Crystal structures of the L1, L2, N, and O states of pharaonis halorhodopsin.
ABSTRACT: Halorhodopsin from Natronomonas pharaonis (pHR) functions as a light-driven halide ion pump. In the presence of halide ions, the photochemical reaction of pHR is described by the scheme: K? L1 ? L2 ? N ? O ? pHR' ? pHR. Here, we report light-induced structural changes of the pHR-bromide complex observed in the C2 crystal. In the L1-to-L2 transition, the bromide ion that initially exists in the extracellular vicinity of retinal moves across the retinal Schiff base. Upon the formation of the N state with a bromide ion bound to the cytoplasmic vicinity of the retinal Schiff base, the cytoplasmic half of helix F moves outward to create a water channel in the cytoplasmic interhelical space, whereas the extracellular half of helix C moves inward. During the transition from N to an N-like reaction state with retinal assuming the 13-cis/15-syn configuration, the translocated bromide ion is released into the cytoplasmic medium. Subsequently, helix F relaxes into its original conformation, generating the O state. Anion uptake from the extracellular side occurs when helix C relaxes into its original conformation. These structural data provide insight into the structural basis of unidirectional anion transport.
Project description:Halorhodopsin from Natronomonas pharaonis (pHR), a retinylidene protein that functions as a light-driven chloride ion pump, is converted into a proton pump in the presence of azide ion. To clarify this conversion, we investigated light-induced structural changes in pHR using a C2 crystal that was prepared in the presence of Cl(-) and subsequently soaked in a solution containing azide ion. When the pHR-azide complex was illuminated at pH 9, a profound outward movement (?4 Å) of the cytoplasmic half of helix F was observed in a subunit with the EF loop facing an open space. This movement created a long water channel between the retinal Schiff base and the cytoplasmic surface, along which a proton could be transported. Meanwhile, the middle moiety of helix C moved inward, leading to shrinkage of the primary anion-binding site (site I), and the azide molecule in site I was expelled out to the extracellular medium. The results suggest that the cytoplasmic half of helix F and the middle moiety of helix C act as different types of valves for active proton transport.
Project description:Bacteriorhodopsin is a light-driven proton pump in halobacteria that forms crystalline patches in the cell membrane. Isomerization of the bound retinal initiates a photocycle resulting in the extrusion of a proton. An electron crystallographic analysis of the N intermediate from the mutant F219L gives a three-dimensional view of the large conformational change that occurs on the cytoplasmic side after deprotonation of the retinal Schiff base. Helix F, together with helix E, tilts away from the center of the molecule, causing a shift of approximately 3 A at the EF loop. The top of helix G moves slightly toward the ground state location of helix F. These movements open a water-accessible channel in the protein, enabling the transfer of a proton from an aspartate residue to the Schiff base. The movement of helix F toward neighbors in the crystal lattice is so large that it would not allow all molecules to change conformation simultaneously, limiting the occupancy of this state in the membrane to 33%. This explains photocooperative phenomena in the purple membrane.
Project description:The transmembrane pump halorhodopsin in halophilic archaea translocates chloride ions from the extracellular to the cytoplasmic side upon illumination. In the ground state a tightly bound chloride ion occupies the primary chloride-binding site (CBS I) close to the protonated Schiff base that links the retinal chromophore to the protein. The light-triggered trans-cis isomerization of retinal causes structural changes in the protein associated with movement of the chloride ion. In reverse, chemical depletion of CBS I in Natronomonas pharaonis halorhodopsin (NpHR) through deprotonation of the Schiff base results in conformational changes of the protein: a state thought to mimic late stages of the photocycle. Here, crystals of Halobacterium salinarum halorhodopsin (HsHR) were soaked at high pH to provoke deprotonation of the Schiff base and loss of chloride. The crystals changed colour from purple to yellow and the occupancy of CBS I was reduced from 1 to about 0.5. In contrast to NpHR, this chloride depletion did not cause substantial conformational changes in the protein. Nevertheless, two observations indicate that chloride depletion could eventually result in structural changes similar to those found in NpHR. Firstly, the partially chloride-depleted form of HsHR has increased normalized B factors in the region of helix C that is close to CBS I and changes its conformation in NpHR. Secondly, prolonged soaking of HsHR crystals at high pH resulted in loss of diffraction. In conclusion, the conformation of the chloride-free protein may not be compatible with this crystal form of HsHR despite a packing arrangement that hardly restrains helices E and F that presumably move during ion transport.
