Polycystin-1 Is a Cardiomyocyte Mechanosensor That Governs L-Type Ca2+ Channel Protein Stability.
ABSTRACT: L-type calcium channel activity is critical to afterload-induced hypertrophic growth of the heart. However, the mechanisms governing mechanical stress-induced activation of L-type calcium channel activity are obscure. Polycystin-1 (PC-1) is a G protein-coupled receptor-like protein that functions as a mechanosensor in a variety of cell types and is present in cardiomyocytes.We subjected neonatal rat ventricular myocytes to mechanical stretch by exposing them to hypo-osmotic medium or cyclic mechanical stretch, triggering cell growth in a manner dependent on L-type calcium channel activity. RNAi-dependent knockdown of PC-1 blocked this hypertrophy. Overexpression of a C-terminal fragment of PC-1 was sufficient to trigger neonatal rat ventricular myocyte hypertrophy. Exposing neonatal rat ventricular myocytes to hypo-osmotic medium resulted in an increase in ?1C protein levels, a response that was prevented by PC-1 knockdown. MG132, a proteasomal inhibitor, rescued PC-1 knockdown-dependent declines in ?1C protein. To test this in vivo, we engineered mice harboring conditional silencing of PC-1 selectively in cardiomyocytes (PC-1 knockout) and subjected them to mechanical stress in vivo (transverse aortic constriction). At baseline, PC-1 knockout mice manifested decreased cardiac function relative to littermate controls, and ?1C L-type calcium channel protein levels were significantly lower in PC-1 knockout hearts. Whereas control mice manifested robust transverse aortic constriction-induced increases in cardiac mass, PC-1 knockout mice showed no significant growth. Likewise, transverse aortic constriction-elicited increases in hypertrophic markers and interstitial fibrosis were blunted in the knockout animalsPC-1 is a cardiomyocyte mechanosensor that is required for cardiac hypertrophy through a mechanism that involves stabilization of ?1C protein.
Project description:Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-?2 protects the heart against pressure overload-induced heart failure in mice. Although metformin is a known activator of AMPK, it is unclear whether its cardioprotection acts independently of an AMPK?2-dependent pathway. Because the role of AMPK?1 stimulation on remodeling of failing hearts is poorly defined, we first studied the effects of disruption of both the AMPK?1 and AMPK?2 genes on the response to transverse aortic constriction-induced left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and dysfunction in mice. AMPK?2 gene knockout significantly exacerbated the degree of transverse aortic constriction-induced LV hypertrophy and dysfunction, whereas AMPK?1 gene knockout had no effect on the degree of transverse aortic constriction-induced LV hypertrophy and dysfunction. Administration of metformin was equally effective in attenuating transverse aortic constriction-induced LV remodeling in both wild-type and AMPK?2 knockout mice, as evidenced by reduced LV and lung weights, a preserved LV ejection fraction, and reduced phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR(Ser2448)) and its downstream target p-p70S6K(Thr389). These data support the notion that activation of AMPK?1 plays a negligible role in protecting the heart against the adverse effects of chronic pressure overload, and that metformin protects against adverse remodeling through a pathway that seems independent of AMPK?2.
Project description:Background Protein posttranslational modifications by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) increase with cardiac hypertrophy, yet the functional effects of these changes are incompletely understood. In other organs, O-GlcNAc promotes adaptation to acute physiological stressors; however, prolonged O-GlcNAc elevations are believed to be detrimental. We hypothesize that early O-GlcNAcylation improves cardiac function during initial response to pressure overload hypertrophy, but that sustained elevations during established pathological hypertrophy negatively impact cardiac function by adversely affecting calcium handling proteins. Methods and Results Transverse aortic constriction or sham surgeries were performed on littermate controls or cardiac-specific, inducible O-GlcNAc transferase knockout (OGTKO) mice to reduce O-GlcNAc levels. O-GlcNAc transferase deficiency was induced at different times. To evaluate the initial response to pressure overload, OGTKO was completed preoperatively and mice were followed for 2 weeks post-surgery. To assess prolonged O-GlcNAcylation during established hypertrophy, OGTKO was performed starting 18 days after surgery and mice were followed until 6 weeks post-surgery. In both groups, OGTKO with transverse aortic constriction caused significant left ventricular dysfunction. OGTKO did not affect levels of the calcium handling protein SERCA2a. OGTKO reduced phosphorylation of phospholamban and cardiac troponin I, which would negatively impact cardiac function. O-GlcNAcylation of protein kinase A catalytic subunit, a kinase for phospholamban, decreased with OGTKO. Conclusions O-GlcNAcylation promotes compensated cardiac function in both early and established pathological hypertrophy. We identified a novel O-GlcNAcylation of protein kinase A catalytic subunit, which may regulate calcium handling and cardiac function.
