Botulinum toxin in migraine: Role of transport in trigemino-somatic and trigemino-vascular afferents.
ABSTRACT: Migraine secondary to meningeal input is referred to extracranial regions innervated by somatic afferents that project to homologous regions in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC). Reported efficacy of extracranial botulinum toxin (BoNT) in treating migraine is surprising since a local extracranial effect of BoNT cannot account for its effect upon meningeal input. We hypothesize that intradermal BoNT acts through central transport in somatic afferents. Anesthetized C57Bl/6 mice (male) received unilateral supraorbital (SO) injections of BoNT-B (1.5 U/40 ?l) or saline. 3 days later, mice received ipsilateral (ipsi)-SO capsaicin (20 ?l of 0.5mM solution) or meningeal capsaicin (4 ?l of 0.35 ?M). Pre-treatment with ipsi-SO BoNT-B i) decreased nocicsponsive ipsilateral wiping behavior following ipsi-SO capsaicin; ii) produced cleavage of VAMP in the V1 region of ipsi-TG and in TG neurons showing WGA after SO injection; iii) reduced expression of c-fos in ipsi-TNC following ipsi-SO capsaicin; iv) reduced c-fos activation and NK-1 internalization in ipsi-TNC secondary to ipsi-meningeal capsaicin; and vi) SO WGA did not label dural afferents. We conclude that BoNT-B is taken up by peripheral afferents and transported to central terminals where it inhibits transmitter release resulting in decreased activation of second order neurons. Further, this study supports the hypothesis that SO BoNT exerts a trans-synaptic action on either the second order neuron (which receives convergent input from the meningeal afferent) or the terminal/TG of the converging meningeal afferent.
Project description:Migraine pain represents sensations arising from the activation of trigeminal afferents, which innervate the meningeal vasculature and project to the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC). Pain secondary to meningeal input is referred to extracranial regions innervated by somatic afferents that project to homologous regions in the TNC. Such viscerosomatic convergence accounts for referral of migraine pain arising from meningeal afferents to particular extracranial dermatomes. Botulinum toxins (BoNTs) delivered into extracranial dermatomes are effective in and approved for treating chronic migraine pain. Aside from their well-described effect upon motor endplates, BoNTs are also taken up in local afferent nerve terminals where they cleave soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins, and prevent local terminal release. However, a local extracranial effect of BoNT cannot account for allthe effects of BoNT upon migraine. We now know that peripherally delivered BoNTs are taken up in sensory afferents and transported to cleave SNARE proteins in the ganglion and TNC, prevent evoked afferent release and downstream activation. Such effects upon somatic input (as from the face) likewise would not alone account for block of input from converging meningeal afferents. This current work suggests that BoNTs may undergo transcytosis to cleave SNAREs in second-order neurons or in adjacent afferent terminals. Finally, while SNAREs mediate exocytotic release, they are also involved in transport of channels and receptors involved in facilitated pain states. The role of such post-synaptic effects of BoNT action in migraine remains to be determined.
Project description:The trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNc) receives extensive afferent innervation from peripheral sensory neurons of the trigeminal ganglion (TG), and is the first central relay in the circuitry underpinning orofacial pain. Despite the initial characterization of the neurons in the superficial laminae, many questions remain. Here we report on electrophysiological properties of 535 superficial lamina I/II TNc neurons. Based on their firing pattern, we assigned these cells to five main groups, including (1) tonic, (2) phasic, (3) delayed, (4) H-current, and (5) tonic-phasic neurons, groups that exhibit distinct intrinsic properties and share some similarity with groups identified in the spinal dorsal horn. Driving predominantly nociceptive TG primary afferents using optogenetic stimulation in TRPV1/ChR2 animals, we found that tonic and H-current cells are most likely to receive pure monosynaptic input, whereas delayed neurons are more likely to exhibit inputs that appear polysynaptic. Finally, for the first time in TNc neurons, we used unsupervised clustering analysis methods and found that the kinetics of the action potentials and other intrinsic properties of these groups differ significantly from one another. Unsupervised spectral clustering based solely on a single voltage response to rheobase current was sufficient to group cells with shared properties independent of action potential discharge pattern, indicating that this approach can be effectively applied to identify functional neuronal subclasses. Together, our data illustrate that cells in the TNc with distinct patterns of TRPV1/ChR2 afferent innervation are physiologically diverse, but can be understood as a few major groups of cells having shared functional properties.