Project description:Rhodopsin is a highly specialized G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is activated by the rapid photochemical isomerization of its covalently bound 11-cis-retinal chromophore. Using two-dimensional solid-state NMR spectroscopy, we defined the position of the retinal in the active metarhodopsin II intermediate. Distance constraints were obtained between amino acids in the retinal binding site and specific (13)C-labeled sites located on the beta-ionone ring, polyene chain, and Schiff base end of the retinal. We show that the retinal C20 methyl group rotates toward the second extracellular loop (EL2), which forms a cap on the retinal binding site in the inactive receptor. Despite the trajectory of the methyl group, we observed an increase in the C20-Gly(188) (EL2) distance consistent with an increase in separation between the retinal and EL2 upon activation. NMR distance constraints showed that the beta-ionone ring moves to a position between Met(207) and Phe(208) on transmembrane helix H5. Movement of the ring toward H5 was also reflected in increased separation between the Cepsilon carbons of Lys(296) (H7) and Met(44) (H1) and between Gly(121) (H3) and the retinal C18 methyl group. Helix-helix interactions involving the H3-H5 and H4-H5 interfaces were also found to change in the formation of metarhodopsin II reflecting increased retinal-protein interactions in the region of Glu(122) (H3) and His(211) (H5). We discuss the location of the retinal in metarhodopsin II and its interaction with sequence motifs, which are highly conserved across the pharmaceutically important class A GPCR family, with respect to the mechanism of receptor activation.
Project description:We report the crystal structure of a bromide-bound form of the D85S mutant of bacteriorhodopsin, bR(D85S), a protein that uses light energy rather than ATP to pump halide ions across the cell membrane. Comparison of the structure of the halide-bound and halide-free states reveals that both displacements of individual side-chain positions and concerted helical movements occur on the extracellular side of the protein. Analysis of these structural changes reveals how this ion pump first facilitates ion uptake deep within the cell membrane and then prevents the backward escape of ions later in the pumping cycle. Together with the information provided by structures of intermediate states in the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle, this study also suggests the overall design principles that are necessary for ion pumping.
Project description:In the title compound, [CuBr(C(17)H(20)N(4))]BF(4), the Cu(II) ion is five-coordinated by the four N atoms of the tetra-dentate Schiff base ligand and by one bromide ion, thereby forming a square-pyramidal CuN(4)Br coordination geometry. The dihedral angle between the pyridine rings of the Schiff base is 54.39?(18)°. In the crystal, the components are linked by C-H?F inter-actions.
Project description:Halide ion mobility in metal halide perovskites remains an intriguing phenomenon, influencing their optical and photovoltaic properties. Selective injection of holes through electrochemical anodic bias has allowed us to probe the effect of hole trapping at iodide (0.9 V) and bromide (1.15 V) in mixed halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbBr1.5I1.5) films. Upon trapping holes at the iodide site, the iodide gradually gets expelled from the mixed halide film (as iodine and/or triiodide ion), leaving behind re-formed CH3NH3PbBr3 domains. The weakening of the Pb-I bond following the hole trapping (oxidation of the iodide site) and its expulsion from the lattice in the form of iodine provided further insight into the photoinduced segregation of halide ions in mixed halide perovskite films. Transient absorption spectroscopy revealed that the iodide expulsion process leaves a defect-rich perovskite lattice behind as charge carrier recombination in the re-formed lattice is greatly accelerated. The selective mobility of iodide species provides insight into the photoinduced phase segregation and its implication in the stable operation of perovskite solar cells.