Project description:Polycystin-1 (PC-1) and 2 (PC-2) are the products of the PKD1 and PKD2 genes, which are mutated in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD). They form a receptor/channel complex that has been suggested to function as a mechanosensor, possibly activated by ciliary bending in the renal tubule, and resulting in calcium influx. This model has recently been challenged, leaving the question as to which mechanical stimuli activate the polycystins still open. Here, we used a SILAC/Mass-Spec approach to identify intracellular binding partners of tagged-endogenous PC-1 whereby we detected a class of interactors mediating regulation of cellular actomyosin contraction. Accordingly, using gain and loss-of-function cellular systems we found that PC-1 negatively regulates cellular contraction and YAP activation in response to extracellular stiffness. Thus, PC-1 enables cells to sense the rigidity of the extracellular milieu and to respond appropriately. Of note, in an orthologous murine model of PKD we found evidence of increased actomyosin contraction, leading to enhanced YAP nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity. Finally, we show that inhibition of ROCK-dependent actomyosin contraction by Fasudil reversed YAP activation and significantly improved disease progression, in line with recent studies. Our data suggest a possible direct role of PC-1 as a mechanosensor of extracellular stiffness.
Project description:Double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is a eukaryotic initiation factor 2? kinase that inhibits mRNA translation under stress conditions. PKR also mediates inflammatory and apoptotic signaling independently of translational regulation. Congestive heart failure is associated with cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, inflammation, and apoptosis, but the role of PKR in left ventricular hypertrophy and the development of congestive heart failure has not been examined.We observed increased myocardial PKR expression and translocation of PKR into the nucleus in humans and mice with congestive heart failure. To determine the impact of PKR on the development of congestive heart failure, PKR knockout and wild-type mice were exposed to pressure overload produced by transverse aortic constriction. Although heart size increased similarly in wild-type and PKR knockout mice after transverse aortic constriction, PKR knockout mice exhibited very little pulmonary congestion, well-preserved left ventricular ejection fraction and contractility, and significantly less myocardial fibrosis compared with wild-type mice. Bone marrow-derived cells from wild-type mice did not abolish the cardiac protective effect observed in PKR knockout mice, whereas bone marrow-derived cells from PKR knockout mice had no cardiac protective effect in wild-type mice. Mechanistically, PKR knockout attenuated transverse aortic constriction-induced tumor necrosis factor-? expression and leukocyte infiltration and lowered cardiac expression of proapoptotic factors (Bax and caspase-3), so that PKR knockout hearts were more resistant to transverse aortic constriction-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. PKR depletion in isolated cardiomyocytes also conferred protection against tumor necrosis factor-?- or lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis.PKR is a maladaptive factor upregulated in hemodynamic overload that contributes to myocardial inflammation, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and the development of congestive heart failure.
Project description:AlphaB-crystallin (CryAB) is the most abundant small heat shock protein (HSP) constitutively expressed in cardiomyocytes. Gain- and loss-of-function studies demonstrated that CryAB can protect against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the role of CryAB or any HSPs in cardiac responses to mechanical overload is unknown. This study addresses this issue. Nontransgenic mice and mice with cardiomyocyte-restricted transgenic overexpression of CryAB or with germ-line ablation of the CryAB/HSPB2 genes were subjected to transverse aortic constriction or sham surgery. Two weeks later, cardiac responses were analyzed by fetal gene expression profiling, cardiac function analyses, and morphometry. Comparison among the 3 sham surgery groups reveals that CryAB overexpression is benign, whereas the knockout is detrimental to the heart as reflected by cardiac hypertrophy and malfunction at 10 weeks of age. Compared to nontransgenic mice, transgenic mouse hearts showed significantly reduced NFAT transactivation and attenuated cardiac hypertrophic responses to transverse aortic constriction but unchanged cardiac function, whereas NFAT transactivation was significantly increased in cardiac and skeletal muscle of the knockout mice at baseline, and they developed cardiac insufficiency at 2 weeks after transverse aortic constriction. CryAB overexpression in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes significantly attenuated adrenergic stimulation-induced NFAT transactivation and hypertrophic growth. We conclude that CryAB suppresses cardiac hypertrophic responses likely through attenuating NFAT signaling and that CryAB and/or HSPB2 are essential for normal cardiac function.