Project description:To better understand the mechanisms through which non-painful and painful stimuli evoke behavior, new resources to dissect the complex circuits engaged by subsets of primary afferent neurons are required. This is especially true to understand the consequences of injury, when reorganization of central nervous system circuits likely contributes to the persistence of pain. Here we describe a transgenic mouse line (ZWX) in which there is Cre-recombinase-dependent expression of a transneuronal tracer, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), in primary somatic or visceral afferent neurons, but only after transection of their peripheral axons. The latter requirement allows for both regional and temporal control of tracer expression, even in the adult. Using a variety of Cre lines to target WGA transport to subpopulations of sensory neurons, here we demonstrate the extent to which myelinated and unmyelinated "pain" fibers (nociceptors) engage different spinal cord circuits. We found significant convergence (i.e., manifest as WGA-transneuronal labeling) of unmyelinated afferents, including the TRPV1-expressing subset, and myelinated afferents to NK1-receptor-expressing neurons of lamina I. By contrast, PKCgamma interneurons of inner lamina II only receive a myelinated afferent input. This differential distribution of WGA labeling in the spinal cord indicates that myelinated and unmyelinated sensory neurons target different and spatially segregated populations of postsynaptic neurons. On the other hand, we show that neurons of deeper laminae (III-V) receive direct (i.e., monosynaptic) inputs from myelinated afferents and polysynaptic input from unmyelinated afferents. Taken together, our results indicate that peripheral sensory information is transmitted to the central nervous system both through segregated and convergent pathways.
Project description:We previously showed that extracellular ATP and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a recently discovered gasotransmitter, are both triggering the nociceptive firing in trigeminal nociceptors implicated in migraine pain. ATP contributes to meningeal nociception by activating the P2X3 subunit-containing receptors whereas H2S operates mainly via TRP receptors. However, H2S was also proposed as a neuroprotective and anti-nociceptive agent. This study aimed to test the effect of H2S on ATP-mediated nociceptive responses in rat meningeal afferents and trigeminal neurons and on ATP-induced degranulation of dural mast cells. Electrophysiological recording of trigeminal nerve activity in meninges was supplemented by patch-clamp and calcium imaging studies of isolated trigeminal neurons. The H2S donor NaHS induced a mild activation of afferents and fully suppressed the subsequent ATP-induced firing of meningeal trigeminal nerve fibers. This anti-nociceptive effect of H2S was specific as an even stronger effect of capsaicin did not abolish the action of ATP. In isolated trigeminal neurons, NaHS decreased the inward currents and calcium transients evoked by activation of ATP-gated P2X3 receptors. Moreover, NaHS prevented ATP-induced P2X7 receptor-mediated degranulation of meningeal mast cells which emerged as triggers of migraine pain. Finally, NaHS decreased the concentration of extracellular ATP in the meningeal preparation. Thus, H2S exerted the multiple protective actions against the nociceptive effects of ATP. These data highlight the novel pathways to reduce purinergic mechanisms of migraine with pharmacological donors or by stimulation production of endogenous H2S.
Project description:Localized neuropathic pain can be relieved following the topical application of high-concentration capsaicin. This clinical effect is thought to be related to the temporary desensitization of capsaicin- and heat-sensitive epidermal nociceptors. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the changes in thermal sensitivity induced by high-concentration topical capsaicin can be explained entirely by desensitization of capsaicin-sensitive afferents. For this purpose, we characterized, in 20 healthy human volunteers, the time course and spatial extent of the changes in sensitivity to thermal stimuli preferentially activating heat-sensitive A-fiber nociceptors, heat-sensitive C-fiber afferents, and cool-sensitive A-fiber afferents. The volar forearm was treated with a high-concentration capsaicin patch for 1 h. Transient heat, warm and cold stimuli designed to activate A?- and C-fiber thermonociceptors, C-fiber warm receptors, and A?-fiber cold receptors were applied to the skin before and after treatment at days 1, 3, and 7. Reaction times, intensity ratings, and quality descriptors were collected. The stimuli were applied both within the capsaicin-treated skin and around the capsaicin-treated skin to map the changes in thermal sensitivity. We found that topical capsaicin selectively impairs heat sensitivity without any concomitant changes in cold sensitivity. Most interestingly, we observed a differential effect on the sensitivity to thermal inputs conveyed by A?- and C-fibers. Reduced sensitivity to A?-fiber-mediated heat was restricted to the capsaicin-treated skin, whereas reduced sensitivity to C-fiber-mediated heat extended well beyond the treated skin. Moreover, the time course of the reduced sensitivity to C-fiber-mediated input was more prolonged than the reduced sensitivity to A?-fiber-mediated input.
