Keratin 8 absence down-regulates colonocyte HMGCS2 and modulates colonic ketogenesis and energy metabolism.
ABSTRACT: Simple-type epithelial keratins are intermediate filament proteins important for mechanical stability and stress protection. Keratin mutations predispose to human liver disorders, whereas their roles in intestinal diseases are unclear. Absence of keratin 8 (K8) in mice leads to colitis, decreased Na/Cl uptake, protein mistargeting, and longer crypts, suggesting that keratins contribute to intestinal homeostasis. We describe the rate-limiting enzyme of the ketogenic energy metabolism pathway, mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (HMGCS2), as a major down-regulated protein in the K8-knockout (K8(-/-)) colon. K8 absence leads to decreased quantity and activity of HMGCS2, and the down-regulation is not dependent on the inflammatory state, since HMGCS2 is not decreased in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, a transcriptional activator of HMGCS2, is similarly down-regulated. Ketogenic conditions-starvation or ketogenic diet-increase K8(+/+) HMGCS2, whereas this response is blunted in the K8(-/-) colon. Microbiota-produced short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), substrates in the colonic ketone body pathway, are increased in stool, which correlates with decreased levels of their main transporter, monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1). Microbial populations, including the main SCFA-butyrate producers in the colon, were not altered in the K8(-/-). In summary, the regulation of the SCFA-MCT1-HMGCS2 axis is disrupted in K8(-/-) colonocytes, suggesting a role for keratins in colonocyte energy metabolism and homeostasis.
Project description:Keratins (K) are intermediate filament proteins important in protection from stress. The roles of keratins in the intestine are not clear, but K8 knockout (K8(-/-)) mice develop a Th2-type colonic inflammation, epithelial hyperproliferation, and mild diarrhea caused by a keratin level-dependent decrease in short-circuit current and net sodium and chloride absorption in the distal colon. The lack of K8 leads to mistargeting or altered levels of membrane proteins in colonocytes; however, the main transporter responsible for the keratin-related ion transport defect is unknown. We here analyzed protein and mRNA levels of candidate ion transporters CFTR, PAT-1, NHE-3, and DRA in ileum, cecum, and proximal and distal colon. Although no differences were observed for CFTR, PAT-1, or NHE-3, DRA mRNA levels were decreased by three- to fourfold and DRA protein was almost entirely lost in K8(-/-) cecum and proximal and distal colon compared with K8(+/+), whereas the levels in ileum were normal. In K8(+/-) mice, DRA mRNA levels were unaltered, while decreased DRA protein levels were detected in the proximal colon. Immunofluorescence staining confirmed the loss of DRA in K8(-/-) distal colon, while K8(+/-) displayed a similar but more patchy apical DRA distribution compared with K8(+/+) DRA was similarly decreased when K8 was knocked down in Caco-2 cells, confirming that K8 levels modulate DRA levels in an inflammation-independent manner. Taken together, the loss of DRA in the K8(-/-) mouse colon and cecum explains the dramatic chloride transport defect and diarrheal phenotype after K8 inactivation and identifies K8 as a novel regulator of DRA.
Project description:Keratins (K) are important for epithelial stress protection as evidenced by keratin mutations predisposing to human liver diseases and possibly inflammatory bowel diseases. A role for K8 in the colon is supported by the ulcerative colitis-phenotype with epithelial hyperproliferation and abnormal ion transport in K8-knockout (K8-/-) mice. The heterozygote knockout (K8+/-) colon appears normal but displays a partial ion transport-defect. Characterizing the colonic phenotype we show that K8+/- colon expresses ~50% less keratins compared to K8 wild type (K8+/+) but de novo K7 expression is observed in the top-most cells of the K8+/- and K8-/- crypts. The K8+/- colonic crypts are significantly longer due to increased epithelial hyperproliferation, but display no defects in apoptosis or inflammation in contrast to K8-/-. When exposed to colitis using the dextran sulphate sodium-model, K8+/- mice showed higher disease sensitivity and delayed recovery compared to K8+/+ littermates. Therefore, the K8+/- mild colonic phenotype correlates with decreased keratin levels and increased sensitivity to experimental colitis, suggesting that a sufficient amount of keratin is needed for efficient stress protection in the colonic epithelia.
