Posttranslational negative regulation of glycosylated and non-glycosylated BCRP expression by Derlin-1.
ABSTRACT: Human breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)/MXR/ABCG2 is a well-recognized ABC half-transporter that is highly expressed at the apical membrane of many normal tissues and cancer cells. BCRP facilitates disposition of endogenous and exogenous harmful xenobiotics to protect cells/tissues from xenobiotic-induced toxicity. Despite the enormous impact of BCRP in the physiological and pathophysiological regulation of the transport of a wide variety of substrates, little is known about the factors that regulate posttranslational expression of BCRP. Here, we identified Derlin-1, a member of a family of proteins that bears homology to yeast Der1p, as a posttranslational regulator of BCRP expression. Overexpression of Derlin-1 suppressed ER to Golgi transport of wild-type (WT) BCRP that is known to be efficiently trafficked to the plasma membrane. On the other hand, protein expression of N596Q variant of BCRP, N-linked glycosylation-deficient mutant that preferentially undergoes ubiquitin-mediated ER-associated degradation (ERAD), was strongly suppressed by the overexpression of Derlin-1, whereas knockdown of Derlin-1 stabilized N596Q protein, suggesting a negative regulatory role of Derlin-1 for N596Q protein expression. Notably, knockdown of Derlin-1 also stabilized the expression of tunicamycin-induced deglycosylated WT BCRP protein, implying the importance of glycosylation state for the recognition of BCRP by Derlin-1. Thus, our data demonstrate that Derlin-1 is a negative regulator for both glycosylated and non-glycosylated BCRP expression and provide a novel posttranslational regulatory mechanism of BCRP by Derlin-1.
Project description:Polypeptides that fail to pass quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are dislocated from the ER membrane to the cytosol where they are degraded by the proteasome. Derlin-1, a member of a family of proteins that bears homology to yeast Der1p, was identified as a factor that is required for the human cytomegalovirus US11-mediated dislocation of class I MHC heavy chains from the ER membrane to the cytosol. Derlin-1 acts in concert with the AAA ATPase p97 to remove dislocation substrate proteins from the ER membrane, but it is unknown whether other factors aid Derlin-1 in its function. Mammalian genomes encode two additional, related proteins (Derlin-2 and Derlin-3). The similarity of the mammalian Derlin-2 and Derlin-3 proteins to yeast Der1p suggested that these as-yet-uncharacterized Derlins also may play a role in ER protein degradation. We demonstrate here that Derlin-2 is an ER-resident protein that, similar to Derlin-1, participates in the degradation of proteins from the ER. Furthermore, we show that Derlin-2 forms a robust multiprotein complex with the p97 AAA ATPase as well as the mammalian orthologs of the yeast Hrd1p/Hrd3p ubiquitin-ligase complex. The data presented here define a set of interactions between proteins involved in dislocation of misfolded polypeptides from the ER.
Project description:BACKGROUND:T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain containing 3 protein (Tim-3) expressed on terminally differentiated Th1 cells plays a suppressive role in Th1-mediated immune responses. Recently, it has been shown that N-glycosylation affects the binding activity of the Tim-3-Ig fusion protein to its ligand, galectin-9, but the binding properties of non-glycosylated Tim-3 on CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells has not been fully examined. In this study, we produced recombinant Tim-3-Ig fusion proteins in different cellular sources and its N-glycosylation mutant forms to evaluate their binding activities to CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells. METHODS:We isolated and cloned Tim-3 cDNA from BALB/C mouse splenocytes. Then, we constructed a mammalian expression vector and a prokaryotic expression vector for the Tim-3-Ig fusion protein. Using a site directed mutagenesis method, plasmid vectors for Tim-3-Ig N-glycosylation mutant expression were produced. The recombinant protein was purified by protein A sepharose column chromatography. The binding activity of Tim-3-Ig fusion protein to CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells was analyzed using flow cytometry. RESULTS:We found that the nonglycosylated Tim-3-Ig fusion proteins expressed in bacteria bound to CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells similarly to the glycosylated Tim-3-Ig protein produced in CHO cells. Further, three N-glycosylation mutant forms (N53Q, N100Q, N53/100Q) of Tim-3-Ig showed similar binding activities to those of wild type glycosylated Tim-3-Ig. CONCLUSION:Our results suggest that N-glycosylation of Tim-3 may not affect its binding activity to ligands expressed on CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells.
