A Prospective Study to Evaluate Intravitreous Ranibizumab as Adjunctive Treatment for Trabeculectomy in Neovascular Glaucoma.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) as adjunctive treatment for trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (TMC) in neovascular glaucoma (NVG). METHODS: This is a prospective study of 15 eyes from 14 consecutive patients with NVG carried out between December 2008 and December 2009. Each eye received IVR (0.5 mg/0.05 ml) 1 week before TMC. Trabeculectomy was performed with fornix-based conjunctival flap method. After TMC, additional panretinal photocoagulation (PRP), subconjunctival five fluorouracil injection, and bleb needling may be performed if indicated. The primary outcome measures were post-TMC intraocular pressure (IOP) and numbers of anti-glaucoma medication. The secondary outcome measures included of the recurrence of neovascularization at iris (NVI) and complications. RESULTS: Six eyes underwent adequate PRP before IVR but iris rubeosis still persisted. All eyes showed regression of NVI within 1 week after IVR. After TMC, mean IOP was significantly decreased from 37.9 mmHg preoperatively to 15.6 mmHg postoperatively (P < 0.001). Intraoperative hyphema was observed in four eyes. Thirteen eyes had controlled IOP (<21 mmHg) at last visit among which only one eye needed anti-glaucoma medication. Two eyes were considered as failure and needed further intervention. Visual acuity was maintained or improved in eight eyes. Recurrent NVI was not detected. All patients were symptom-free at last visit. Mean follow-up was 39 weeks. CONCLUSION: IVR is an effective treatment adjunctive to TMC for NVG. The occurrence of intraoperative complications was low and the short-term outcomes after trabeculectomy were favorable.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravitreal conbercept combined with trabeculectomy and panretinal photocoagulation for neovascular glaucoma (NVG). METHODS:Fifty patients (54 eyes) with NVG were included in this prospective study. Fifty-two eyes initially underwent intravitreal conbercept (0.5 mg/0.05 ml) treatment followed by trabeculectomy and panretinal photocoagulation. Preoperative and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), the number of antiglaucoma medications, and surgical complications were recorded. The levels of VEGF-A, TGF-β1 and PLGF in aqueous humour samples collected during surgery were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to observe the surgically excised trabecular tissue; enucleation was performed in 2 eyes, and light microscopy was used as the histopathological control. RESULTS:The follow-up period after trabeculectomy was 1 year. Of the 52 eyes, 39 completed 1 year of follow-up, and 13 were lost to follow-up. Recurrence of iris neovascularization was observed in 5 eyes, 9 had hyphema, 16 had filter-bled scarring, and no eye had complications attributable to the drug. The mean IOP was reduced from 48.1 ± 14.2 to 23.2 ± 8.7 mmHg, and the mean number of antiglaucoma medications used decreased from 3.0 (3.0, 4.0) to 1.0 (0.0, 1.0) after 1 year (both P < 0.05). The complete success rate was 76.9, 76.9, 71.0, 51.6, and 32.3% at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months, respectively, when the cut-off IOP was 18 mmHg. After patients underwent intravitreal injection, the concentrations of VEGF-A and TGF-β1 in the aqueous humour in NVG patients decreased from 168.8 ± 13.4 and 159.6 ± 15.4 pg/ml to 160.2 ± 7.6 and 151.9 ± 2.3 pg/ml, respectively (both P < 0.05). Light microscopy revealed neovascularization regression in the iris in specimens treated with intravitreal conbercept. Electron microscopy revealed trabecular endothelial cell degeneration in the conbercept-treated specimens. CONCLUSIONS:Our initial findings suggest that intravitreal conbercept is an effective treatment for managing NVG that has fewer short-term postoperative complications. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Current Controlled Trials ChiCTR1800019918 , 8 December 2018, retrospectively registered.
Project description:Neovascular glaucoma (NVG) is a severe secondary glaucoma with uncontrolled intraocular pressure that leads to serious eye pain and vision loss. Presently, the therapeutic strategies for NVG are diverse, but the therapeutic effects are still not ideal. We performed a network analysis to assess the effect of multiple therapeutic strategies on the treatment of NVG patients.We searched public electronic databases through April 2017 using the following keywords "neovascular glaucoma," "iris neovascularization," "hemorrhagic glaucoma," and "random" without language restrictions. The outcome considered in the present analysis was treatment success rate. A network meta-analysis and multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression were used to compare regimens.We included 27 articles assessing a total of 1884 NVG patients in our analysis. According to the network analysis, interferon and mitomycin plus trabeculectomy (94.9%), glaucoma valve implantation (86.9%), and iris photocoagulation plus trabeculectomy (81.9%) were the most likely to improve treatment success rate in NVG patients. The multilevel logistic regression analysis showed that glaucoma valve, bevacizumab, interferon, cyclophotocoagulation, trabeculectomy, iris photocoagulation, ranibizumab, and mitomycin had advantages in terms of improving treatment success rate in NVG patients. However, the application of retinal photocoagulation and vitrectomy reduced patient treatment success rate.The regimen including mitomycin, interferon, and trabeculectomy was the most likely to improve the treatment success rate in NVG patients. The application of glaucoma valve and bevacizumab were more beneficial for improving patient treatment success rate as a surgery and as an agent, respectively.
