Multiple chaperonins in bacteria--novel functions and non-canonical behaviors.
ABSTRACT: Chaperonins are a class of molecular chaperones that assemble into a large double ring architecture with each ring constituting seven to nine subunits and enclosing a cavity for substrate encapsulation. The well-studied Escherichia coli chaperonin GroEL binds non-native substrates and encapsulates them in the cavity thereby sequestering the substrates from unfavorable conditions and allowing the substrates to fold. Using this mechanism, GroEL assists folding of about 10-15 % of cellular proteins. Surprisingly, about 30 % of the bacteria express multiple chaperonin genes. The presence of multiple chaperonins raises questions on whether they increase general chaperoning ability in the cell or have developed specific novel cellular roles. Although the latter view is widely supported, evidence for the former is beginning to appear. Some of these chaperonins can functionally replace GroEL in E. coli and are generally indispensable, while others are ineffective and likewise are dispensable. Additionally, moonlighting functions for several chaperonins have been demonstrated, indicating a functional diversity among the chaperonins. Furthermore, proteomic studies have identified diverse substrate pools for multiple chaperonins. We review the current perception on multiple chaperonins and their physiological and functional specificities.
Project description:The molecular chaperones are a diverse set of protein families required for the correct folding, transport and degradation of other proteins in vivo. There has been great progress in understanding the structure and mechanism of action of the chaperonin family, exemplified by Escherichia coli GroEL. The chaperonins are large, double-ring oligomeric proteins that act as containers for the folding of other protein subunits. Together with its co-protein GroES, GroEL binds non-native polypeptides and facilitates their refolding in an ATP-dependent manner. The action of the ATPase cycle causes the substrate-binding surface of GroEL to alternate in character between hydrophobic (binding/unfolding) and hydrophilic (release/folding). ATP binding initiates a series of dramatic conformational changes that bury the substrate-binding sites, lowering the affinity for non-native polypeptide. In the presence of ATP, GroES binds to GroEL, forming a large chamber that encapsulates substrate proteins for folding. For proteins whose folding is absolutely dependent on the full GroE system, ATP binding (but not hydrolysis) in the encapsulating ring is needed to initiate protein folding. Similarly, ATP binding, but not hydrolysis, in the opposite GroEL ring is needed to release GroES, thus opening the chamber. If the released substrate protein is still not correctly folded, it will go through another round of interaction with GroEL.
Project description:Chaperonins are macromolecular complexes found throughout all kingdoms of life that assist unfolded proteins reach a biologically active state. Historically, chaperonins have been classified into two groups based on sequence, subunit structure, and the requirement for a co-chaperonin. Here, we present a brief review of chaperonins that can form double- and single-ring conformational intermediates in their protein-folding catalytic pathway. To date, the bacteriophage encoded chaperonins ?-EL and OBP, human mitochondrial chaperonin and most recently, the bacterial groEL/ES systems, have been reported to form single-ring intermediates as part of their normal protein-folding activity. These double-ring chaperonins separate into single-ring intermediates that have the ability to independently fold a protein. We discuss the structural and functional features along with the biological relevance of single-ring intermediates in cellular protein folding. Of special interest are the ?-EL and OBP chaperonins which demonstrate features of both group I and II chaperonins in addition to their ability to function via single-ring intermediates.
Project description:Chaperonins are absolutely required for the folding of a subset of proteins in the cell. An earlier proteome-wide analysis of Escherichia coli chaperonin GroEL/GroES (GroE) interactors predicted obligate chaperonin substrates, which were termed Class III substrates. However, the requirement of chaperonins for in vivo folding has not been fully examined. Here, we comprehensively assessed the chaperonin requirement using a conditional GroE expression strain, and concluded that only approximately 60% of Class III substrates are bona fide obligate GroE substrates in vivo. The in vivo obligate substrates, combined with the newly identified obligate substrates, were termed Class IV substrates. Class IV substrates are restricted to proteins with molecular weights that could be encapsulated in the chaperonin cavity, are enriched in alanine/glycine residues, and have a strong structural preference for aggregation-prone folds. Notably, approximately 70% of the Class IV substrates appear to be metabolic enzymes, supporting a hypothetical role of GroE in enzyme evolution.
