EGF-reduced Wnt5a transcription induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition via Arf6-ERK signaling in gastric cancer cells.
ABSTRACT: Wnt5a, a ligand for activating the non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway, is commonly associated with Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer cell metastasis. Here, we show that downregulation of Wnt5a mRNA and protein by EGF is necessary for EGF-induced EMT in gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. To further explore the mechanisms, we investigated the effect of EGF signaling on Wnt5a expression. EGF increased Arf6 and ERK activity, while blockade of Arf6 activation repressed ERK activity, up-regulated Wnt5a expression and repressed EMT in response to EGF. We also demonstrate that EGF inactivated Wnt5a transcription by direct recruitment of ERK to the Wnt5a promoter. On the other hand, inhibition of ERK phosphorylation resulted in decreased movement of ERK from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, following rescued Wnt5a mRNA and protein expression and favored an epithelial phenotype of SGC-7901 cells. In addition, we notice that kinase-dead, nuclear-localised ERK has inhibitory effect on Wnt5a transcription. Analysis of gastric cancer specimens revealed an inverse correlation between P-ERK and Wnt5a protein levels and an association between Wnt5a expression and better prognosis. These findings indicate that Wnt5a is a potential suppressor of EMT and identify a novel Arf6/ERK signaling pathway for EGF-regulated Wnt5a expression at transcriptional level of gastric cancer cells.
Project description:CD24, a mucin-like membrane glycoprotein, plays a critical role in carcinogenesis, but its role in human gastric cancer and the underlying mechanism remains undefined.The contents of CD24 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in gastric cancer cells (SGC-7901 and BGC-823) and non-malignant gastric epithelial cells (GES-1) were evaluated by Western blotting assay. Cellular EGFR staining was examined by immunofluorescence assay. Cell migration rate was measured by wound healing assay. The effects of depletion/overexperssion of CD24 on EGFR expression and activation of EGF/EGFR singaling pathways were evaluated by immunofluorescence, qPCR, Western blotting and flow cytometry techniques. RhoA activity was assessed by pulldown assay. CD24 and EGFR expression patterns in human gastric tumor samples were also investigated by immunohistochemistry staining.CD24 was overexpressed in human gastric cancer cells. Ectopic expression of CD24 in gastric epithelial cells augmented the expression of EGFR, while knockdown of CD24 in gastric cancer cells decreased the level of EGFR and cell migration velocity. To further explore the mechanisms, we investigated the effect of CD24 expression on EGF/EGFR signaling. We noticed that this effect of CD24 on EGFR expression was dependent on promoting EGFR internalization and degradation. Lower ERK and Akt phosphorylations in response to EGF stimulation were observed in CD24-depleted cells. In addition, we noticed that the effect of CD24 on EGFR stability was mediated by RhoA activity in SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells. Analysis of gastric cancer specimens revealed a positive correlation between CD24 and EGFR levels and an association between CD24 expression and worse prognosis.Thus, these findings suggest for the first time that CD24 regulates EGFR signaling by inhibiting EGFR internalization and degradation in a RhoA-dependent manner in gastric cancer cells.
Project description:Erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular receptor A2 (EphA2) is upregulated in gastric cancer tissues and cells, which is accompanied by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The current study was designed to establish the oxaliplatin-resistant human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901/L-OHP, to determine if EMT in these cells could be reversed, and to determine if the susceptibility of these cells to oxaliplatin was affected by silencing EphA2 expression. We found that EphA2 expression levels were upregulated in gastric cancer and associated with chemotherapy sensitivity. EphA2 and the EMT molecular markers N-cadherin and Snail were upregulated in SGC-7901/L-OHP cells, while silencing of EphA2 using small interfering RNA had the opposite effect. Moreover, silencing of EphA2 inhibited cell migration and invasion, and significantly enhanced the sensitivity of oxaliplatin-resistant gastric cancer cells to oxaliplatin. These observations demonstrate that EphA2 affects the sensitivity to oxaliplatin by inducing EMT in oxaliplatin-resistant gastric cancer cells.