Project description:Keratin (K) intermediate filaments can be divided into type I/type II proteins, which form obligate heteropolymers. Epithelial cells express type I-type II keratin pairs, and K7, K8 (type II) and K18, K19 and K20 (type I) are the primary keratins found in the single-layered intestinal epithelium. Keratins are upregulated during stress in liver, pancreas, lung, kidney and skin, however, little is known about their dynamics in the intestinal stress response. Here, keratin mRNA, protein and phosphorylation levels were studied in response to murine colonic stresses modeling human conditions, and in colorectal cancer HT29 cells. Dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-colitis was used as a model for intestinal inflammatory stress, which elicited a strong upregulation and widened crypt distribution of K7 and K20. K8 levels were slightly downregulated in acute DSS, while stress-responsive K8 serine-74 phosphorylation (K8 pS74) was increased. By eliminating colonic microflora using antibiotics, K8 pS74 in proliferating cells was significantly increased, together with an upregulation of K8 and K19. In the aging mouse colon, most colonic keratins were upregulated. In vitro, K8, K19 and K8 pS74 levels were increased in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in HT29 cells. In conclusion, intestinal keratins are differentially and dynamically upregulated and post-translationally modified during stress and recovery.
Project description:Lysine acetylation is an important posttranslational modification that regulates microtubules and microfilaments, but its effects on intermediate filament proteins (IFs) are unknown. We investigated the regulation of keratin 8 (K8), a type II simple epithelial IF, by lysine acetylation. K8 was basally acetylated and the highly conserved Lys-207 was a major acetylation site. K8 acetylation regulated filament organization and decreased keratin solubility. Acetylation of K8 was rapidly responsive to changes in glucose levels and was up-regulated in response to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) depletion and in diabetic mouse and human livers. The NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) associated with and deacetylated K8. Pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of SIRT2 decreased K8 solubility and affected filament organization. Inhibition of K8 Lys-207 acetylation resulted in site-specific phosphorylation changes of K8. Therefore, K8 acetylation at Lys-207, a highly conserved residue among type II keratins and other IFs, is up-regulated upon hyperglycemia and down-regulated by SIRT2. Keratin acetylation provides a new mechanism to regulate keratin filaments, possibly via modulating keratin phosphorylation.
Project description:Keratin intermediate filament (IF) proteins are epithelial cell cytoskeletal components that provide structural stability and protection from cell stress, among other cellular and tissue-specific functions. Numerous human diseases are associated with IF gene mutations, but the function of keratins in the endocrine pancreas and their potential significance for glycaemic control are unknown. The impact of keratins on ?-cell organisation and systemic glucose control was assessed using keratin 8 (K8) wild-type (K8(+/+)) and K8 knockout (K8(-/-)) mice. Islet ?-cell keratins were characterised under basal conditions, in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes and in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. STZ-induced diabetes incidence and islet damage was assessed in K8(+/+) and K8(-/-) mice. K8 and K18 were the predominant keratins in islet ?-cells and K8(-/-) mice expressed only remnant K18 and K7. K8 deletion resulted in lower fasting glucose levels, increased glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and decreased pancreatic insulin content. GLUT2 localisation and insulin vesicle morphology were disrupted in K8(-/-) ?-cells. The increased levels of cytoplasmic GLUT2 correlated with resistance to high-dose STZ-induced injury in K8(-/-) mice. However, K8 deletion conferred no long-term protection from STZ-induced diabetes and prolonged STZ-induced stress caused increased exocrine damage in K8(-/-) mice. ?-cell keratin upregulation occurred 2 weeks after treatments with low-dose STZ in K8(+/+) mice and in diabetic NOD mice, suggesting a role for keratins, particularly in non-acute islet stress responses. These results demonstrate previously unrecognised functions for keratins in ?-cell intracellular organisation, as well as for systemic blood glucose control under basal conditions and in diabetes-induced stress.