Project description:The mitochondrial Hsp60-Hsp10 complex assists the folding of various proteins impelled by ATP hydrolysis, similar to the bacterial chaperonins GroEL and GroES. The near-atomic structural details of the mitochondrial chaperonins are not known, despite the fact that almost two decades have passed since the structures of the bacterial chaperonins became available. Here, the crystallization procedure, diffraction experiments and structure determination by molecular replacement of the mammalian mitochondrial chaperonin HSP60 (E321K mutant) and its co-chaperonin Hsp10 are reported.
Project description:In vitro refolding of pig mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase is investigated in the presence and absence of Escherichia coli chaperonins cpn60 (groEL) and cpn10 (groES). The refolded yields of active malate dehydrogenase are increased almost 3-fold in the presence of groEL, groES, Mg2+/ATP and K+ ions. Chaperonin-assisted refolding of malate dehydrogenase does not have an absolute requirement for K+ ions but Mg2+/ATP is obligatory. When ATP is replaced by other nucleoside triphosphates, or by non-hydrolysable ATP analogues, assisted refolding is prevented. Optimal chaperonin-assisted refolding requires both groEL and groES homo-oligomers in molar excess over malate dehydrogenase. Kinetic analysis shows that the chaperonins do not catalyse the refolding of malate dehydrogenase but increase the flux of unfolded enzyme through the productive refolding pathway without altering and/or accelerating that pathway. Although not acting as refolding catalysts, the chaperonins are able to assist at least six consecutive cycles of malate dehydrogenase refolding.
Project description:Protein folding in the cell requires the assistance of enzymes collectively called chaperones. Among these, the chaperonins are 1-MDa ring-shaped oligomeric complexes that bind unfolded polypeptides and promote their folding within an isolated chamber in an ATP-dependent manner. Group II chaperonins, found in archaea and eukaryotes, contain a built-in lid that opens and closes over the central chamber. In eukaryotes, the chaperonin TRiC/CCT is hetero-oligomeric, consisting of two stacked rings of eight paralogous subunits each. TRiC facilitates folding of approximately 10% of the eukaryotic proteome, including many cytoskeletal components and cell cycle regulators. Folding of many cellular substrates of TRiC cannot be assisted by any other chaperone. A complete structural and mechanistic understanding of this highly conserved and essential chaperonin remains elusive. However, recent work is beginning to shed light on key aspects of chaperonin function and how their unique properties underlie their contribution to maintaining cellular proteostasis.
Project description:In vitro refolding of pig mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase is investigated in the presence of Escherichia coli chaperonins cpn60 (groEL) and cpn10 (groES). When the enzyme is initially denatured with 3 M guanidinium chloride, chaperonin-assisted refolding is 100% efficient. C.d. spectroscopy reveals that malate dehydrogenase is almost unfolded in 3 M guanidinium chloride, suggesting that a state with little or no residual secondary structure is the optimal 'substrate' for chaperonin-assisted refolding. Malate dehydrogenase denatured to more highly structured states proves to refold less efficiently with chaperonin assistance. The enzyme is shown not to aggregate under the refolding conditions, so that losses in refolding efficiency result from irreversible misfolding. Evidence is advanced to suggest that the chaperonins are unable to rescue irreversibly misfolded malate dehydrogenase. A novel use is made of 100 K Centricon concentrators to study the binding of [14C]acetyl-labelled malate dehydrogenase to groEL by an ultrafiltration binding assay. Analysis of the data by Scatchard plot shows that acetyl-malate dehydrogenase, which has previously been extensively unfolded with guanidinium chloride, binds to groEL at a specific binding site(s). At saturation, one acetyl-malate dehydrogenase homodimer (two polypeptides) is shown to bind to each groEL homooligomer with a binding constant of approx. 10 nM.
