Methanol extract of wheatgrass induces G1 cell cycle arrest in a p53-dependent manner and down regulates the expression of cyclin D1 in human laryngeal cancer cells-an in vitro and in silico approach.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Deregs been implicated in the malignancy of cancer. Since many years investigation on the traditional herbs has been the focus to develop novel and effective drug for cancer remedies. Wheatgrass is a medicinal plant, used in folk medicine to cure various diseases. The present study was undertaken to gain insights into antiproliferative effect of methanol extract of wheatgrass. MATERIALS METHODS:Cell viability was assessed via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and Lactate Dehydrogenase assays. Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. Western blot was performed to determine the p53 and cyclin D1 levels. In silico docking interaction of the 14 active components (identified by high-performance liquid chromatography/gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy) of the methanol extract was tested with cyclin D1 (Protein Data Bank ID: 2W96) and compared with the reference cyclin D1/Cdk4 inhibitor. RESULTS:Methanol extract of wheatgrass effectively reduced the cell viability. The cell cycle analysis showed that the extract treatment caused G1 arrest. The level of cyclin D1 was decreased, whereas p53 level was increased. Molecular docking studies revealed interaction of seven active compounds of the extract with the vital residues (Lys112/Glu141) of cyclin D1. CONCLUSION:These findings indicate that the methanol extract of wheatgrass inhibits human laryngeal cancer cell proliferation via cell cycle G1 arrest and p53 induction. The seven active compounds of the extract were also found to be directly involved in the inhibition of cyclin D1/Cdk4 binding, thus inhibiting the cell proliferation.
Project description:The INK4A locus codes for two independent tumor suppressors, p14ARF and p16/CDKN2A, and is frequently mutated in many cancers. Here we report a novel deletion/substitution from CC to T in the shared exon 2 of p14ARF/p16 in a melanoma cell line. This mutation aligns the reading frames of p14ARF and p16 mid-transcript, producing one protein which is half p14ARF and half p16, chimera ARF (chARF), and another which is half p16 and half non-p14ARF/non-p16 amino acids, p16-Alternate Carboxyl Terminal (p16-ACT). In an effort to understand the cellular impact of this novel mutation and others like it, we expressed the two protein products in a tumor cell line and analyzed common p14ARF and p16 pathways, including the p53/p21 and CDK4/cyclin D1 pathways, as well as the influence of the two proteins on growth and the cell cycle. We report that chARF mimicked wild-type p14ARF by inducing the p53/p21 pathway, inhibiting cell growth through G2/M arrest and maintaining a certain percentage of cells in G1 during nocodazole-induced G2 arrest. chARF also demonstrated p16 activity by binding CDK4. However, rather than preventing cyclin D1 from binding CDK4, chARF stabilized this interaction through p21 which bound CDK4. p16-ACT had no p16-related function as it was unable to inhibit cyclin D1/CDK4 complex formation and was unable to arrest the cell cycle, though it did inhibit colony formation. We conclude that these novel chimeric proteins, which are very similar to predicted p16/p14ARF chimeric proteins found in other primary cancers, result in maintained p14ARF-p53-p21 signaling while p16-dependent CDK4 inhibition is lost.
Project description:D-type cyclins are key regulators of the cell division cycle. In association with Cyclin Dependent Kinases (CDK) 2/4/6, they control the G1/S-phase transition in part by phosphorylation and inactivation of tumor suppressor of retinoblastoma family. Defective regulation of the G1/S transition is a well-known cause of cancer, making the cyclin D1-CDK4/6 complex a promising therapeutic target. Our objective is to develop inhibitors that would block the formation or the activation of the cyclin D1-CDK4/6 complex, using in silico docking experiments on a structural homology model of the cyclin D1-CDK4/6 complex. To this end we focused on the cyclin subunit in three different ways: (1) targeting the part of the cyclin D1 facing the N-terminal domain of CDK4/6, in order to prevent the dimer formation; (2) targeting the part of the cyclin D1 facing the C-terminal domain of CDK4/6, in order to prevent the activation of CDK4/6 by blocking the T-loop in an inactive conformation, and also to destabilize the dimer; (3) targeting the groove of cyclin D1 where p21 binds, in order to mimic its inhibition mode by preventing binding of cyclin D1-CDK4/6 complex to its targets. Our strategy, and the tools we developed, will provide a computational basis to design lead compounds for novel cancer therapeutics, targeting a broad range of proteins involved in the regulation of the cell cycle.
