Potential radiating effects of misusing substances among medical patients receiving brief intervention.
ABSTRACT: The societal benefits of substance use interventions are largely driven not by reducing use per se, but by the broader implications of those reductions. This encompasses "potential radiating effects of misusing substances" (PREMiS) such as utilization of high-cost hospital and emergency care, injury, productivity losses, incarceration, and driving while impaired.This study is a secondary analysis from a randomized trial comparing in-person vs. computerized brief intervention among 360 adult community health center patients with moderate-risk illicit drug use (N = 302 with complete data through 12 months of follow-up). This study aims to examine four aspects of PREMiS outcomes in this sample: (1) their frequency; and their association with (2) type of brief intervention received (by random assignment), (3) type of drug misused, and (4) baseline drug problem severity (within the moderate risk range).12-month prevalence was 18.5% for hospitalization (399 cumulative days), 33.1% for emergency department utilization (166 cumulative visits), 39.1% for injury (1818 injury-days), and 8.3% for incarceration (278 days of detention). There were 729 missed work days among those who reported employment. Fifty percent reported driving under the influence (DUI) of substances. There were no differences in PREMiS outcomes by type of brief intervention. Participants with only marijuana misuse at baseline were not at lower risk of experiencing PREMiS events than participants with other drug misuse. Higher baseline drug problem severity was predictive of future hospitalization (p < .05) and number of hospitalization days (p < .01).This community health center sample with moderate-risk illicit drug use reported considerable high-cost healthcare utilization, injury, missed work, and DUI. Interventions are needed that can reliably lower risk of negative outcomes among drug users.
Project description:The higher risk of death among recently released inmates relative to the general population may be because of the higher prevalence of substance dependence among inmates or an independent effect of incarceration. We explored the effects of recent incarceration on health outcomes that may be intermediate markers for mortality.Longitudinal multivariable regression analyses were conducted on interview data (baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up) from alcohol- and/or drug-dependent individuals (n = 553) participating in a randomized clinical trial to test the effectiveness of chronic disease management for substance dependence in primary care. The main independent variable was recent incarceration (spending ?1 night in jail or prison in the past 3 months). The 3 main outcomes of this study were any traumatic injury, substance use-related health consequences, and health care utilization--defined as hospitalization (excluding addiction treatment or detoxification) and/or emergency department visit.Recent incarceration was not significantly associated with traumatic injury (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.65-1.49) or health care utilization (AOR = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.64-1.20). However, recent incarceration was associated with higher odds for substance use-related health consequences (AOR = 1.42; 95% CI: 1.02-1.98).Among people with alcohol and/or drug dependence, recent incarceration was significantly associated with substance use-related health consequences but not injury or health care utilization after adjustment for covariates. These findings suggest that substance use-related health consequences may be part of the explanation for the increased risk of death faced by former inmates.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To analyze the relationships between illicit drug use and three types of health services utilization: emergency room utilization, hospitalization, and medical attention required due to injury(s).<h4>Data</h4>Waves 1 and 2 (11,253 males and 13,059 females) from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC).<h4>Study design</h4>We derive benchmark estimates by employing standard cross-sectional data models to pooled waves of NESARC data. To control for potential bias due to time-invariant unobserved individual heterogeneity, we reestimate the relationships with fixed-effects models.<h4>Principal findings</h4>The cross-sectional data models suggest that illicit drug use is positively and significantly related to health services utilization in almost all specifications. Conversely, the only significant (p<.05) relationships in the fixed-effects models are the odds of receiving medical attention for an injury and the number of injuries requiring medical attention for men, and the number of times hospitalized for men and women.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Failing to control for time-invariant individual heterogeneity could lead to biased coefficients when estimating the effects of illicit drug use on health services utilization. Moreover, it is important to distinguish between types of drug user (casual versus heavy) and estimate gender-specific models.
Project description:This paper describes outcomes from a randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy of brief interventions delivered by a computer (CBI) or therapist (TBI) among adolescents in urban primary care clinics.Patients (ages 12-18) self-administered a computer survey. Adolescents reporting past year cannabis use completed a baseline survey and were randomized to control, CBI or TBI, with primary (cannabis use, cannabis related consequences - CC) and secondary outcomes [alcohol use, other drug use (illicit and non-medical prescription drugs), and driving under the influence of cannabis (DUI)] assessed at 3, 6, and 12 months.1416 adolescents were surveyed; 328 reported past year cannabis use and were randomized. Comparisons of the CBI relative to control showed that at 3 months the group by time interaction (G × T) was significant for other drug use and CC, but not for cannabis use, alcohol use, or DUI; at 6 months, the G × T interaction was significant for other drug use but not for cannabis use, alcohol use, or CC. For analyses comparing the TBI to control, at 3 months the G×T interaction was significant for DUI, but not significant for cannabis use, alcohol use, or CC; at 6 months, the G×T interaction was not significant for any variable. No significant intervention effects were observed at 12 months.Among adolescent cannabis users presenting to primary care, a CBI decreased cannabis related problems and other drug use and a TBI decreased cannabis DUI in the short-term. Additional boosters may be necessary to enhance these reductions over time.