Project description:In contrast to the membrane bound adenylyl cyclases, the soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is activated by bicarbonate and divalent ions including calcium. sAC is located in the cytosol, nuclei and mitochondria of several tissues including cardiac muscle. However, its role in cardiac pathology is poorly understood. Here we investigate whether sAC is involved in hypertrophic growth using two different model systems.In isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes hypertrophy was induced by 24 h ?1-adrenoceptor stimulation using isoprenaline (ISO) and a ?2-adrenoceptor antagonist (ICI118,551). To monitor hypertrophy cell size along with RNA/DNA- and protein/DNA ratios as well as the expression level of ?-skeletal actin were analyzed. sAC activity was suppressed either by treatment with its specific inhibitor KH7 or by knockdown. Both pharmacological inhibition and knockdown blunted hypertrophic growth and reduced expression levels of ?-skeletal actin in ISO/ICI treated rat cardiomyocytes. To analyze the underlying cellular mechanism expression levels of phosphorylated CREB, B-Raf and Erk1/2 were examined by western blot. The results suggest the involvement of B-Raf, but not of Erk or CREB in the pro-hypertrophic action of sAC. In wild type and sAC knockout mice pressure overload was induced by transverse aortic constriction. Hemodynamics, heart weight and the expression level of the atrial natriuretic peptide were analyzed. In accordance, transverse aortic constriction failed to induce hypertrophy in sAC knockout mice. Mechanistic analysis revealed a potential role of Erk1/2 in TAC-induced hypertrophy.Soluble adenylyl cyclase might be a new pivotal player in the cardiac hypertrophic response either to long-term ?1-adrenoceptor stimulation or to pressure overload.
Project description:Altered vitamin D signaling is associated with cardiac dysfunction, but the pathogenic mechanism is not clearly understood. We examine the mechanism and the role of vitamin D signaling in the development of cardiac dysfunction.We analyzed 1?-hydroxylase (1?-OHase) knockout (1?-OHase-/-) mice, which lack 1?-OH enzymes that convert the inactive form to hormonally active form of vitamin D. 1?-OHase-/- mice showed modest cardiac hypertrophy at baseline. Induction of pressure overload by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) demonstrated exaggerated cardiac dysfunction in 1?-OHase-/- mice compared to their WT littermates with a significant increase in fibrosis and expression of inflammatory cytokines. Analysis of calcium (Ca2+) transient demonstrated profound Ca2+ handling abnormalities in 1?-OHase-/- mouse cardiomyocytes (CMs), and treatment with paricalcitol (PC), an activated vitamin D3 analog, significantly attenuated defective Ca2+ handling in 1?-OHase-/- CMs. We further delineated the effect of vitamin D deficiency condition to TAC by first correcting the vitamin D deficiency in 1?-OHase-/- mice, followed then by either a daily maintenance dose of vitamin D or vehicle (to achieve vitamin D deficiency) at the time of sham or TAC. In mice treated with vitamin D, there was a significant attenuation of TAC-induced cardiac hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis, inflammatory markers, Ca2+ handling abnormalities and cardiac function compared to the vehicle treated animals.Our results provide insight into the mechanism of cardiac dysfunction, which is associated with severely defective Ca2+ handling and defective vitamin D signaling in 1?-OHase-/- mice.
Project description:The inflammatory response regulates congestive heart failure (CHF) development. T cell activation plays an important role in tissue inflammation. We postulate that CD28 or B7 deficiency inhibits T cell activation and attenuates CHF development by reducing systemic, cardiac, and pulmonary inflammation. We demonstrated that chronic pressure overload-induced end-stage CHF in mice is characterized by profound accumulation of activated effector T cells (CD3(+)CD44(high) cells) in the lungs and a mild but significant increase of these cells in the heart. In knockout mice lacking either CD28 or B7, there was a dramatic reduction in the accumulation of activated effector T cells in both hearts and lungs of mice under control conditions and after transverse aortic constriction. CD28 or B7 knockout significantly attenuated transverse aortic constriction-induced CHF development, as indicated by less increase of heart and lung weight and less reduction of left ventricle contractility. CD28 or B7 knockout also significantly reduced transverse aortic constriction-induced CD45(+) leukocyte, T cell, and macrophage infiltration in hearts and lungs, lowered proinflammatory cytokine expression (such as tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1?) in lungs. Furthermore, CD28/B7 blockade by CTLA4-Ig treatment (250 ?g/mouse every 3 days) attenuated transverse aortic constriction-induced T cell activation, left ventricle hypertrophy, and left ventricle dysfunction. Our data indicate that CD28/B7 deficiency inhibits activated effector T cell accumulation, reduces myocardial and pulmonary inflammation, and attenuates the development of CHF. Our findings suggest that strategies targeting T cell activation may be useful in treating CHF.