Project description:PURPOSE:This study aims to compare the rate of surgical failure after trabeculectomy followed by phacoemulsification vs trabeculectomy alone for 5 years. METHOD:A total of 1,098 eyes of patients with glaucoma who underwent trabeculectomy with mitomycin C at 34 clinical centers included in CBIITS were analyzed. During follow-up, some eyes were treated with phacoemulsification because of cataract progression. The patients were divided into the "trabeculectomy followed by phacoemulsification" and "trabeculectomy alone" groups, and surgical probabilities were compared. Surgical failure was defined on the basis of mean IOP as follows; < 20% reduction in preoperative IOP or IOP ? 21 mmHg (criterion A), IOP ? 18 mmHg (criterion B), or IOP ? 15 mmHg (criterion C). RESULT:In total, 40 eyes were treated with trabeculectomy followed by phacoemulsification and 208 with trabeculectomy alone. Preoperative intraocular pressure was 22.1 ± 8.7 mmHg in the trabeculectomy followed by phacoemulsification group and 20.5 ± 6.3 mmHg in trabeculectomy alone group (P = 0.47). The 5-year cumulative probabilities of success in the trabeculectomy followed by phacoemulsification and trabeculectomy alone groups were respectively 40.0% and 59.1% for criterion A (P = 0.01), 35.0% and 52.9% for criterion B (P = 0.01), and 25.0% and 37.5% for criterion C (P = 0.08). Cox proportional hazards regression model indicated that shorter time gap between trabeculectomy and phacoemulsification was associated with surgical failure. CONCLUSION:Phacoemulsification following trabeculectomy adversely affects surgical outcomes. In particular, a shorter time gap between trabeculectomy and phacoemulsification reduces the probability of success.
Project description:Purpose. To determine the efficacy of intravitreal ranibizumab injection as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of neovascular glaucoma (NVG) accompanied by postvitrectomy diabetic vitreous hemorrhage (PDVH). Methods. Eighteen NVG patients (18 eyes) accompanied by PDVH were enrolled in this prospective, monocenter, 12-month, interventional case series. The consecutive 18 patients with an IOP ? 25?mmHg despite being treated with the maximum medical therapy were treated with intravitreal ranibizumab injections. Vitreous surgery or/with Ahmed valve implantation were indicated if no clinical improvement in vitreous haemorrhage and uncontrolled IOP was shown. Results. Ten patients got clear vitreous and controlled IOP only with 2.7 ± 1.8 injections of ranibizumab without additional surgery. Vitrectomy or/with Ahmed valve implantation was administered in the other 8 eyes due to uncontrolled VH and IOP. At follow-up month 12, all the 18 eyes gained clear vitreous. At month 12 BCVA improved significantly compared to baseline. The baseline and follow-up at month 12 IOP/medication usage were 36.7 ± 8.1?mmHg on 3.4 ± 0.7 medications and 16.2 ± 4.9?mmHg on 0.67 ± 0.77 medications, respectively. Conclusions. The findings suggest that intravitreal ranibizumab injection as adjuvant therapy for treatment of NVG accompanied by PDVH may be safe and potentially effective. This clinical trial is registered with NCT02647515.