Project description:Attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-FTIR spectroscopy has been widely used to probe protein structural changes under various stimuli, such as light absorption, voltage change, and ligand binding, in aqueous conditions. Time-resolved measurements require a trigger, which can be controlled electronically; therefore, light and voltage changes are suitable. Here we developed a novel, rapid buffer-exchange system for time-resolved ATR-FTIR spectroscopy to monitor the ligand- or ion-binding re-action of a protein. By using the step-scan mode (time resolution; 2.5 ms), we confirmed the completion of the buffer-exchange reaction within ?25 ms; the process was monitored by the infrared absorption change of a nitrate band at 1,350 cm(-1). We also demonstrated the anion-binding reaction of a membrane protein, Natronomonas pharaonis halorhodopsin (pHR), which binds a chloride ion in the initial anion-binding site near the retinal chromophore. The formation of chloride- or nitrate-bound pHR was confirmed by an increase of the retinal absorption band at 1,528 cm(-1). It also should be noted that low sample consumption (?1 µg of protein) makes this new method a powerful technique to understand ligand-protein and ion-protein interactions, particularly for membrane proteins.
Project description:Active ion transport across membranes is vital to maintaining the electrochemical gradients of ions in cells and is mediated by transmembrane proteins. Halorhodopsin (HR) functions as a light-driven inward pump for chloride ions. The protein contains all-trans-retinal bound to a specific lysine residue through a protonated Schiff base. Interaction between the bound chloride ion and the protonated Schiff base is crucial for ion transport because chloride ion movement is driven by the flipping of the protonated Schiff base upon photoisomerization. However, it remains unknown how this interaction evolves in the HR photocycle. Here, we addressed the effect of the bound anion on the structure and dynamics of HR from Natronomonas pharaonis in the early stage of the photocycle. Comparison of the chloride-bound, formate-bound, and anion-depleted forms provided insights into the interaction between the bound anion and the chromophore/protein moiety. In the unphotolyzed state, the bound anion affects the ?-conjugation of the polyene chain and the hydrogen bond of the protonated Schiff base of the retinal chromophore. Picosecond time scale measurements showed that the band intensities of the W16 and W18 modes of the tryptophan residues decreased instantaneously upon photoexcitation of the formate-bound form. In contrast, these intensity decreases were delayed for the chloride-bound and anion-depleted forms. These observations suggest the stronger interactions of the bound formate ion with the retinal chromophore and the chromophore pocket. On the nanosecond to microsecond timescales, we found that the interaction between the protonated Schiff base and the bound ion is broken upon formation of the K intermediate and is recovered following translocation of the bound anion toward the protonated Schiff base in the L intermediate. Our results demonstrate that the hydrogen-bonding ability of the bound anion plays an essential role in the ion transport of light-driven anion pumps.
Project description:Opsins are a class of retinal-binding, seven transmembrane helix proteins that function as light-responsive ion pumps or sensory receptors. Previously, genes encoding opsins had been identified in animals and the Archaea but not in fungi or other eukaryotic microorganisms. Here, we report the identification and mutational analysis of an opsin gene, nop-1, from the eukaryotic filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. The nop-1 amino acid sequence predicts a protein that shares up to 81.8% amino acid identity with archaeal opsins in the 22 retinal binding pocket residues, including the conserved lysine residue that forms a Schiff base linkage with retinal. Evolutionary analysis revealed relatedness not only between NOP-1 and archaeal opsins but also between NOP-1 and several fungal opsin-related proteins that lack the Schiff base lysine residue. The results provide evidence for a eukaryotic opsin family homologous to the archaeal opsins, providing a plausible link between archaeal and visual opsins. Extensive analysis of Deltanop-1 strains did not reveal obvious defects in light-regulated processes under normal laboratory conditions. However, results from Northern analysis support light and conidiation-based regulation of nop-1 gene expression, and NOP-1 protein heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris is labeled by using all-trans [3H]retinal, suggesting that NOP-1 functions as a rhodopsin in N. crassa photobiology.