Project description:Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a simple water‑soluble glycerophospholipid with growth factor‑like activity, regulates certain behaviors of multiple cancer types by binding to its receptor, LPA receptor 2 (LPA2). Notch1 is a key mediator in multiple human cancer cell types. The association between LPA2 and Notch1 in gastric cancer cells is not well known. The present study aimed to investigate the function of LPA2 and Notch1 in controlling the migration and invasion activities of SGC‑7901 gastric cancer cells following stimulation with LPA. It was revealed that LPA may stimulate the expression of Notch1 and Hes family bHLH transcription factor 1, and the phosphorylation of protein kinase B which belongs to the Notch pathway. Furthermore, by performing transwell migration and invasion assays, immunoﬂuorescent staining, analyzing the expression of markers for the epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) and downregulating LPA2 and Notch1 expression, it was verified that LPA2 and Notch1 mediated the metastasis, invasion, EMT and rebuilding of the cytoskeleton of SGC‑7901 cells upon LPA treatment. An immunoprecipitation assay revealed that LPA2 interacted with Notch1 in SGC‑7901 cells. The present study may provide novel ideas and an experimental basis for identifying the factors that affect the functions of SGC‑7901 cells.
Project description:Celastrus orbiculatus has been used as a folk medicine in China for the treatment of many diseases. In the laboratory, the ethyl acetate extract of Celastrus orbiculatus (COE) displays a wide range of anticancer functions. However, the inhibition of the metastasis mechanism of COE in gastric cancer cells has not been investigated so far.The present study was undertaken to determine if the anti-metastasis effect of COE was involved in inhibiting of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of human gastric adenocarcinoma SGC-7901 cells. In vitro, a well-established experimental EMT model involving transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) was applied. Viability, invasion and migration, protein and mRNA expression of tumor cells were analyzed by MTT assay, transwell assay, western blot and real-time PCR, respectively. The molecular targets of COE in SGC-7901 cells were investigated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometer. Overexpression of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) was performed by transfected with the recombinant retroviral expression plasmid. In vivo, the anti-metastasis mechanisms of COE in the peritoneal gastric cancer xenograft model was explored and the effect was tested.The non-cytostatic concentrations of COE effectively inhibited TGF-β1 induced EMT process in SGC-7901 cells, which is characterized by prevented morphological changes, increased E-cadherin expression and decreased Vimentin, N-cadherin expression. Moreover, COE inhibited invasion and migration induced by TGF-β1. Using a comparative proteomics approach, four proteins were identified as differently expressed, with HSP27 protein being one of the most significantly down-regulated proteins induced by COE. Moreover, the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)/Snail signaling pathway induced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was also attenuated under the pretreatment of COE. Interestingly, overexpression of HSP27 significantly decreases the inhibitory effect of COE on EMT and the NF-κB/Snail pathway. Furthermore, COE significantly reduced the number of peritoneal metastatic nodules in the peritoneal gastric cancer xenograft model.Taken together, these results suggest that COE inhibits the EMT by suppressing the expression of HSP27, correlating with inhibition of NF-κB/Snail signal pathways in SGC-7901 cells. Based on these results, COE may be considered a novel anti-cancer agent for the treatment of metastasis in gastric cancer.
Project description:In this study, we investigated the role of SERPINH1 in gastric cancer (GC) progression. GC patient tissues show significantly higher SERPINH1 mRNA and protein levels than normal gastric mucosal tissues. GC patients with high SERPINH1 expression are associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis. SERPINH1 mRNA levels negatively correlate with E-cadherin mRNA levels and positively correlate with levels of N-cadherin, MMP2, and MMP9 mRNA levels. This suggests SERPINH1 regulates epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). SERPINH1 expression was significantly higher in the HGC-27, AGS, MGC-803, and SGC-7901 GC cell lines than in the GES-1 normal gastric mucosal cell line. In SERPINH1-silenced SGC-7901 cells, survival, colony formation, migration and invasion were all reduced, whereas they were all enhanced in SERPINH1-overexpressing MGC-803 cells. Levels of WNT/?-catenin signaling pathway proteins, including ?-catenin, Wnt2, GSK-3?, p-GSK-3?, NF-?B P65, Snail1, Slug and TWIST, were all reduced in SERPINH1-silenced SGC-7901 cells, and increased in the SERPINH1-overexpressing MGC-803 cells. Inhibition of SERPINH1 protein using Co1003 significantly decreased survival, invasion, and migration of GC cells. SERPINH1 thus appears to regulate EMT and GC progression via the Wnt/?-catenin pathway, making SERPINH1 a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target in GC patients.