Project description:Absence or mutation of keratins 8 (K8) or 18 (K18) cause predisposition to liver injury and apoptosis. We assessed the mechanisms of hepatocyte keratin-mediated cytoprotection by comparing the protein expression profiles of livers from wild-type and K8-null mice using two-dimensional differential-in-gel-electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry. Prominent among the alterations were those of mitochondrial proteins, which were confirmed using 2D-DIGE of purified mitochondria. Ultrastructural analysis showed that mitochondria of livers that lack or have disrupted keratins are significantly smaller than mitochondria of wild-type livers. Immunofluorescence staining showed irregular distribution of mitochondria in keratin-absent or keratin-mutant livers. K8-null livers have decreased ATP content; and K8-null mitochondria have less cytochrome c, increased release of cytochrome c after exposure to Ca(2+) and oxidative stimulation, and a higher sensitivity to Ca(2+)-induced permeability transition. Therefore, keratins play a direct or indirect role in regulating the shape and function of mitochondria. The effects of keratin mutation on mitochondria are likely to contribute to hepatocyte predisposition to apoptosis and oxidative injury, and to play a pathogenic role in keratin-mutation-related human liver disease.
Project description:Keratin 8 (K8) and keratin 18 (K18) are the intermediate filament proteins whose phosphorylation/transamidation associate with their aggregation in Mallory-Denk bodies found in patients with various liver diseases. However, the functions of other post-translational modifications in keratins related to liver diseases have not been fully elucidated. Here, using a site-specific mutation assay combined with nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we identified K8-Lys108 and K18-Lys187/426 as acetylation sites, and K8-Arg47 and K18-Arg55 as methylation sites. Keratin mutation (Arg-to-Lys/Ala) at the methylation sites, but not the acetylation sites, led to decreased stability of the keratin protein. We compared keratin acetylation/methylation in liver disease-associated keratin variants. The acetylation of K8 variants increased or decreased to various extents, whereas the methylation of K18-del65-72 and K18-I150V variants increased. Notably, the highly acetylated/methylated K18-I150V variant was less soluble and exhibited unusually prolonged protein stability, which suggests that additional acetylation of highly methylated keratins has a synergistic effect on prolonged stability. Therefore, the different levels of acetylation/methylation of the liver disease-associated variants regulate keratin protein stability. These findings extend our understanding of how disease-associated mutations in keratins modulate keratin acetylation and methylation, which may contribute to disease pathogenesis.-Jang, K.-H., Yoon, H.-N., Lee, J., Yi, H., Park, S.-Y., Lee, S.-Y., Lim, Y., Lee, H.-J., Cho, J.-W., Paik, Y.-K., Hancock, W. S., Ku, N.-O. Liver disease-associated keratin 8 and 18 mutations modulate keratin acetylation and methylation.
Project description:AIM:Diabetes is a result of an interplay between genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors. Keratin intermediate filaments are stress proteins in epithelial cells, and keratin mutations predispose to several human diseases. However, the involvement of keratins in diabetes is not well known. K8 and its partner K18 are the main ?-cell keratins, and knockout of K8 (K8-/- ) in mice causes mislocalization of glucose transporter 2, mitochondrial defects, reduced insulin content and altered systemic glucose/insulin control. We hypothesize that K8/K18 offer protection during ?-cell stress and that decreased K8 levels contribute to diabetes susceptibility. METHODS:K8-heterozygous knockout (K8+/- ) and wild-type (K8+/+ ) mice were used to evaluate the influence of keratin levels on endocrine pancreatic function and diabetes development under basal conditions and after T1D streptozotocin (STZ)-induced ?-cell stress and T2D high-fat diet (HFD). RESULTS:Murine K8+/- endocrine islets express ~50% less K8/K18 compared with K8+/+ . The decreased keratin levels have little impact on basal systemic glucose/insulin regulation, ?-cell health or insulin levels. Diabetes incidence and blood glucose levels are significantly higher in K8+/- mice after low-dose/chronic STZ treatment, and STZ causes more ?-cell damage and polyuria in K8+/- compared with K8+/+ . K8 appears upregulated 5 weeks after STZ treatment in K8+/+ islets but not in K8+/- . K8+/- mice showed no major susceptibility risk to HFD compared to K8+/+ . CONCLUSION:Partial K8 deficiency reduces ?-cell stress tolerance and aggravates diabetes development in response to STZ, while there is no major susceptibility to HFD.