Project description:Genomic aberrations of Cyclin D1 (CCND1) and CDK4 in neuroblastoma indicate that dysregulation of the G1 entry checkpoint is an important cell cycle aberration in this pediatric tumor. Here we report that analysis of Affymetrix expression data of primary neuroblastic tumors shows an extensive over-expression of Cyclin D1 and CDK4 which correlates with histological subgroups and prognosis respectively. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated an over-expression of Cyclin D1 in neuroblasts and a low Cyclin D1 expression in all cell types in ganglioneuroma. This suggests an involvement of G1 regulating genes in neuronal differentiation processes which we further evaluated using RNA interference against Cyclin D1 and its kinase partner CDK4 in several neuroblastoma cell lines. This resulted in pRb pathway inhibition as shown by an almost complete disappearance of CDK4 specific pRb phosphorylation; reduction of E2F transcriptional activity and a decrease of Cyclin A protein levels. The Cyclin D1 and CDK4 knock-down resulted in a significant reduction in cell proliferation, a G1 specific cell cycle arrest and moreover an extensive neuronal differentiation. Affymetrix microarray profiling of siRNA treated cells revealed a shift in expression profile towards a neuronal phenotype. Several new potential downstream players are identified. We conclude that neuroblastoma functionally depend on over-expression of G1 regulating genes to maintain their undifferentiated phenotype. Experiment Overall Design: The Cell line IMR-32 at time point 0 and transiently transfected with siRNA against GFP, Cyclin D1 and CDK4 at time point 48 hours. All experiments are biological triplicates.
Project description:The essential G1-cyclin, CCND1, is a collaborative nuclear oncogene that is frequently overexpressed in cancer. D-type cyclins bind and activate CDK4 and CDK6 thereby contributing to G1-S cell-cycle progression. In addition to the nucleus, herein cyclin D1 was also located in the cytoplasmic membrane. In contrast with the nuclear-localized form of cyclin D1 (cyclin D1NL), the cytoplasmic membrane-localized form of cyclin D1 (cyclin D1MEM) induced transwell migration and the velocity of cellular migration. The cyclin D1MEM was sufficient to induce G1-S cell-cycle progression, cellular proliferation, and colony formation. The cyclin D1MEM was sufficient to induce phosphorylation of the serine threonine kinase Akt (Ser473) and augmented extranuclear localized 17?-estradiol dendrimer conjugate (EDC)-mediated phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473). These studies suggest distinct subcellular compartments of cell cycle proteins may convey distinct functions.
Project description:Cell cycle progression through its regulatory control by changes in intracellular Ca(2+) levels at the G1/S transition mediates cellular proliferation and viability. Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent kinase 1 (CaMKI) appears critical in regulating the assembly of the cyclin D1/cdk4 complex essential for G1 progression, but how this occurs is unknown. Cyclin D1/cdk4 assembly in the early G1 phase is also regulated via binding to p27. Here, we show that a ubiquitin E3 ligase component, F-box protein Fbxl12, mediates CaMKI degradation via a proteasome-directed pathway leading to disruption of cyclin D1/cdk4 complex assembly and resultant G1 arrest in lung epithelia. We also demonstrate that i) CaMKI phosphorylates p27 at Thr(157) and Thr(198) in human cells and at Thr(170) and Thr(197) in mouse cells to modulate its subcellular localization; ii) Fbxl12-induced CaMKI degradation attenuates p27 phosphorylation at these sites in early G1 and iii) activation of CaMKI during G1 transition followed by p27 phosphorylation appears to be upstream to other p27 phosphorylation events, an effect abrogated by Fbxl12 overexpression. Lastly, known inducers of G1 arrest significantly increase Fbxl12 levels in cells. Thus, Fbxl12 may be a previously uncharacterized, functional growth inhibitor regulating cell cycle progression that might be used for mechanism-based therapy.
Project description:Connexin 43 (Cx43) functions as a cell growth suppressor. We have demonstrated that Cx43 interacts with heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70) for regulating cell proliferation. Hsc70 interacts with CDK inhibitor p27, which regulates the assembly and subcellular localization of cyclin D1-CDK4-p27 complex. However, the involvement of p27 with Cx43-mediated cell cycle suppression is still poorly understood. Here, we report that nuclear accumulation of p27 is reduced by overexpression of Cx43, and that this reduction is restored by co-overexpression with Hsc70. We found that Cx43 competes with p27 for binding to Hsc70, and as a result, decreases the level of Hsc70 in cyclin D1-CDK4-p27 complex, leading to prevention of the nuclear translocation of the complex and the G1/S transition. Collectively, our findings suggest that, in Cx43 up-regulation, which is most likely an emergency measure, Cx43-Hsc70 interaction regulates cell cycle G1/S progression through a novel mechanism by which Cx43-Hsc70 interaction prevents the nuclear accumulation of p27 through controlling the nuclear translocation of cyclin D1-CDK4-p27 complex.
