women. We hypothesized that the effects on the fetus and chorioamnion of chronic ureaplasma infection in amniotic fluid are dependent on the serovar, dose, and variation of the ureaplasma multiple-banded antigen (MBA) and mba gene. We injected high- or low-dose U. parvum serovar 3, serovar 6, or vehicle intra-amniotically into pregnant ewes at 55 days of gestation (term = 150 days) and examined the chorioamnion, amniotic fluid, and fetal lung tissue of animals delivered by cesarean section at 125 days of gestation. Variation of the multiple banded antigen/mba generated by serovar 3 and serovar 6 ureaplasmas in vivo were compared by PCR assay and Western blot. Ureaplasma inoculums demonstrated only one (serovar 3) or two (serovar 6) MBA variants in vitro, but numerous antigenic variants were generated in vivo: serovar 6 passage 1 amniotic fluid cultures contained more MBA size variants than serovar 3 (P = 0.005), and ureaplasma titers were inversely related to the number of variants (P = 0.025). The severity of chorioamnionitis varied between animals. Low numbers of mba size variants (five or fewer) within amniotic fluid were associated with severe inflammation, whereas the chorioamnion from animals with nine or more mba variants showed little or no inflammation. These differences in chorioamnion inflammation may explain why not all women with in utero Ureaplasma spp. experience adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Project description:PROBLEM:Neutrophils are capable of performing phagocytosis, a primary mechanism for microbial killing. Intra-amniotic infection is characterized by an influx of neutrophils into the amniotic cavity. Herein, we investigated whether amniotic fluid neutrophils could phagocytize bacteria found in the amniotic cavity of women with intra-amniotic infection. METHODS:Amniotic fluid neutrophils from women with intra-amniotic infection were visualized by transmission electron microscopy (n=6). The phagocytic activity of amniotic fluid neutrophils from women with intra-amniotic infection and/or inflammation (n=10) or peripheral neutrophils from healthy individuals (controls, n=3) was tested using ex vivo phagocytosis assays coupled with live imaging. Phagocytosis by amniotic fluid neutrophils was also visualized by confocal microscopy (n=10) as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy (n=5). RESULTS:(i) Intra-amniotic infection-related bacteria including cocci (eg Streptococcus agalactiae), bacilli (eg Bacteriodes fragilis and Prevotella spp.), and small bacteria without a cell wall (eg Ureaplasma urealyticum) were found inside of amniotic fluid neutrophils; (ii) peripheral neutrophils (controls) rapidly phagocytized S. agalactiae, U. urealyticum, Gardnerella vaginalis, and Escherichia coli; (iii) amniotic fluid neutrophils rapidly phagocytized S. agalactiae and G. vaginalis; and (iv) amniotic fluid neutrophils slowly phagocytized U. urealyticum and E. coli; yet, the process of phagocytosis of the genital mycoplasma was lengthier. CONCLUSION:Amniotic fluid neutrophils can phagocytize bacteria found in the amniotic cavity of women with intra-amniotic infection, namely S. agalactiae, U. urealyticum, G. vaginalis, and E. coli. Yet, differences in the rapidity of phagocytosis were observed among the studied microorganisms. These findings provide a host defense mechanism whereby amniotic fluid neutrophils can kill microbes invading the amniotic cavity.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>This study tested if second trimester amniotic fluid cytokine levels, Ureaplasma sp. colonisation and sexual activity predict preterm birth and explain the differential preterm birth rates in Chinese compared to Australian women.<h4>Methods</h4>Amniotic fluid was collected by amniocentesis (Chinese 480, Australian 492). Cytokines were measured by multiplex assay and Ureaplasma sp. DNA was detected by PCR analysis. Lifestyle factors, including history of smoking and sexual activity during pregnancy, were obtained through completion of questionnaires upon recruitment to the study.<h4>Results</h4>Inflammatory cytokine concentrations were poorly predictive of preterm birth. Ureaplasma sp. was detected in two of the Chinese pregnancies and none from Australia. Sexual activity was less frequent in Chinese, and was not associated with preterm birth or amniotic fluid findings in either population.<h4>Discussion</h4>Second trimester amniocentesis for measurement of inflammatory markers and Ureaplasma sp. DNA was not indicative of risk of preterm birth, at least in these populations. The lower rate of preterm birth in China was not explained by differences in amniotic fluid inflammatory markers, Ureaplasma sp. colonisation, or sexual activity.
Project description:We compared the Mycoplasma Duo kit (Sanofi Diagnostics Pasteur) with PCR for detection of Ureaplasma spp. in endotracheal aspirates from 60 premature neonates. The overall agreement between the two tests was 96%. The Mycoplasma Duo assay is a useful alternative to culture and PCR for detection of neonatal Ureaplasma infection.
Project description:To characterize subgroups of preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) and short-term neonatal outcomes based on the presence and absence of intraamniotic inflammation (IAI) and/or microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC).One hundred and sixty-six Caucasian women with singleton pregnancies were included in this study. Amniotic fluid samples were obtained by transabdominal amniocentesis (n=166) and were assayed for interleukin-6 levels by a lateral flow immunoassay. The presence of Ureaplasma species, Mycoplasma hominis, Chlamydia trachomatis, and 16S rRNA was evaluated in the amniotic fluid. IAI was defined as amniotic fluid IL-6 values, measured by a point of care test, higher than 745 pg/mL.Microbial-associated IAI (IAI with MIAC) and sterile intraamniotic inflammation (IAI alone) were found in 21% and 4%, respectively, of women with PPROM. Women with microbial-associated IAI had higher microbial loads of Ureaplasma species in the amniotic fluid than women with MIAC alone. No differences in the short-term neonatal morbidity with respect to the presence of microbial-associated IAI, sterile IAI and MIAC alone were found after adjusting for the gestational age at delivery in women with PPROM.Microbial-associated but not sterile intraamniotic inflammation is common in Caucasian women with PPROM. The gestational age at delivery but not the presence of inflammation affects the short-term neonatal morbidity of newborns from PPROM pregnancies.
