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Multiple chaperonins in bacteria--novel functions and non-canonical behaviors.

ABSTRACT: Chaperonins are a class of molecular chaperones that assemble into a large double ring architecture with each ring constituting seven to nine subunits and enclosing a cavity for substrate encapsulation. The well-studied Escherichia coli chaperonin GroEL binds non-native substrates and encapsulates them in the cavity thereby sequestering the substrates from unfavorable conditions and allowing the substrates to fold. Using this mechanism, GroEL assists folding of about 10-15 % of cellular proteins. Surprisingly, about 30 % of the bacteria express multiple chaperonin genes. The presence of multiple chaperonins raises questions on whether they increase general chaperoning ability in the cell or have developed specific novel cellular roles. Although the latter view is widely supported, evidence for the former is beginning to appear. Some of these chaperonins can functionally replace GroEL in E. coli and are generally indispensable, while others are ineffective and likewise are dispensable. Additionally, moonlighting functions for several chaperonins have been demonstrated, indicating a functional diversity among the chaperonins. Furthermore, proteomic studies have identified diverse substrate pools for multiple chaperonins. We review the current perception on multiple chaperonins and their physiological and functional specificities.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC4463927 | BioStudies | 2015-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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