Project description:Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a well-established member of the gasotransmitter family, is involved in a variety of physiological functions, including pro-nociceptive action in the sensory system. Although several reports have shown that H2S activates sensory neurons, the molecular targets of H2S action in trigeminal (TG) nociception, implicated in migraine, remains controversial. In this study, using suction electrode recordings, we investigate the effect of the H2S donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), on nociceptive firing in rat meningeal TG nerve fibers. The effect of NaHS was also explored with patch-clamp and calcium imaging techniques on isolated TG neurons. NaHS dramatically increased the nociceptive firing in TG nerve fibers. This effect was abolished by the TRPV1 inhibitor capsazepine but was partially prevented by the TRPA1 blocker HC 030031. In a fraction of isolated TG neurons, NaHS transiently increased amplitude of capsaicin-induced currents. Moreover, NaHS by itself induced inward currents in sensory neurons, which were abolished by the TRPV1 inhibitor capsazepine suggesting involvement of TRPV1 receptors. In contrast, the inhibitor of TRPA1 receptors HC 030031 did not prevent the NaHS-induced currents. Imaging of a large population of TG neurons revealed that NaHS induced calcium transients in 41% of tested neurons. Interestingly, this effect of NaHS in some neurons was inhibited by the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine whereas in others it was sensitive to the TRPA1 blocker HC 030031. Our data suggest that both TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors play a role in the pro-nociceptive action of NaHS in peripheral TG nerve endings in meninges and in somas of TG neurons. We propose that activation of TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors by H2S during neuro-inflammation conditions contributes to the nociceptive firing in primary afferents underlying migraine pain.
Project description:Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A), the most toxic, naturally occurring protein, cleaves synapse-associated protein of 25 kDa and inhibits acetylcholine release from motor nerve endings (MNEs). This leads to paralysis of skeletal muscles. Our study demonstrates that capsaicin protects mouse neuromuscular junctions from the neuroparalytic effects of BoNT/A. Bilateral injection of BoNT/A near the innervation of the Extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of adult Swiss-Webster mice inhibited the toe spread reflex (TSR). However, when capsaicin was coinjected bilaterally, or injected 4 or 8 h before injecting BoNT/A, the TSR remained normal. In animals that were pretreated with capsazepine, capsaicin failed to protect against the neuroparalytic effects of BoNT/A. In vivo analyses demonstrated that capsaicin protected muscle functions and electromygraphic activity from the incapacitating effects of BoNT/A. The twitch response to nerve stimulation was greater for EDL preparations isolated from mice injected with capsaicin before BoNT/A. Capsaicin pretreatment also prevented the inhibitory effects of BoNT/A on end-plate currents. Furthermore, pretreatment of Neuro 2a cells with capsaicin significantly preserved labeling of synaptic vesicles by FM 1-43. This protective effect of capsaicin was observed only in the presence of extracellular Ca(2+) and was inhibited by capsazepine. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that MNEs express transient receptor potential protein of the vanilloid subfamily, TRPV1, the capsaicin receptor. Capsaicin pretreatment, in vitro, reduced nerve stimulation or KCl-induced uptake of BoNT/A into motor nerve endings and cholinergic Neuro 2a cells. These data demonstrate that capsaicin interacts with TRPV1 receptors on MNEs to reduce BoNT/A uptake via a Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:The mechanism of the anti-migraine action of extracts of butterbur [Petasites hybridus (L.) Gaertn.] is unknown. Here, we investigated the ability of isopetasin, a major constituent of these extracts, to specifically target TRPA1 channel and to affect functional responses relevant to migraine. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:Single-cell calcium imaging and patch-clamp recordings in human and rodent TRPA1-expressing cells, neurogenic motor responses in rodent isolated urinary bladder, release of CGRP from mouse spinal cord in vitro and facial rubbing in mice and meningeal blood flow in rats were examined. KEY RESULTS:Isopetasin induced (i) calcium responses and currents in rat/mouse trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons and in cells expressing the human TRPA1, (ii) substance P-mediated contractions of rat isolated urinary bladders and (iii) CGRP release from mouse dorsal spinal cord, responses that were selectively abolished by genetic deletion or pharmacological antagonism of TRPA1 channels. Pre-exposure to isopetasin produced marked desensitization of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, TRPA1 channel agonist)- or capsaicin (TRPV1 channel agonist)-evoked currents in rat TG neurons, contractions of rat or mouse bladder and CGRP release from mouse central terminals of primary sensory neurons. Repeated intragastric administration of isopetasin attenuated mouse facial rubbing, evoked by local AITC or capsaicin, and dilation of rat meningeal arteries by acrolein or ethanol (TRPA1 and TRPV1 channel agonists respectively). CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS:Activation of TRPA1 channels by isopetasin results in excitation of neuropeptide-containing nociceptors, followed by marked heterologous neuronal desensitization. Such atten uation in pain and neurogenic inflammation may account for the anti-migraine action of butterbur.