Project description:We have developed a reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay to detect and identify the commonest mollicutes causing cell line contamination (Mycoplasma arginini, Mycoplasma fermentans, Mycoplasma hyorhinis, Mycoplasma orale, and Acholeplasma laidlawii) and human infection (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma parvum, and Ureaplasma urealyticum). We developed a nested PCR assay with "universal" primers targeting the mollicute 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. Amplified biotin-labeled PCR products were hybridized to membrane-bound species-specific oligonucleotide probes. The assay correctly identified reference strains of 10 mollicute species. Cell cultures submitted for detection of mollicute contamination, clinical specimens, and clinical isolates were initially tested by PCR assay targeting a presumed mollicute-specific sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. Any that were positive were assessed by the RLB assay, with species-specific PCR assay as the reference method. Initially, 100 clinical and 88 of 92 cell culture specimens gave concordant results, including 18 in which two or more mollicute species were detected by both methods. PCR and sequencing of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region and subsequent retesting by species-specific PCR assay of the four cell culture specimens for which results were initially discrepant confirmed the original RLB results. Sequencing of amplicons from 12 cell culture specimens that were positive in the 16S rRNA PCR assay but negative by both the RLB and species-specific PCR assays failed to identify any mollicute species. The RLB hybridization assay is sensitive and specific and able to rapidly detect and identify mollicute species from clinical and cell line specimens.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Ureaplasma urealyticum and U. parvum have been associated with respiratory diseases in premature newborns, but their role in the pathogenesis of the respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is unclear. The aim of this study was to detect, using molecular techniques, the role of Mycoplasma spp. and Ureaplasma spp. in respiratory secretion and blood specimens of preterm newborns with or without RDS and to evaluate the prevalence of perinatal U. urealyticum or U. parvum infection. The influence of chemotherapy on the clinical course was also evaluated. METHODS: Tracheal aspirate or nasopharingeal fluid samples from 50 preterm babies with (24) or without RDS (26) were analysed for detection of U. urealyticum and U. parvum by culture identification assay and PCR. Sequencing analysis of amplicons allowed us to verify the specificity of methods. Clarithromycin (10 mg kg-1 twice a day) was administered in ureaplasma-positive patients who presented clinical signs of RDS. RESULTS: 15/24 neonates with RDS (p < 0.001) and 4/26 without RDS were found PCR-positive for U. urealyticum or U. parvum. Culture identification assay was positive in 5/50 newborns, three of which with RDS. Sequencing analyses confirmed the specificity of these methods. Association of patent ductus arteriosus with ureaplasma colonization was more statistically significant (p = 0.0004) in patients with RDS than in those without RDS. CONCLUSION: Colonization of the lower respiratory tract by Ureaplasma spp. and particularly by U. parvum in preterm newborns was related to RDS. The routine use of molecular methods could be useful to screen candidate babies for etiologic therapy.
Project description:Intra-amniotic pathogens and by-products activate innate immune responses encompassing multitudes of signaling molecules and pathways that can result in spontaneous preterm birth (PTB). This study investigates fetal membrane response to bacterial stimulation using a bioinformatics approach.Dysregulated biomarker (IL1-?, IL-2, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-?) data from fetal membranes at term stimulated with Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, Mycoplasma hominis, E. coli, Group B Streptococci, Polyporhans gingivalis, or Gardnerella vaginalis with 50% (v/v) amniotic fluid (AF) were analyzed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis.In racially stratified analysis, networks representing late-stage immune inflammation were seen in African-Americans in AF absence. Inflammation was dominant in AF presence as well. In Caucasians, late-stage immune response was dominant with AF, but not in its absence.Fetal membrane biofunctions in response to bacteria reflect early- and late-stage innate immune defenses that vary based on the presence of AF and subject race.
Project description:Objective. We compared laboratory developed real-time PCR assays for detection of Mycoplasma hominis and for detection and differentiation of Ureaplasma urealyticum and parvum to culture using genitourinary specimens submitted for M. hominis and Ureaplasma culture. Methods. 283 genitourinary specimens received in the clinical bacteriology laboratory for M. hominis and Ureaplasma species culture were evaluated. Nucleic acids were extracted using the Total Nucleic Acid Kit on the MagNA Pure 2.0. 5 μL of the extracts were combined with 15 μL of each of the two master mixes. Assays were performed on the LightCycler 480 II system. Culture was performed using routine methods. Results. M. hominis PCR detected 38/42 M. hominis culture-positive specimens, as well as 2 that were culture negative (sensitivity, 90.5%; specificity, 99.2%). Ureaplasma PCR detected 139/144 Ureaplasma culture-positive specimens, as well as 9 that were culture negative (sensitivity, 96.5%; specificity, 93.6%). Of the specimens that tested positive for Ureaplasma species, U. urealyticum alone was detected in 33, U. parvum alone in 109, and both in 6. Conclusion. The described PCR assays are rapid alternatives to culture for detection of M. hominis and Ureaplasma species, and, unlike culture, the Ureaplasma assay easily distinguishes U. urealyticum from parvum.