Cholecystectomy vs. percutaneous cholecystostomy for the management of critically ill patients with acute cholecystitis: a protocol for a systematic review.
ABSTRACT: Acute cholecystitis is a common diagnosis. However, the heterogeneity of presentation makes it difficult to standardize management. Although surgery is the mainstay of treatment, critically ill patients have been managed via percutaneous cholecystostomy. However, the role of percutaneous cholecystostomy in the management of such patients has not been clearly established. This systematic review will compare the outcomes of critically ill patients with acute cholecystitis managed with percutaneous cholecystostomy to those of similar patients managed with cholecystectomy.Systematic searches will be conducted across relevant health databases including the Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus using the following keywords: (acute cholecystitis OR severe cholecystitis OR cholecystitis) AND (cholecystectomy OR laparoscopic cholecystectomy OR open cholecystectomy) AND (Cholecystostomy OR percutaneous cholecystectomy OR gallbladder drain OR gallbladder tube OR transhepatic gallbladder drain OR transhepatic gallbladder tube OR cholecystostomy tube). The reference lists of eligible articles will be hand searched. Articles from 2000-2014 will be identified using the key terms "acute cholecystitis, cholecystectomy, and percutaneous cholecystostomy". Studies including both interventions will be included. Relevant data will be extracted from eligible studies using a specially designed data extraction sheet. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale will be used to assess the quality of non-randomized studies. Central tendencies will be reported in terms of means and standard deviations where necessary, and risk ratios will be calculated where possible. All calculations will be performed with a 95 % confidence interval. Furthermore, the Fisher's exact test will be used for the calculation of significance, which will be set at p?
Project description:Diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for acute biliary inflammation/infection (acute cholangitis and acute cholecystitis), according to severity grade, have not yet been established in the world. Therefore we formulated flowcharts for the management of acute biliary inflammation/infection in accordance with severity grade. For mild (grade I) acute cholangitis, medical treatment may be sufficient/appropriate. For moderate (grade II) acute cholangitis, early biliary drainage should be performed. For severe (grade III) acute cholangitis, appropriate organ support such as ventilatory/circulatory management is required. After hemodynamic stabilization is achieved, urgent endoscopic or percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage should be performed. For patients with acute cholangitis of any grade of severity, treatment for the underlying etiology, including endoscopic, percutaneous, or surgical treatment should be performed after the patient's general condition has improved. For patients with mild (grade I) cholecystitis, early laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the preferred treatment. For patients with moderate (grade II) acute cholecystitis, early laparoscopic or open cholecystectomy is preferred. In patients with extensive local inflammation, elective cholecystectomy is recommended after initial management with percutaneous gallbladder drainage and/or cholecystostomy. For the patient with severe (grade III) acute cholecystitis, multiorgan support is a critical part of management. Biliary peritonitis due to perforation of the gallbladder is an indication for urgent cholecystectomy and/or drainage. Delayed elective cholecystectomy may be performed after initial treatment with gallbladder drainage and improvement of the patient's general medical condition.
Project description:Acute cholecystitis is a frequent condition. Although cholecystectomy is the indicated treatment of this entity, it cannot be performed in some high-risk surgery patients, such as critically ill or those with multiple comorbidities. In these non-uncommon scenarios, percutaneous cholecystostomy is the recommended alternative treatment, which allows immediate decompression and drainage of the acutely inflamed gallbladder and thus reducing the patient's symptoms and the systemic inflammatory response. Ultrasound is the imaging method of choice to guide the percutaneous cholecystostomy procedure due to its real-time guidance, lack of ionizing radiation and portability, avoiding the need to transfer unhealthy patients to the radiology department. We will review the ultrasound-guided percutaneous cholecystostomy procedure, of special interest for radiologists, surgeons, and also intensive care and emergency physicians.
Project description:Percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC) tube placement followed by delayed cholecystectomy has been shown to be an effective treatment option in high-risk populations such as older and critically ill patients. The goal of this study was to review the short- and long-term clinical and operative outcomes of patients with acute cholecystitis initially treated with PC tube placement.We conducted a retrospective review of patients who underwent image-guided PC tube insertion between 2001 and 2011 at the Royal University Hospital or St. Paul's Hospital, Saskatoon. Clinical outcomes, complications and elective cholecystectomy follow-up were noted.A total of 140 patients underwent PC tube insertion, 76 men and 64 women with a mean age of 68.4 (standard deviation 17.7) years. Of the 140, 94 (67.1%) had an American Society of Anesthesiologists classification score of III or IV. Percutaneous cholecystostomy tubes remained in place for a median of 21.0 days, and the median hospital stay was 7.0 days. Readmission owing to complications from PC tubes occurred in 21 patients (15.0%), and 10 (7.1%) were readmitted with recurrent cholecystitis after tube removal. Forty-four patients (31.4%) returned for subsequent elective cholecystectomy, of whom 32 (73%) underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy, 4 (9%) underwent open cholecystectomy, and 8 (18%) underwent laparoscopic converted to open cholecystectomy.Percutaneous cholecystostomy is a safe procedure that can be performed in patients who are older or have numerous comorbidities. However, less than one-third of such patients in our cohort subsequently had the definitive intervention of elective cholecystectomy, with a high rate of conversion from laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy.
