Pubertal assessment method and baseline characteristics in a mixed longitudinal study of girls.
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to describe the assessment methods and maturation status for a multisite cohort of girls at baseline recruitment and at ages 7 and 8 years.The method for pubertal maturation staging was developed collaboratively across 3 sites. Girls at ages 6 to 8 years were recruited at 3 sites: East Harlem, New York; greater Cincinnati metropolitan area; and San Francisco Bay area, California. Baseline characteristics were obtained through interviews with caregivers and anthropometric measurements by trained examiners; breast stage 2 was defined as onset of pubertal maturation. The kappa statistic was used to evaluate agreement between master trainers and examiners. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors that are associated with pubertal maturation and linear regression models to examine factors that are associated with height velocity.The baseline cohort included 1239 girls. The proportion of girls who had attained breast stage 2 varied by age, race/ethnicity, BMI percentile, and site. At 7 years, 10.4% of white, 23.4% of black non-Hispanic, and 14.9% of Hispanic girls had attained breast stage>or=2; at 8 years, 18.3%, 42.9%, and 30.9%, respectively, had attained breast stage>or=2. The prime determinant of height velocity was pubertal status.In this multisite study, there was substantial agreement regarding pubertal staging between examiners across sites. The proportion of girls who had breast development at ages 7 and 8 years, particularly among white girls, is greater than that reported from studies of girls who were born 10 to 30 years earlier.
Project description:This study aimed to describe the timing and patterns of pubertal maturation of girls living in rural Bangladesh. Starting in September 2015, a total of 15,320 girls from a birth cohort, aged 9 to 15 years at initial encounter, were visited twice at about a one year interval, typically in their birth month. Participants were asked to self-report extent of pubertal maturation, including breast development, pubic hair growth and age at menarche, if applicable. Pubertal stage (abbreviated as B2 and B3-4 for breast development and PH2 and PH3-4 for pubic hair growth) was assigned. Data from both visits were pooled, yielding a total of 29,377 age-related observations per pubertal characteristic. Probit regression models were used to estimate distributions of age at which each stage of pubertal development was attained. Before age 8, <3% of the study population initiated pubertal maturation as indicated by onset of breast development (B2). The median (95% confidence interval) age of B2 and B3-4 was 11.02 (11.00-11.04) and 12.82 (12.80-12.83) years, respectively; and 12.93 (12.91-12.94) and 14.29 (14.27-14.31) years for the onset (PH2) and advanced stage (PH3-4) of pubic hair growth, respectively. Median age at menarche was 13.17 (13.15-13.19) years, with 2.15 years of timespan from B2 to menarche. Girls in rural Bangladesh progressed through puberty following a well-documented sequence of sexual maturation stages. The age at which each pubertal milestone took place was somewhat later, but the tempo from breast development to menarche was comparable to that observed elsewhere. Our findings present a current norm of pubertal maturation in a typical, rural adolescent population in South Asia, which could help inform future studies and interventions to preserve or improve early adolescent health and development.
Project description:This study used polygenic scoring (PGS) to test whether puberty-related genes were correlated with depressive symptoms, and whether there were indirect effects through pubertal maturation. The sample included 8,795 adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (measures of puberty drawn ages 8-17 years; of depressive symptoms at age 16.5 years). The PGS (derived from a genome-wide meta-analysis of later age at menarche) predicted boys' and girls' later pubertal timing, boys' slower gonadal development, and girls' faster breast development. Earlier perceived breast development timing predicted more depressive symptoms in girls. Findings support shared genetic underpinnings for boys' and girls' puberty, contributing to multiple pubertal phenotypes with differences in how these genetic variants affect boys' and girls' development.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Many studies investigating pubertal development use Tanner staging to assess maturation. Endocrine markers in urine and saliva may provide an objective, sensitive, and non-invasive method for assessing development.<h4>Objective</h4>Our objective was to examine whether changes in endocrine levels can indicate the onset of pubertal development prior to changes in self-rated Tanner stage.<h4>Methods</h4>Thirty-five girls and 42 boys aged 7 to 15 years were enrolled in the Growth and Puberty (GAP) study, a longitudinal pilot study conducted from 2007-2009 involving children of women enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) in Iowa. We collected saliva and urine samples and assessed pubertal development by self-rated Tanner staging (pubic hair, breast development (girls), genital development (boys)) at three visits over six months. We measured dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in saliva and creatinine-adjusted luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estrone 3-glucuronide (E13G) and pregnanediol 3-glucuronide (Pd3G) concentrations in first morning urine. We evaluated the relationships over time between Tanner stage and each biomarker using repeated measures analysis.<h4>Results</h4>Among girls still reporting Tanner breast stage 1 at the final visit, FSH levels increased over the 6-month follow-up period and were no longer lower than higher stage girls at the end of follow-up. We observed a similar pattern for testosterone in boys. By visit 3, boys still reporting Tanner genital stage 1 or pubic hair stage 1 had attained DHEA levels that were comparable to those among boys reporting Tanner stages 2 or 3.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Increasing concentrations of FSH in girls and DHEA and testosterone in boys over a 6-month period revealed the start of the pubertal process prior to changes in self-rated Tanner stage. Repeated, non-invasive endocrine measures may complement the more subjective assessment of physical markers in studies determining pubertal onset.
Project description:CONTEXT:Discriminating adipose and glandular tissue is challenging when clinically assessing breast development. Ultrasound facilitates staging of pubertal breast maturation (US B), but has not been systematically compared to Tanner breast (