Project description:Proteins that are unfolded or misfolded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) must be refolded or degraded to maintain the homeostasis of the ER. Components of both productive folding and ER-associated degradation (ERAD) mechanisms are known to be up-regulated by the unfolded protein response (UPR). We describe two novel components of mammalian ERAD, Derlin-2 and -3, which show weak homology to Der1p, a transmembrane protein involved in yeast ERAD. Both Derlin-2 and -3 are up-regulated by the UPR, and at least Derlin-2 is a target of the IRE1 branch of the response, which is known to up-regulate ER degradation enhancing alpha-mannosidase-like protein (EDEM) and EDEM2, receptor-like molecules for misfolded glycoprotein. Overexpression of Derlin-2 or -3 accelerated degradation of misfolded glycoprotein, whereas their knockdown blocked degradation. Derlin-2 and -3 are associated with EDEM and p97, a cytosolic ATPase responsible for extraction of ERAD substrates. These findings indicate that Derlin-2 and -3 provide the missing link between EDEM and p97 in the process of degrading misfolded glycoproteins.
Project description:Glycan staining of purified flagellin from Listeria monocytogenes serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, 1/2c, and 4b suggested that the flagellin protein from this organism is glycosylated. Mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that the flagellin protein of L. monocytogenes is posttranslationally modified with O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) at up to six sites/monomer. The sites of glycosylation are all located in the central, surface-exposed region of the protein monomer. Immunoblotting with a monoclonal antibody specific for beta-O-linked GlcNAc confirmed that the linkage was in the beta configuration, this residue being a posttranslational modification commonly observed in eukaryote nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins.
Project description:All mucins are highly O-glycosylated by variable glycans depending on species, histoblood group and organ. This makes the intestinal main mucin MUC2 non-degradable by the host digestive system but well by both commensal and pathogenic bacteria. The MUC2 glycans are important for selection of the commensal bacteria and act as a nutritional source for the bacteria; this also helps the host to recover some of the energy spent on constantly renewing the protective mucus layer. Glycosylation is the most diverse and common posttranslational modification of cell surfaces and secreted proteins. N-Glycosylation is most well studied and predictable, whereas O-glycosylation is more diverse and less well understood. O-Glycosylation is also often called mucin-type glycosylation as it is typical for mucins that often have more than 80% of the mass as O-glycans. This review will discuss the mucin-type O-glycosylation and especially the O-glycosylation of human and mice intestinal mucin MUC2 in relation to bacteria and disease.
Project description:Immunotherapies targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) immune checkpoints represent a major breakthrough in cancer treatment. PD-1 is an inhibitory receptor expressed on the surface of activated T cells that dampens T-cell receptor (TCR)/CD28 signaling by engaging with its ligand PD-L1 expressed on cancer cells. Despite the clinical success of PD-1 blockade using mAbs, most patients do not respond to the treatment, and the underlying regulatory mechanisms of PD-1 remain incompletely defined. Here we show that PD-1 is extensively N-glycosylated in T cells and the intensities of its specific glycoforms are altered upon TCR activation. Glycosylation was critical for maintaining PD-1 protein stability and cell surface localization. Glycosylation of PD-1, especially at the N58 site, was essential for mediating its interaction with PD-L1. The mAb STM418 specifically targeted glycosylated PD-1, exhibiting higher binding affinity to PD-1 than FDA-approved PD-1 antibodies, potently inhibiting PD-L1/PD-1 binding, and enhancing antitumor immunity. Together, these findings provide novel insights into the functional significance of PD-1 glycosylation and offer a rationale for targeting glycosylated PD-1 as a potential strategy for immunotherapy. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that glycosylation of PD-1 is functionally significant and targeting glycosylated PD-1 may serve as a means to improve immunotherapy response.
