Discrete multiporphyrin pseudorotaxane assemblies from di- and tetravalent porphyrin building blocks.
ABSTRACT: Two pairs of divalent and tetravalent porphyrin building blocks carrying the complementary supramolecular crown ether/secondary ammonium ion binding motif have been synthesized and their derived pseudorotaxanes have been studied by a combination of NMR spectroscopy in solution and ESI mass spectrometry in the gas phase. By simple mixing of the components the formation of discrete dimeric and trimeric (metallo)porphyrin complexes predominates, in accordance to binding stoichiometry, while the amount of alternative structures can be neglected. Our results illustrate the power of multivalency to program the multicomponent self-assembly of specific entities into discrete functional nanostructures.
Project description:The interaction between gold sub-nanometer clusters composed of ten atoms (Au<sub>10</sub>) and tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (TPPS) was investigated through various spectroscopic techniques. Under mild acidic conditions, the formation, in aqueous solutions, of nanohybrid assemblies of porphyrin J-aggregates and Au<sub>10</sub> cluster nanoparticles was observed. This supramolecular system tends to spontaneously cover glass substrates with a co-deposit of gold nanoclusters and porphyrin nanoaggregates, which exhibit circular dichroism (CD) spectra reflecting the enantiomorphism of histidine used as capping and reducing agent. The morphology of nanohybrid assemblies onto a glass surface was revealed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and showed the concomitant presence of gold nanoparticles with an average size of 130 nm and porphyrin J-aggregates with lengths spanning from 100 to 1000 nm. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was observed for the nanohybrid assemblies.
Project description:A versatile and straightforward protocol is disclosed for controlled synthesis of complex lanthanide-bridged heteroleptic porphyrin-phthalocyanine triple-decker assemblies. Two porphyrins, linked by a flexible spacer chain of intermediate length, sequentially capture lanthanide ions and a phthalocyanine to efficiently form the triple-decker complex. The bridge directs assembly, but also controls the mobility of the central macrocycle and further imparts a fully eclipsed arrangement of all three rings.
Project description:Molecular machines and switches composed of flexible pseudorotaxanes respond to external stimuli, transducing incident energy into mechanical motions. This study presents thermo- and photoresponsive dynamic pseudorotaxane crystals composed of axle molecules containing ferrocene or ruthenocene groups threaded through dibenzocrown-8 ether rings. The ruthenocene-containing pseudorotaxane exhibits a crystal-to-crystal thermal phase transition at 86?°C, which is much lower than that of the ferrocene-containing pseudorotaxane (128?°C). Single-crystal X-ray crystallography at various temperatures reveals the details of the structural changes, and shows that the bulky ruthenocene provides distortion in the pseudorotaxane structure to facilitate twisting of the axle molecule. A mixed ferrocene and ruthenocene pseudorotaxane crystal is applied to photomechanical conversion under 405?nm laser irradiation at 85?°C and provides a lifting force 6,400-times the weight of the crystal itself upon phase transition.
Project description:Multivalency is an important instrument in the supramolecular chemistry toolkit for the creation of strong specific interactions. In this paper we investigate the multivalency effect in a dendritic host-guest system using molecular dynamics simulations. Specifically, we consider urea-adamantyl decorated poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers that together with compatible mono-, bi-, and tetravalent ureidoacetic acid guests can form dynamic patchy nanoparticles. First, we simulate the self-assembly of these particles into macromolecular nanostructures, showing guest-controlled reduction of dendrimer aggregation. Subsequently, we systematically study guest concentration dependent multivalent binding. At low guest concentrations multivalency of the guests clearly increases relative binding as tethered headgroups bind more often than free guests' headgroups. We find that despite an abundance of binding sites, most of the tethered headgroups bind in close proximity, irrespective of the spacer length; nevertheless, longer spacers do increase binding. At high guest concentrations the dendrimer becomes saturated with bound headgroups, independent of guest valency. However, in direct competition the tetravalent guests prevail over the monovalent ones. This demonstrates the benefit of multivalency at high as well as low concentrations.
