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The messenger RNA decapping and recapping pathway in Trypanosoma.

ABSTRACT: The 5' terminus of trypanosome mRNA is protected by a hypermethylated cap 4 derived from spliced leader (SL) RNA. Trypanosoma brucei nuclear capping enzyme with cap guanylyltransferase and methyltransferase activities (TbCgm1) modifies the 5'-diphosphate RNA (ppRNA) end to generate an m7G SL RNA cap. Here we show that T. brucei cytoplasmic capping enzyme (TbCe1) is a bifunctional 5'-RNA kinase and guanylyltransferase that transfers a ?-phosphate from ATP to pRNA to form ppRNA, which is then capped by transfer of GMP from GTP to the RNA ?-phosphate. A Walker A-box motif in the N-terminal domain is essential for the RNA kinase activity and is targeted preferentially to a SL RNA sequence with a 5'-terminal methylated nucleoside. Silencing of TbCe1 leads to accumulation of uncapped mRNAs, consistent with selective capping of mRNA that has undergone trans-splicing and decapping. We identify T. brucei mRNA decapping enzyme (TbDcp2) that cleaves m7GDP from capped RNA to generate pRNA, a substrate for TbCe1. TbDcp2 can also remove GDP from unmethylated capped RNA but is less active at a mature cap 4 end and thus may function in RNA cap quality surveillance. Our results establish the enzymology and relevant protein catalysts of a cytoplasmic recapping pathway that has broad implications for the functional reactivation of processed mRNA ends.

SUBMITTER: Ignatochkina AV 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC4460440 | BioStudies | 2015-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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