Project description:MicroRNA-320 (miR-320) downregulation has been reported in several human cancers. Until now, its expression pattern and biological roles in human cancer remain unknown. This study aims to clarify its clinical expression pattern and biological function in gastric cancers. We found miR-320 level was downregulated in gastric cancer tissues. miR-320 mimic was transfected in SGC-7901 cells with low endogenous expression. miR-320 inhibitor was used in BGC-823 cells with high endogenous expression. We found that miR-320 inhibited SGC-7901 proliferation and invasion, with decreased expression of cyclin D1 and MMP9 at both mRNA and protein levels. We also found that miR-320 mimic downregulated chemoresistance and cell survival of gastric cancer cells when treated with 5-fluorouracil. miR-320 inhibitor displayed the opposite effects in BGC-823 cell line. In addition, we discovered that miR-320 mimic could inhibit AKT and ERK activity. By using luciferase reporter assay, we found that CRKL serves as the target of miR-320. miR-320 mimic downregulated CRKL expression, whereas miR-320 inhibitor upregulated CRKL expression. miR-320 suppressed CRKL-3'-untranslated region reporter intensity in SGC-7901 cells. Furthermore, CRKL depletion abrogated the effects of miR-320. In gastric cancer tissues, we observed a negative correlation between CRKL and miR-320. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that downregulation of miR-320 was closely related with malignant progression of gastric cancer. miR-320 inhibits proliferation, invasion, and chemoresistance through ERK and AKT signaling by targeting CRKL.
Project description:PurposeThe function of curcumin on the gastric cancer cell line, SGC-7901 is unknown. The present study aimed to observe the effects of curcumin on gastric cancer cells through the Shh and Wnt signaling pathways.MethodsSGC-7901 cells were transfected with si-Gli1 and si-?-catenin siRNA, then cells were stimulated with curcumin and its effects on cell migration, invasion, cytoskeleton remodeling, EMT, apoptosis and cell cycle were investigated by ?transwell assays, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry assays. The interaction between Gli1 and ?-catenin was observed by co-immunoprecipitation.ResultsWe show that curcumin suppressed the expression of Shh, Gli1 and Foxm1 in the Shh signaling pathway, and the expression of ?-catenin in the Wnt signaling pathway in SGC-7901 cells, both in mRNA and protein. As a result, cellular migration, invasion and cytoskeletal remodeling ability decreased. Our results revealed that when stimulated with curcumin, cells showed decreased cellular migration and invasion, while enhanced apoptosis. In addition, curcumin induced cytoskeletal remodeling and S phase cell cycle arrest. The inhibition of Shh and Wnt signaling pathway and the addition of curcumin also inhibited the epithelial–mesenchymal transition process. Furthermore, a physical interaction was observed between Gli1 of the Shh signaling and ?-catenin of the Wnt signaling in these cells, but curcumin inhibited the interaction of these two proteins.ConclusionThe present study indicated that curcumin plays an anti-tumor role through Gli1-?-catenin pathway in gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells.