Project description:Genomic aberrations of Cyclin D1 (CCND1) and CDK4 in neuroblastoma indicate that dysregulation of the G1 entry checkpoint is an important cell cycle aberration in this pediatric tumor. Here we report that analysis of Affymetrix expression data of primary neuroblastic tumors shows an extensive over-expression of Cyclin D1 and CDK4 which correlates with histological subgroups and prognosis respectively. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated an over-expression of Cyclin D1 in neuroblasts and a low Cyclin D1 expression in all cell types in ganglioneuroma. This suggests an involvement of G1 regulating genes in neuronal differentiation processes which we further evaluated using RNA interference against Cyclin D1 and its kinase partner CDK4 in several neuroblastoma cell lines. This resulted in pRb pathway inhibition as shown by an almost complete disappearance of CDK4 specific pRb phosphorylation; reduction of E2F transcriptional activity and a decrease of Cyclin A protein levels. The Cyclin D1 and CDK4 knock-down resulted in a significant reduction in cell proliferation, a G1 specific cell cycle arrest and moreover an extensive neuronal differentiation. Affymetrix microarray profiling of siRNA treated cells revealed a shift in expression profile towards a neuronal phenotype. Several new potential downstream players are identified. We conclude that neuroblastoma functionally depend on over-expression of G1 regulating genes to maintain their undifferentiated phenotype. Keywords: Neuroblastoma, CCND1, Cyclin D1, CDK4 Overall design: The Cell line IMR-32 at time point 0 and transiently transfected with siRNA against GFP, Cyclin D1 and CDK4 at time point 48 hours. All experiments are biological triplicates.
Project description:D-type cyclins regulate G1 cell cycle progression by enhancing the activities of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and their expression is frequently altered in malignant cells. We and others have previously shown that cyclin D1 is up-regulated in melanoma cells through adhesion-independent MEK-ERK1/2 signaling initiated by mutant B-RAF. Here, we describe the regulation and role of cyclin D3 in human melanoma cells. Cyclin D3 expression was enhanced in a cell panel of human melanoma cell lines compared with melanocytes and was regulated by fibronectin-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling but not MEK activity. RNA interference experiments demonstrated that cyclin D3 contributed to G1-S cell cycle progression and proliferation in melanoma cells. Overexpression of cyclin D1 did not recover the effects of cyclin D3 knockdown. Finally, immunoprecipitation studies showed that CDK6 is a major binding partner for cyclin D3, whereas CDK4 preferentially associated with cyclin D1. Together, these findings demonstrate that cyclin D3 is an important regulator of melanoma G1-S cell cycle progression and that D-type cyclins are differentially regulated in melanoma cells.
Project description:Background:Aberrant proliferation of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells under pathologic condition results in the occurrence of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Icariin (ICA)-a flavonol glucoside-has been shown to inhibit proliferation of many cell types, but the effect on RPE cells is unknown. This study aimed to clarify the inhibitory effects of ICA on RPE cells against platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced cell proliferation, and discuss the regulatory function of H19 in RPE cells. Methods:MTS assay was conducted to determine the effects of ICA on cell proliferation. Flow cytometry analysis was performed to detect cell cycle progression. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot assay were used to measure the expression patterns of genes in RPE cells. Results:ICA significantly suppressed PDGF-BB-stimulated RPE cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, since administration of ICA induced cell cycle G0/G1 phase arrest, the anti-proliferative activity of ICA may be due to G0/G1 phase arrest in RPE cells. At molecular levels, cell cycle regulators cyclin D1, CDK4, CDK6, p21 and p53 were modulated in response to treatment with ICA. Most importantly, H19 was positively regulated by ICA and H19 depletion could reverse the inhibitory effects of ICA on cell cycle progression and proliferation in PDGF-BB-stimulated RPE cells. Further mechanical explorations showed that H19 knockdown resulted in alternative expressions levels of cyclin D1, CDK4, CDK6, p21 and p53 under ICA treatment. Conclusions:Our findings revealed that ICA was an effective inhibitor of PDGF-BB-induced RPE cell proliferation through affecting the expression levels of cell cycle-associated factors, and highlighted the potential application of ICA in PVR therapy. H19 was described as a target regulatory gene of ICA whose disruption may contribute to excessive proliferation of RPE cells, suggesting that modulation of H19 expression may be a novel therapeutic approach to treat PVR.