Project description:To estimate factors associated to illicit drug use among patients with mental illness in Brazil according to gender.A cross-sectional representative sample of psychiatric patients (2,475 individuals) was randomly selected from 11 hospitals and 15 public mental health outpatient clinics. Data on self-reported illicit drug use and sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics were obtained from face-to-face interviews. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations with recent illicit drug use.The prevalence of any recent illicit drug use was 11.4%. Men had higher prevalence than women for all substances (17.5% and 5.6%, respectively). Lower education, history of physical violence, and history of homelessness were associated with drug use among men only; not professing a religion was associated with drug use in women only. For both men and women, younger age, current hospitalization, alcohol and tobacco use, history of incarceration, younger age at sexual debut, and more than one sexual partner were statistically associated with illicit drug use.Recent illicit drug use among psychiatric patients is higher than among the general Brazilian population and it is associated with multiple factors including markers of psychiatric severity. Our data indicate the need for the development of gender-based drug-use interventions among psychiatric patients in Brazil. Integration of substance use treatment strategies with mental health treatment should be a priority.
Project description:Estimate the effectiveness of brief interventions in reducing trauma recidivism in hospitalized trauma patients who screened positive for alcohol and/or illicit drug use.Dynamic cohort study based on registry data from 1818 patients included in a screening and brief intervention program for alcohol and illicit drug use for hospitalized trauma patients. Three subcohorts emerged from the data analysis: patients who screened negative, those who screened positive and were offered brief intervention, and those who screened positive and were not offered brief intervention. Follow-up lasted from 10 to 52 months. Trauma-free survival, adjusted hazard rate ratios (aHRR) and adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRR) were calculated, and complier average causal effect (CACE) analysis was used.We found a higher cumulative risk of trauma recidivism in the subcohort who screened positive. In this subcohort, an aHRR of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.41-0.95) was obtained for the group offered brief intervention compared to the group not offered intervention. CACE analysis yielded an estimated 52% reduction in trauma recidivism associated with the brief intervention.The brief intervention offered during hospitalization in trauma patients positive for alcohol and/or illicit drug use can halve the incidence of trauma recidivism.
Project description:IMPORTANCE:The United States has invested substantially in screening and brief intervention for illicit drug use and prescription drug misuse, based in part on evidence of efficacy for unhealthy alcohol use. However, it is not a recommended universal preventive service in primary care because of lack of evidence of efficacy. OBJECTIVE:To test the efficacy of 2 brief counseling interventions for unhealthy drug use (any illicit drug use or prescription drug misuse)-a brief negotiated interview (BNI) and an adaptation of motivational interviewing (MOTIV)-compared with no brief intervention. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:This 3-group randomized trial took place at an urban hospital-based primary care internal medicine practice; 528 adult primary care patients with drug use (Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test [ASSIST] substance-specific scores of ?4) were identified by screening between June 2009 and January 2012 in Boston, Massachusetts. INTERVENTIONS:Two interventions were tested: the BNI is a 10- to 15-minute structured interview conducted by health educators; the MOTIV is a 30- to 45-minute intervention based on motivational interviewing with a 20- to 30-minute booster conducted by master's-level counselors. All study participants received a written list of substance use disorder treatment and mutual help resources. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:Primary outcome was number of days of use in the past 30 days of the self-identified main drug as determined by a validated calendar method at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included other self-reported measures of drug use, drug use according to hair testing, ASSIST scores (severity), drug use consequences, unsafe sex, mutual help meeting attendance, and health care utilization. RESULTS:At baseline, 63% of participants reported their main drug was marijuana, 19% cocaine, and 17% opioids. At 6 months, 98% completed follow-up. Mean adjusted number of days using the main drug at 6 months was 12 for no brief intervention vs 11 for the BNI group (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.97; 95% CI, 0.77-1.22) and 12 for the MOTIV group (IRR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.84-1.32; P?=?.81 for both comparisons vs no brief intervention). There were also no significant effects of BNI or MOTIV on any other outcome or in analyses stratified by main drug or drug use severity. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:Brief intervention did not have efficacy for decreasing unhealthy drug use in primary care patients identified by screening. These results do not support widespread implementation of illicit drug use and prescription drug misuse screening and brief intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00876941.