Project description:The principal management of acute cholecystitis is early cholecystectomy. However, percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage (PTGBD) may be preferable for patients with moderate (grade II) or severe (grade III) acute cholecystitis. For patients with moderate (grade II) disease, PTGBD should be applied only when they do not respond to conservative treatment. For patients with severe (grade III) disease, PTGBD is recommended with intensive care. Percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder aspiration (PTGBA) is a simple alternative drainage method with fewer complications; however, its clinical usefulness has been shown only by case-series studies. To clarify the clinical value of these drainage methods, proper randomized trials should be done. This article describes techniques of drainage for acute cholecystitis.
Project description:Introduction:We report an extremely rare case of acute acalculous cholecystitis on a COVID-19 patient. In our knowledge, this is the first report of laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed on a COVID-19 patient. Presentation of case:A COVID-19 patient was diagnosed with acute acalculous cholecystitis and a multidisciplinary team decided to perform a percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) as the first treatment. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not found in the bile fluid. Because of deterioration of the patient's clinical conditions, laparoscopic cholecystectomy had to be performed and since the gallbladder was gangrenous, the severe inflammation made surgery difficult to perform. Discussion:Acalculous cholecystitis was related with mechanical ventilation and prolonged total parenteral nutrition, in this case the gangrenous histopathology pattern and the gallbladder wall ischemia was probably caused by vascular insufficiency secondary to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome of COVID-19 pneumonia. The percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage (PTBD) was performed according to Tokyo Guidelines because of high surgical risk. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was next performed due to no clinical improvement. The absence of viral RNA in the bile highlights that SARS-CoV-2 is not eliminated with the bile while it probably infects small intestinal enterocytes which is responsible of gastrointestinal symptoms such as anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea. Conclusions:Although the lack of evidence and guidelines about the management of patient with acute cholecystitis during COVID-19 pandemic, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, at most preceded by PTGBD on high surgical risk patients, remains the gold standard for the treatment of acute cholecystitis on COVID-19 patients.
Project description:Acute cholecystitis is a life-threatening emergency in elderly patients. This population-based cohort study aimed to evaluate the commonly used management strategies for elderly patients with acute cholecystitis as well as resulting mortality and re-admission rates.Data from all consecutive elderly patients (≥ 80 years) admitted with acute cholecystitis in England from 1997 to 2012 were captured from the Hospital Episode Statistics database. Influence of management strategies upon mortality was analyzed with adjustment for patient demographics and treatment year.47,500 elderly patients were admitted as an emergency with acute cholecystitis. On the index emergency admission the majority of patients (n = 42,620, 89.7%) received conservative treatment, 3539 (7.5%) had cholecystectomy, and 1341 (2.8%) underwent cholecystostomy. In the short term, 30-day mortality was increased in the emergency cholecystectomy group (11.6%) compared to those managed conservatively (9.9%) (p < 0.001). This was offset by the long-term benefits of cholecystectomy with a reduced 1-year mortality [20.8 vs. 27.1% for those managed conservatively (p < 0.001)]. Management with percutaneous cholecystostomy had increased 30-day and 1-year mortality (13.4 and 35.0%, respectively). The annual proportion of cholecystectomies performed laparoscopically increased from 27% in 2006 to 59% in 2012. Within the cholecystectomy group, laparoscopic approach was an independent predictor of reduced 30-day mortality (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.10-0.25). Following conservative management, there were 16,088 admissions with further cholecystitis. Only 11% of patients initially managed conservatively or with cholecystostomy received subsequent cholecystectomy.Acute cholecystitis is associated with significant mortality in elderly patients. Potential benefits of emergency cholecystectomy in selected elderly patients include reduced rate of readmissions and 1-year mortality. Laparoscopic approach for emergency cholecystectomy was associated with an 84% relative risk reduction in 30-day mortality compared to open surgery.