Project description:The vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP) is a secreted viral protein that binds the C3b and C4b complement components and inhibits the classic and alternative complement pathways. Previously, we reported that an attenuated smallpox vaccine, LC16m8, which was derived from the Lister strain of vaccinia virus (VV-Lister), expressed a glycosylated form of VCP, whereas published sequence data at that time indicated that the VV-Lister VCP has no motif for N-linked glycosylation. We were interested in determining whether the glycosylation of VCP impairs its biological activity, possibly contributing to the attenuation of LC16m8, and the likely origin of the glycosylated VCP. Expression analysis indicated that VV-Lister contains substrains expressing glycosylated VCP and substrains expressing nonglycosylated VCP. Other strains of smallpox vaccine, as well as laboratory strains of vaccinia virus, all expressed nonglycosylated VCP. Individual Lister virus clones expressing either the glycosylated VCP or the nonglycosylated species were isolated, and partially purified VCP from the isolates were found to be functional equivalents in binding human C3b and C4b complement proteins and inhibiting hemolysis and in immunogenicity. Recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing FLAG-tagged glycosylated VCP (FLAG-VCPg) and nonglycosylated VCP (FLAG-VCP) were constructed based on the Western Reserve strain. Purified FLAG-VCP and FLAG-VCPg bind human C3b and C4b and blocked complement-mediated hemolysis. Our data suggest that glycosylation did not affect the biological activity of VCP and thus may not have contributed to the attenuation of LC16m8. In addition, the LC16m8 virus likely originated from a substrain of VV-Lister that expresses glycosylated VCP.
Project description:Nucleocytosolic and secreted proteins are commonly glycosylated. However, reports of glycosylated mitochondrial proteins are rare. Using lectin chromatography on bovine heart, we detected low-abundance glycoforms of nuclear-encoded proteins with well-established mitochondrial function: pyruvate dehydrogenase E1?, NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 3, ADP/ATP translocase, ATP synthase d and oligomycin sensitivity-conferring protein. Notably, the latter two have been previously detected at the plasma membrane. Our findings indicate that glycosylation of classic mitochondrial proteins may be more common than previously appreciated. We discuss the implication that glycosylation could represent an unexplored mechanism for regulating these proteins' functions within mitochondria or at extra-mitochondrial locations.
Project description:The characterization of glycosylation is required for many protein therapeutics. The emergence of antibody and antibody-like molecules with multiple glycan attachment sites has rendered glycan analysis increasingly more complicated. Reliance on site-specific glycopeptide analysis is therefore necessary to fully analyze multi-glycosylated biotherapeutics. Established glycopeptide methodologies have generally utilized a priori knowledge of the glycosylation states of the investigated protein(s), database searching of results generated from data-dependent liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry workflows, and extracted ion quantitation of the individual identified species. However, the inherent complexity of glycosylation makes predicting all glycoforms on all glycosylation sites extremely challenging, if not impossible. That is, only the "knowns" are assessed. Here, we describe an agnostic methodology to qualitatively and quantitatively assess both "known" and "unknown" site-specific glycosylation for biotherapeutics that contain multiple glycosylation sites. The workflow uses data-independent, all ion fragmentation to generate glycan oxonium ions, which are then extracted across the entirety of the chromatographic timeline to produce a glycan-specific "fingerprint" of the glycoprotein sample. We utilized both HexNAc and sialic acid oxonium ion profiles to quickly assess the presence of Fab glycosylation in a therapeutic monoclonal antibody, as well as for high-throughput comparisons of multi-glycosylated protein drugs derived from different clones to a reference product. An automated method was created to rapidly assess oxonium profiles between samples, and to provide a quantitative assessment of similarity.
Project description:Protein glycosylation provides proteomic diversity in regulating protein localization, stability, and activity; it remains largely unknown whether the sugar moiety contributes to immunosuppression. In the study of immune receptor glycosylation, we showed that EGF induces programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and receptor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) interaction, requiring ?-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase (B3GNT3) expression in triple-negative breast cancer. Downregulation of B3GNT3 enhances cytotoxic T cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity. A monoclonal antibody targeting glycosylated PD-L1 (gPD-L1) blocks PD-L1/PD-1 interaction and promotes PD-L1 internalization and degradation. In addition to immune reactivation, drug-conjugated gPD-L1 antibody induces a potent cell-killing effect as well as a bystander-killing effect on adjacent cancer cells lacking PD-L1 expression without any detectable toxicity. Our work suggests targeting protein glycosylation as a potential strategy to enhance immune checkpoint therapy.