Project description:Orofacial pain and headache disorders are among the most debilitating pain conditions. While the pathophysiological basis of these disorders may be diverse, it is generally accepted that a common mechanism behind the arising pain is the sensitization of extra- and intracranial trigeminal primary afferents. In the present study we investigated gene expression changes in the trigeminal ganglia (TRG), trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) evoked by Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced orofacial inflammation in rats, as a model of trigeminal sensitization. Microarray analysis revealed 512 differentially expressed genes between the ipsi- and contralateral TRG samples 7 days after CFA injection. Time-dependent expression changes of G-protein coupled receptor 39 (Gpr39), kisspeptin-1 receptor (Kiss1r), kisspeptin (Kiss1), as well as synaptic plasticity-associated Lkaaear1 (Lkr) and Neurod2 mRNA were described on the basis of qPCR results. The greatest alterations were observed on day 3 ipsilaterally, when orofacial mechanical allodynia reached its maximum. This corresponded well with patterns of neuronal (Fosb), microglia (Iba1), and astrocyte (Gfap) activation markers in both TRG and TNC, and interestingly also in PBMCs. This is the first description of up- and downregulated genes both in primary and secondary sensory neurones of the trigeminovascular system that might play important roles in neuroinflammatory activation mechanisms. We are the first to show transcriptomic alterations in the PBMCs that are similar to the neuronal changes. These results open new perspectives and initiate further investigations in the research of trigeminal pain disorders.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Predicting the possibility of ipsilateral lateral cervical lymph node metastasis (ipsi-LLNM) was crucial to the operation plan for patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). This study aimed to investigate the independent risk factors for ipsi-LLNM in PTC patients by combining dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) with thyroid function indicators.<h4>Methods</h4>We retrospectively enrolled 406 patients with a pathological diagnosis of PTC from Jan 2016 to Dec 2019. Ensure the DECT images were clear and the thyroid function indicators were complete. Univariate and multivariate logistic analyses explored the independent risk factors for ipsi-LLNM. To evaluate the cutoff value of each risk factor by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 406 patients with PTC were analyzed, including 128 with ipsi-LLNM and 278 without ipsi-LLNM. There were statistical differences of parameters between the two groups (P?<?.0001), including serum Tg, Anti-Tg, Anti-TPO, the volume of the primary lesion, calcification, extrathyroidal extension (ETE), and iodine concentration (IC) in the arterial and the venous phases. Independent risk factors for ipsi-LLNM included serum Tg, Anti-Tg, ETE, and IC in the arterial and the venous phases (P?<?.05). The combined application of the above independent risk factors can predict the possibility of ipsi-LLNM, with an AUC of 0.834. Ipsi-LLNM was more likely to occur when the following conditions were met: with ETE, Tg?>? 100.01?ng/mL, Anti-Tg?>? 89.43?IU/mL, IC in arterial phase >?3.4?mg/mL and IC in venous phase >?3.1?mg/mL.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The combined application of DECT quantitative parameters and thyroid function indicators can help clinicians accurately predict ipsi-LLNM before surgery, thereby assisting the individualized formulation of surgical procedures.