Project description:Chaperonins are molecular machines that use ATP-driven cycles to assist misfolded substrate proteins to reach the native state. During the functional cycle, these machines adopt distinct nucleotide-dependent conformational states, which reflect large-scale allosteric changes in individual subunits. Distinct allosteric kinetics has been described for the two chaperonin classes. Bacterial (group I) chaperonins, such as GroEL, undergo concerted subunit motions within each ring, whereas archaeal and eukaryotic chaperonins (group II) undergo sequential subunit motions. We study these distinct mechanisms through a comparative normal mode analysis of monomer and double-ring structures of the archaeal chaperonin thermosome and GroEL. We find that thermosome monomers of each type exhibit common low-frequency behavior of normal modes. The observed distinct higher-frequency modes are attributed to functional specialization of these subunit types. The thermosome double-ring structure has larger contribution from higher-frequency modes, as it is found in the GroEL case. We find that long-range intersubunit correlation of amino-acid pairs is weaker in the thermosome ring than in GroEL. Overall, our results indicate that distinct allosteric behavior of the two chaperonin classes originates from different wiring of individual subunits as well as of the intersubunit communications.
Project description:Chaperonins are allosteric double-ring ATPases that mediate cellular protein folding. ATP binding and hydrolysis control opening and closing of the central chaperonin chamber, which transiently provides a protected environment for protein folding. During evolution, two strategies to close the chaperonin chamber have emerged. Archaeal and eukaryotic group II chaperonins contain a built-in lid, whereas bacterial chaperonins use a ring-shaped cofactor as a detachable lid. Here we show that the built-in lid is an allosteric regulator of group II chaperonins, which helps synchronize the subunits within one ring and, to our surprise, also influences inter-ring communication. The lid is dispensable for substrate binding and ATP hydrolysis, but is required for productive substrate folding. These regulatory functions of the lid may serve to allow the symmetrical chaperonins to function as 'two-stroke' motors and may also provide a timer for substrate encapsulation within the closed chamber.
Project description:Chaperonins are essential for cellular growth under normal and stressful conditions and consequently represent one of the most conserved and ancient protein classes. The paradigm Escherichia coli chaperonin, EcGroEL, and its cochaperonin, EcGroES, assist in the folding of proteins via an ATP-dependent mechanism. In addition to the presence of groEL and groES homologs, groEL paralogs are found in many bacteria, including pathogens, and have evolved poorly understood species-specific functions. Chlamydia spp., which are obligate intracellular bacteria, have reduced genomes that nonetheless contain three groEL genes, Chlamydia groEL (ChgroEL), ChgroEL2, and ChgroEL3 We hypothesized that ChGroEL is the bona fide chaperonin and that the paralogs perform novel Chlamydia-specific functions. To test our hypothesis, we investigated the biochemical properties of ChGroEL and its cochaperonin, ChGroES, and queried the in vivo essentiality of the three ChgroEL genes through targeted mutagenesis in Chlamydia trachomatis ChGroEL hydrolyzed ATP at a rate 25% of that of EcGroEL and bound with high affinity to ChGroES, and the ChGroEL-ChGroES complex could refold malate dehydrogenase (MDH). The chlamydial ChGroEL was selective for its cognate cochaperonin, ChGroES, while EcGroEL could function with both EcGroES and ChGroES. A P35T ChGroES mutant (ChGroESP35T) reduced ChGroEL-ChGroES interactions and MDH folding activities but was tolerated by EcGroEL. Both ChGroEL-ChGroES and EcGroEL-ChGroESP35T could complement an EcGroEL-EcGroES mutant. Finally, we successfully inactivated both paralogs but not ChgroEL, leading to minor growth defects in cell culture that were not exacerbated by heat stress. Collectively, our results support novel functions for the paralogs and solidify ChGroEL as a bona fide chaperonin that is biochemically distinct from EcGroEL.IMPORTANCEChlamydia is an important cause of human diseases, including pneumonia, sexually transmitted infections, and trachoma. The chlamydial chaperonin ChGroEL and chaperonin paralog ChGroEL2 have been associated with survival under stress conditions, and ChGroEL is linked with immunopathology elicited by chlamydial infections. However, their exact roles in bacterial survival and disease remain unclear. Our results further substantiate the hypotheses that ChGroEL is the primary chlamydial chaperonin and that the paralogs play specialized roles during infection. Furthermore, ChGroEL and the mitochondrial GroEL only functioned with their cochaperonin, in contrast to the promiscuous nature of GroEL from E. coli and Helicobacter pylori, which might indicate a divergent evolution of GroEL during the transition from a free-living organism to an obligate intracellular lifestyle.