Project description:Keratin polypeptide 8 (K8) associates noncovalently with its partners K18 and/or K19 to form the intermediate filament cytoskeleton of hepatocytes and other simple-type epithelial cells. Human K8, K18, and K19 variants predispose to liver disease, whereas site-specific keratin phosphorylation confers hepatoprotection. Because stress-induced protein phosphorylation regulates sumoylation, we hypothesized that keratins are sumoylated in an injury-dependent manner and that keratin sumoylation is an important regulatory modification. We demonstrate that K8/K18/K19, epidermal keratins, and vimentin are sumoylated in vitro. Upon transfection, K8, K18, and K19 are modified by poly-SUMO-2/3 chains on Lys-285/Lys-364 (K8), Lys-207/Lys-372 (K18), and Lys-208 (K19). Sumoylation affects filament organization and stimulus-induced keratin solubility and is partially inhibited upon mutation of one of three known K8 phosphorylation sites. Extensive sumoylation occurs in cells transfected with individual K8, K18, or K19 but is limited upon heterodimerization (K8/K18 or K8/K19) in the absence of stress. In contrast, keratin sumoylation is significantly augmented in cells and tissues during apoptosis, oxidative stress, and phosphatase inhibition. Poly-SUMO-2/3 conjugates are present in chronically injured but not normal, human, and mouse livers along with polyubiquitinated and large insoluble keratin-containing complexes. Notably, common human K8 liver disease-associated variants trigger keratin hypersumoylation with consequent diminished solubility. In contrast, modest sumoylation of wild type K8 promotes solubility. Hence, conformational changes induced by keratin natural mutations and extensive tissue injury result in K8/K18/K19 hypersumoylation, which retains keratins in an insoluble compartment, thereby limiting their cytoprotective function.
Project description:Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in carcinoma is associated with dramatic up-regulation of vimentin and down-regulation of the simple-type keratins 8 and 18 (K8/K18), but the mechanisms of these changes are poorly understood. We demonstrate that two commonly-studied murine (CT26) and rat (IEC-6) intestinal cell lines have negligible K8/K18 but high vimentin protein expression. Proteasome inhibition led to a limited increase in K18 but not K8 stabilization, thereby indicating that K8/K18 absence is not due, in large part, to increased protein turnover. CT26 and IEC-6 cells had <10% of normal K8/K18 mRNA and exhibited decreased mRNA stability, with K8 mRNA levels being higher in IEC-6 versus CT26 and K18 being higher in CT26 versus IEC-6 cells. Keratin gene sequencing showed that KRT8 in CT26 cells had a 21-nucleotide deletion while K18 in IEC-6 cells had a 9-amino acid in-frame insertion. Furthermore, the KRT8 promoter in CT26 and the KRT18 promoter in IEC-6 are hypermethylated. Inhibition of DNA methylation using 5-azacytidine increased K8 or K18 in some but all the tested rodent epithelial cell lines. Restoring K8 and K18 by lentiviral transduction reduced CT26 but not IEC-6 cell matrigel invasion. K8/K18 re-introduction also decreased E-cadherin expression in IEC-6 but not CT26 cells, suggesting that the effect of keratin expression on epithelial to mesenchymal transition is cell-line dependent. Therefore, some commonly utilized rodent epithelial cell lines, unexpectedly, manifest barely detectable keratin expression but have high levels of vimentin. In the CT26 and IEC-6 intestinal cell lines, keratin expression correlates with keratin gene insertion or deletion and with promoter methylation, which likely suppress keratin transcription and mRNA or protein stability.