Project description:The pivotal role played by potassium ions in the noncovalent synthesis of discrete porphyrin-calixarene nanostructures has been examined. The <i>flattened-cone</i> conformation adopted by the two cavities of octa-cationic calixtube <b>C4T</b> was found to prevent the formation of complexes with well-defined stoichiometry between this novel water-soluble calixarene and the tetra-anionic phenylsulfonate porphyrin <b>CuTPPS</b>. Conversely, preorganization of <b>C4T</b> into a <i>C</i><sub>4v</sub>-symmetrical scaffold, triggered by potassium ion encapsulation (<b>C4T</b>@K<sup>+</sup>), allowed us to carry out an efficient hierarchical self-assembly process leading to 2D and 3D nanostructures. The stepwise formation of discrete <b>CuTPPS/C4T</b>@K<sup>+</sup> noncovalent assemblies, containing up to 33 molecular elements, was conveniently monitored by UV/vis spectroscopy by following the absorbance of the porphyrin Soret band.
Project description:The retention of photochemical properties of individual chromophores is a key feature of biological light harvesting complexes. This is achieved despite extensive aggregation of the chromophores, which in synthetic chromophore assemblies often yields a change in spectral characteristics. As an alternative approach towards mimicking biological light harvesting complexes, we report the synthesis of porphyrin assemblies which retained the photochemical properties of the individual chromophore units despite their substantial aggregation. These new materials highlight a new bottom-up approach towards the design and understanding of more complex biomimetic and naturally occurring biological systems.
Project description:5-HT<sub>4</sub> receptors are known to form constitutive dimers in membranes. To explore whether multivalency can enhance ligand interactions and/or efficacy in 5-HT<sub>4</sub> receptors, the structure of the partial agonist ML10302 was modified with oligo(ethylene glycol) chains, thus generating, by a gradual approach, short and long tethered bivalent or tetravalent ligands and the corresponding spanner-linked monovalent controls. Both bivalent and tetravalent ligands displayed a 10-20-fold increase in binding affinity compared to appropriate controls, but no multivalent ligand showed greater binding energy than ML10302 itself. Furthermore, the direct assessment of receptor-Gs interaction and studies of cAMP signalling indicated that multivalency does not enhance the efficacy of ML10302.
Project description:Micelles have been employed to encapsulate the supramolecular assembly of quantum dots with palladium(II) porphyrins for the quantification of O2 levels in aqueous media and in vivo. Förster resonance energy transfer from the quantum dot (QD) to the palladium porphyrin provides a means for signal transduction under both one- and two-photon excitation. The palladium porphyrins are sensitive to O2 concentrations in the range of 0-160 Torr. The micelle-encapsulated QD-porphyrin assemblies have been employed for in vivo multiphoton imaging and lifetime-based oxygen measurements in mice with chronic dorsal skinfold chambers or cranial windows. Our results establish the utility of the QD-micelle approach for in vivo biological sensing applications.
Project description:A series of di-, tri- and tetravalent axles and wheels for the synthesis of pseudorotaxanes bearing the tetralactam macrocycle/diamide axle binding motif was prepared. Starting from iodinated monovalent precursors, Sonogashira cross-coupling reactions were utilized to couple the binding sites to appropriate spacer groups. Through this "Lego" or "toolbox" approach, the convergent synthesis of host and guests with a well-defined number of the binding sites is possible. In addition, the spatial arrangement of the binding sites can be controlled through the quite rigid connections between linker and binding sites. Although a quantitative assessment of binding strengths was not possible by NMR titration experiments, typical and significant shifts of the signals of the diamide moiety indicate qualitatively the formation of pseudorotaxanes from the axle and wheel precursors.
Project description:Here, we present a novel butadiyne-linked HBC-ethynyl-porphyrin dimer, which exhibits in the ground state strong absorption cross sections throughout the UV and visible ranges of the solar spectrum. In short, a unidirectional flow of excited state energy from the HBC termini to the (metallo)porphyrin focal points enables concentrating light at the latter. Control over excitonic interactions within, for example, the electron-donating porphyrin dimers was realized by complexation of bidentate ligands to set up panchromatic absorption that extends all the way into the near-infrared range. The bidentate binding motif was then exploited to create a supramolecular electron donor-acceptor assembly based on a HBC-ethynyl-porphyrin dimer and an electron accepting bis(aminoalkyl)-substituted fullerene. Of great relevance is the fact that charge separation from the photoexcited HBC-ethynyl-porphyrin dimer to the bis(aminoalkyl)-substituted fullerene is activated not only upon photoexciting the HBCs in the UV as well as the (metallo)porphyrins in the visible but also in the NIR. Implicit is the synergetic interplay of energy and charge transfer in a photosynthetic mimicking manner. The dimer and bis-HBC-ethynyl-porphyrin monomers, which serve as references, were probed by means of steady-state as well as time-resolved optical spectroscopies, including global target analyses of the time-resolved transient absorption data.