Project description:Hemorrhagic cholecystitis is a rare cause of abdominal pain that can have dire consequences. We report a case of hemorrhagic cholecystitis in a 51-year-old female presenting as shock and abdominal pain. The patient was transported to the emergency room. Ultrasound scan revealed hemoperitoneum and cholecystitis features. On computed tomography, mild gallbladder wall thickening and high density materials in the gallbladder suggested acute calculous cholecystitis, bleeding tumor, or hemorrhagic cholecystitis. An urgent cystic arterial embolization and percutaneous transhepatic drainage were done. After initial stablization, laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed that revealed a necrotic gallbladder filled with large blood clots. It was important for timely management by having an early recognition of this potentially fatal condition.
Project description:Besides cholecystectomy (CC), percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC) has been recommended for the management of critically ill patients with acute cholecystitis. However, solid evidence on the benefit of PC in this subgroup of patients is lacking.In accordance with the PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews, we systematically searched the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus for relevant studies published between 2000 and 2014. Two investigators independently screened the studies included.Six studies with a total of 337 500 patients (PC 10 045, CC 327 455) were included for meta-analysis. Significant differences in favor of CC were recorded with regard to the rate of mortality (OR 4.28, [1.72 to 10.62], p = 0.0017), length of hospital stay (OR 1.41, [1.02 to 1.95], p = 0.04), and the rate of readmission for biliary complaints (OR 2.16, [1.72 to 2.73], p<0.0001). There was no statistically significant difference between both intervention arms with regard to complications (OR 0.74, [0.36 to 1.53], p = 0.42) and re-interventions (OR 7.69, [0.68 to 87.33], p = 0.10).The benefit of percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC) over cholecystectomy (CC) in the management of critically ill patients with acute cholecystitis could not be proven in this systematic review.
Project description:Although achieving the critical view of safety (CVS) is useful for avoiding vasculobiliary injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), the CVS cannot always be achieved in cases of severe cholecystitis because of technical difficulties. Herein, we focused on segment IV of the liver and its diagonal line (D-line) as a feasible landmark for carrying out difficult LC. The D-line connects the right dorsal and left ventral corners of segment IV and is used as the vectoral landmark, which is where the gallbladder is first dissected to achieve CVS without misidentification. Conversion to subtotal cholecystectomy along the D-line is also feasible when gallbladder wall scarring is severe. We named this procedure the segment IV approach for LC. Sixty-two consecutive difficult LC (including 27 scheduled LC after percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage [PTGBD] and 35 conservatively treated cases of Tokyo Guidelines [TG] grade II cholecystitis) were managed by the segment IV approach. Successful gallbladder extraction along the D-line was achieved in 44 (71%) cases; all of these cases also achieved CVS following total cholecystectomy. The other 18 (29%) cases were converted to subtotal cholecystectomy because gallbladder extraction along the D-line failed as a result of severe cholecystitis with inflammatory adhesion with surrounding structures. Median operative time and intraoperative blood loss were 135 (range, 54-290) min and 10 (range, 0-100) mL, respectively. No intra- or postoperative complications were observed. The segment IV approach is feasible for achieving CVS and for considering subtotal cholecystectomy in difficult LC cases where scarring of the gallbladder wall is present.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Tokyo Guidelines recommend initial cholecystostomy tube drainage, antibiotics, and delayed cholecystectomy in patients with grade III cholecystitis. STUDY DESIGN:We used Medicare data (1996 to 2010) to identify patients 66 years and older who were admitted with grade III acute cholecystitis. We evaluated adherence to the Tokyo Guidelines and compared mortality, readmission, and complication rates with and without cholecystostomy tube placement in a propensity-matched (1:3) cohort of patients with grade III cholecystitis. RESULTS:There were 8,818 patients admitted with grade III cholecystitis; 565 patients (6.4%) had a cholecystostomy tube placed. Cholecystostomy tube placement increased from 3.9% to 9.7% during the study period. Compared with 1,689 propensity-matched controls, patients with cholecystostomy tube placement had higher 30-day (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.26; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.50), 90-day (HR = 1.26; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.46), and 2-year mortality (HR = 1.19; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.36) and were less likely to undergo cholecystectomy in the 2 years after initial hospitalization (33.4% vs 64.4%; HR = 0.26; 95% CI 0.21 to 0.31). Readmissions were also higher at 30 days (HR = 2.93; 95% CI 2.12 to 4.05), 90 days (HR = 3.48; 95% CI 2.60 to 4.64), and 2 years (HR = 3.08; 95% CI 2.87 to 4.90). CONCLUSIONS:Since the introduction of the Tokyo Guidelines (2007), use of cholecystostomy tubes in patients with grade III cholecystitis has increased, but the majority of patients do not get cholecystostomy tube drainage as first-line therapy. Cholecystostomy tube placement was associated with lower rates of definitive treatment with cholecystectomy, higher mortality, and higher readmission rates. These data suggest a need for additional evaluation and refinement of the Tokyo Guidelines.