Project description:Individuals who use heroin and illicit opioids are at high risk for infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other blood-borne pathogens, as well as incarceration. The purpose of the randomized trial reported here is to compare outcomes between participants who initiated methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) prior to release from incarceration, with those who were referred to treatment at the time of release. Participants who initiated MMT prior to release were significantly more likely to enter treatment postrelease (P < .001) and for participants who did enter treatment, those who received MMT prerelease did so within fewer days (P = .03). They also reported less heroin use (P = .008), other opiate use (P = .09), and injection drug use (P = .06) at 6 months. Initiating MMT in the weeks prior to release from incarceration is a feasible and effective way to improve MMT access postrelease and to decrease relapse to opioid use.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Brief substance use screening questions for tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, and other drugs need further validation in adolescents. In particular, optimal age-specific screening cut-points are not known, and no study has been large enough to evaluate screening questions for noncannabis illicit drug use. METHODS:Adolescent respondents to an annual national household survey were included (2008 to 2014; n = 169,986). Days of tobacco use in the past month, and days of alcohol, cannabis, other illicit drug use in the past year, were assessed as brief screens for tobacco dependence and DSM-IV alcohol (AUD), cannabis (CUD), and other illicit drug use disorders (DUD). Areas under receiver operating characteristics curves (AUCs), sensitivity and specificity were estimated separately by age group (12-15-, 16-17-, and 18-20-year-olds) and cut-points that maximized combined values of sensitivity and specificity were considered optimal. RESULTS:The prevalence of tobacco dependence, AUD, CUD, and DUD was 5.8%, 7.1%, 4.5%, and 2.0%, respectively. AUCs ranged 0.84 to 0.99. The optimal cut-points for screening for tobacco dependence and DUDs was the same for all age groups: ?1 day. The optimal cut-points for alcohol and cannabis varied by age: ?3 days for 12-15-year-olds and ?12 days for older adolescents. CONCLUSIONS:Brief measures of past-year use, or past-month use for tobacco, accurately identified adolescents with problematic substance use. However, health systems should use age-specific screening cut-points for alcohol and cannabis to optimize screening performance.
Project description:Hospitalized patients have high rates of unhealthy substance use, which has important impacts on health both during and after hospitalization, but is infrequently identified in the absence of screening. The Substance Use Brief Screen (SUBS) was developed as a brief, self-administered instrument to identify use of tobacco, alcohol, illicit drugs, and non-medical use of prescription drugs, and was previously validated in primary care patients. This study assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the SUBS in comparison to longer screening instruments to identify unhealthy and high-risk alcohol and drug use in hospitalized current smokers. Participants were 439 patients, aged 18 and older, who were admitted to either two urban safety-net hospitals in New York City and enrolled in a smoking cessation trial. We measured the performance of the SUBS for identifying illicit drug and non-medical use of prescription drugs in comparison to a modified Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) and its performance for identifying excessive alcohol use in comparison to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C). At the standard cutoff (response other than 'never' indicates a positive screen), the SUBS had a sensitivity of 98% (95% CI 95-100%) and specificity of 61% (95% CI 55-67%) for unhealthy alcohol use, a sensitivity of 85% (95% CI 80-90%) and specificity of 75% (95% CI 78-87%) for illicit drug use, and a sensitivity of 73% (95% CI 61-83%) and specificity of 83% (95% CI 78-87%) for prescription drug non-medical use. For identifying high-risk use, a higher cutoff (response of '3 or more days' of use indicates a positive screen), the SUBS retained high sensitivity (77-90%), and specificity was 62-88%. The SUBS can be considered as an alternative to longer screening instruments, which may fit more easily into busy inpatient settings. Further study is needed to evaluate its validity using gold standard measures in hospitalized populations.
Project description:Brief interventions aimed at reducing alcohol use among youth may interrupt a possible developmental progression to more serious substance use if they can also affect the use of other illicit drugs. This meta-analysis examined the findings of recent research on the effects of brief alcohol interventions for adolescents and young adults on both alcohol and illicit drug use. Eligible studies were those using randomized or controlled quasi-experimental designs to examine the effects of brief alcohol interventions on illicit drug use outcomes among youth. A comprehensive literature search identified 30 eligible study samples that, on average, included participants age 17, with 57 % male participants and 56 % White youth. Three-level random-effects meta-analyses were used to estimate mean effect sizes and explore variability in effects. Overall, brief interventions targeting both alcohol and other drugs were effective in reducing both of these substances. However, the brief interventions that targeted only alcohol had no significant secondary effects on untargeted illicit drug use. The evidence from current research, therefore, shows modest beneficial effects on outcomes that are targeted by brief interventions for youth, but does not show that those effects generalize to untargeted illicit drug use outcomes.