Project description:Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most frequent malignant tumors and the molecular mechanism underlying its proliferation remains far from completely understood. Although accumulating evidence shows that abnormal expression of microRNA (miRNA) is involved in tumorigenesis, the role of specific miRNAs involved in GC remains elusive. MiR-199a/b-3p functions as a tumor suppressor in diverse cancers, but its expression, function, and mechanism in GC remain unclear. Our aim is to explore miR-199a/b-3p expression and its role in regulating GC cell proliferation.Real-time PCR was performed to determine miR-199a/b-3p expression in GC tissues and normal adjacent tissues as well as normal gastric mucosal cell line GES-1 and GC cell lines MGC-803 and SGC-7901. MTT assay and Western blot were performed to determine cell proliferation and expression of PAK4, p-MEK and p-ERK, respectively. MiR-199a/b-3p mimics-transfected assay and PAK-specific siRNA assay were performed to determine their function in cell proliferation, respectively. GC xenograft nude mice were used to determine miR-199a/b-3p function in cell proliferation.MiR-199a/b-3p expression was significantly decreased in GC tissues and GC cell lines MGC-803 and SGC-7901. MiR-199a/b-3p over-expression and PAK4 silencing inhibited cell proliferation and diminished the activation of p-MEK and p-ERK in MGC-803 and SGC-7901 cells, and miR-199a/b-3p over-expression reduced PAK4 expression. MiR-199a/b-3p over-expression suppressed MGC-803 cell growth and PAK4 expression in nude mice.miR-199a/b-3p inhibits GC cell proliferation via down-regulating PAK4/MEK/ERK signaling pathway and may be a novel prognostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for GC patients.
Project description:Cisplatin is used to treat multiple types of solid tumor, including gastric cancer. Although cisplatin initially exhibits good efficacy, therapeutic failure often occurs owing to the development of chemoresistance. To the best of our knowledge, the underlying mechanism of cisplatin resistance remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to assess whether taxol resistance gene 1 (TXR1) has a role in cisplatin response in gastric cancer. The expression of TXR1 in fresh-frozen tissues of patients with gastric cancer who were sensitive or resistance to cisplatin was assessed. The level of TXR1 expression was significantly higher in cisplatin-resistant specimens than that in cisplatin-sensitive specimens. Next, the gastric cancer SGC-7901 cell line was exposed to cisplatin to establish a cisplatin-resistance subline, termed SGC-7901/DDP, which exhibited a 6-fold increases in the level of resistance. TXR1 expression was elevated in SGC-7901/DDP cells. Overexpression of TXR1 induced cisplatin resistance in SGC-7901 cells. Downregulation of TXR1 reversed the drug resistance caused by elevation of TXR1 expression in SGC-7901/DDP cells. Animal experiments proved the effect of TXR1 in inducing cisplatin resistance in vivo. Further investigation revealed that TXR1 regulated cisplatin resistance via apoptosis. In conclusion, TXR1 is worthy of further in-depth study as a potential therapeutic target in patients with gastric cancer.
Project description:AIM:To compare the expression patterns of cholecystokinin-B (CCK-B)/gastrin receptor genes in matched human gastric carcinoma and adjacent non-neoplastic mucosa of patients with gastric cancer, inflammatory gastric mucosa from patients with gastritis, normal stomachs from 2 autopsied patients and a gastric carcinoma cell line (SGC-7901), and to explore their relationship with progression to malignancy of human gastric carcinomas. METHODS:RT-PCR and sequencing were employed to detect the mRNA expression levels of CCK-B receptor and gastrin gene in specimens from 30 patients with gastric carcinoma and healthy bordering non-cancerous mucosa, 10 gastritis patients and normal stomachs from 2 autopsied patients as well as SGC-7901. The results were semi-quantified by normalizing it to the mRNA level of beta-actin gene using Lab Image software. The sequences were analyzed by BLAST program. RESULTS:CCK-B receptor transcripts were detected in all of human gastric tissues in this study, including normal, inflammatory and malignant tissues and SGC-7901. However, the expression levels of CCK-B receptor in normal gastric tissues were higher than those in other groups (P<0.05), and its expressions did not correlate with the differentiation and metastasis of gastric cancer (P>0.05). On the other hand, gastrin mRNA was detected in SGC-7901 and in specimens obtained from gastric cancer patients (22/30) but not in other gastric tissues, and its expression was highly correlated with the metastases of gastric cancer (P<0.05). CONCLUSION:Human gastric carcinomas and gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901 cells coexpress CCK-B receptor and gastrin mRNA. Gastrin/CCK-B receptor autocrine or paracrine pathway may possibly play an important role in the progression of gastric cancer.