Project description:RATIONALE:Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress dysregulates ER proteostasis, which activates the transcription factor, ATF6 (activating transcription factor 6?), an inducer of genes that enhance protein folding and restore ER proteostasis. Because of increased protein synthesis, it is possible that protein folding and ER proteostasis are challenged during cardiac myocyte growth. However, it is not known whether ATF6 is activated, and if so, what its function is during hypertrophic growth of cardiac myocytes. OBJECTIVE:To examine the activity and function of ATF6 during cardiac hypertrophy. METHODS AND RESULTS:We found that ER stress and ATF6 were activated and ATF6 target genes were induced in mice subjected to an acute model of transverse aortic constriction, or to free-wheel exercise, both of which promote adaptive cardiac myocyte hypertrophy with preserved cardiac function. Cardiac myocyte-specific deletion of Atf6 (ATF6 cKO [conditional knockout]) blunted transverse aortic constriction and exercise-induced cardiac myocyte hypertrophy and impaired cardiac function, demonstrating a role for ATF6 in compensatory myocyte growth. Transcript profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation identified RHEB (Ras homologue enriched in brain) as an ATF6 target gene in the heart. RHEB is an activator of mTORC1 (mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1), a major inducer of protein synthesis and subsequent cell growth. Both transverse aortic constriction and exercise upregulated RHEB, activated mTORC1, and induced cardiac hypertrophy in wild type mouse hearts but not in ATF6 cKO hearts. Mechanistically, knockdown of ATF6 in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes blocked phenylephrine- and IGF1 (insulin-like growth factor 1)-mediated RHEB induction, mTORC1 activation, and myocyte growth, all of which were restored by ectopic RHEB expression. Moreover, adeno-associated virus 9- RHEB restored cardiac growth to ATF6 cKO mice subjected to transverse aortic constriction. Finally, ATF6 induced RHEB in response to growth factors, but not in response to other activators of ATF6 that do not induce growth, indicating that ATF6 target gene induction is stress specific. CONCLUSIONS:Compensatory cardiac hypertrophy activates ER stress and ATF6, which induces RHEB and activates mTORC1. Thus, ATF6 is a previously unrecognized link between growth stimuli and mTORC1-mediated cardiac growth.
Project description:This study examined whether endogenous extracellular adenosine acts to facilitate the adaptive response of the heart to chronic systolic overload. To examine whether endogenous extracellular adenosine can protect the heart against pressure-overload-induced heart failure, transverse aortic constriction was performed on mice deficient in extracellular adenosine production as the result of genetic deletion of CD73. Although there was no difference in left ventricular size or function between CD73-deficient mice (knockout [KO] mice) and wild-type mice under unstressed conditions, aortic constriction for 2 or 4 weeks induced significantly more myocardial hypertrophy, left ventricular dilation, and left ventricular dysfunction in KO mice compared with wild-type mice. Thus, after 2 weeks of transverse aortic constriction, left ventricular fractional shortening decreased to 27.4+/-2.5% and 21.9+/-1.7% in wild-type and KO mice, respectively (P<0.05). Consistent with a role of adenosine in reducing tissue remodeling, KO mice displayed increased myocardial fibrosis and myocyte hypertrophy compared with wild-type mice. Furthermore, adenosine treatment reduced phenylephrine-induced cardiac myocyte hypertrophy and collagen production in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes and cardiac fibroblasts, respectively. Consistent with a role for adenosine in modulating cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, KO mice demonstrated increased activation of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, accompanied by higher expression of the hypertrophy marker atrial natriuretic peptide. Conversely, the adenosine analogue 2-chloro-adenosine significantly reduced cell size, mammalian target of rapamycin/p70 ribosomal S6 kinase activation, and atrial natriuretic peptide expression in cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes. These data demonstrate that CD73 helps to preserve cardiac function during chronic systolic overload by preventing maladaptive tissue remodeling.