Project description:To compare the lamina cribrosa between eyes with and without neovascular glaucoma (NVG) using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.Forty-six patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The patients were divided into two groups based on the absence or presence of NVG (the non-NVG group and the NVG group, respectively). The intraocular pressure (IOP), circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) thickness, anterior lamina cribrosa depth (ALD), and laminar thickness (LT) were compared between the groups.In the non-NVG group, the mean age was 66.2 ± 2.4 (mean ± standard error) years, mean maximum IOP was 18.8 ± 1.8 mmHg, mean cpRNFL thickness was 91.2 ± 3.9 ?m, mean ALD was 407.0 ± 22.9 ?m, and mean LT was 155.0 ± 4.7 ?m. In the NVG group, the mean age was 61.4 ± 2.1 years, mean maximum IOP was 33.1 ± 1.6 mmHg, mean cpRNFL thickness was 73.6 ± 3.4 ?m, mean ALD was 403.9 ± 20.1 ?m, and mean LT was 156.9 ± 4.2 ?m. The IOP was significantly higher and the cpRNFL was significantly thinner in the NVG group (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively). However, the age, ALD, and LT were not statistically different between the groups (P = 0.151, 0.919, and 0.757, respectively).Although the cpRNFL was thinner, the structure of the lamina cribrosa was unchanged in the NVG eyes. Axonal loss of the retinal ganglion cells in NVG patients was prior to lamina cribrosa deformation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>To compare 6?month outcomes of bleb needling performed in the clinic vs. the operating room (OR) in adult glaucoma patients with failed bleb.<h4>Methods</h4>A retrospective case series of 47 eyes from 41 glaucoma patients who received needling with mitomycin C (MMC) of scarred bleb from prior bleb-forming procedures in clinic (32 eyes) vs. the OR (15 eyes), including trabeculectomy (14 eyes), ExPress shunt (16 eyes), and ab-interno XEN gel stent (17 eyes). The primary outcome was needling success, defined as IOP???18?mmHg on 0 glaucoma medications without requiring an additional IOP lowering procedure within 6?months after needling.<h4>Results</h4>At 6?months, bleb needling success rate was similar when performed in the clinic vs. in the OR (28% vs. 20%, P?=?0.54). Success rate was not statistically different in patients with prior trabeculectomy, ExPress shunt, and XEN gel stent (29% vs. 38% vs. 12%, P?=?0.26). When comparing clinic vs. the OR needling procedures at 6?months, there was no difference in mean IOP (14.2 vs. 14.9?mmHg, P?=?0.73), mean glaucoma medications (1.4 vs. 1.7, P?=?0.69), additional IOP-lowering procedure rate (16% vs. 27%, P?=?0.37), or complication rate (0% vs. 7%, P?=?0.32).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Bleb needling with MMC in clinic may be a safe and effective way to revise failed bleb after trabeculectomy, ExPress shunt, and XEN gel stent procedures when compared to needling in the OR.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To evaluate changes in the concentrations of placental growth factor (PlGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) in aqueous humor of patients with neovascular glaucoma (NVG) before and after an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (IVR) and to determine the underlying correlation between the levels.<h4>Methods</h4>The prospective interventional comparative study involved 20 eyes of 20 patients with surgery-required advanced NVG and 20 control subjects from January 2013 to November 2013. The NVG eyes received the IVR treatment before glaucoma surgery. Aqueous humor was collected at the time of the IVR injection (pre- IVR) and at the time of antiglaucomatous surgery (post-IVR). Aqueous humor was also collected at the time of cataract surgery in normal control. Aqueous humor and plasma VEGF-A and PlGF levels were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods, respectively.<h4>Results</h4>The mean aqueous humor PlGF and VEGF-A concentrations in the pre-IVR eyes were significantly higher than in those of the control subjects (p<0.001), whereas the plasma levels showed no significant difference. There was a statistically significant correlation between the aqueous humor PlGF and the VEGF-A concentration (r = 0.612, p = 0.003). The mean aqueous humor PlGF in the post-IVR eyes dramatically decreased from 1078.36 ± 755.83 to 177.64 ± 151.73 pg/mL (p<0.001). The VEGF-A level showed a similar trend from 3697.64 ± 2104.47 pg/mL to 183.54 ± 130.35 pg/mL (p<0.001).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Aqueous humor concentrations of VEGF-A and PlGF were significantly elevated in the eyes with NVG, and there was a positive correlation between the levels. After an IVR treatment, VEGF-A and PlGF were significantly decreased in NVG eyes.
Project description:Purpose:To report a particular circumstance that led to the abnormal complication of choroidal detachment (CD)-induced secondary angle-closure after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (MMC). Observations:An 82-year-old Japanese male patient with underlying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and suspicion of ocular venous congestion in both eyes whom diagnosed as primary open-angle glaucoma with uncontrolled intraocular pressure (IOP) of his left eye then underwent an uneventful trabeculectomy with MMC. After the surgery, his left eye had high IOP with a shallow anterior chamber (A/C) but the bleb was hyperfiltration. The high CD was found by B-scan ultrasonography behind the iris and after conservative treatment, the CD was improved, A/C was deepened, and IOP was lower to 16 mmHg. Conclusion and Importance:CD-induced secondary angle-closure after trabeculectomy with MMC is a complication to be considered in patients with shallow A/C and high IOP. Fundus examination should be done to rule out this condition before any aggressive treatment as CD can resolve spontaneously with time. Clinicians should be aware of this condition especially in patients with any signs of ocular venous congestion as there have been few reports mentioned about the complication in the patients.
Project description:We compared the surgical successes of limbus- and fornix-based trabeculectomies in open-angle glaucoma (OAG) eyes that had prior ocular surgery in the Collaborative Bleb-Related Infection Incidence and Treatment Study (CBIITS), Japan. From the 1,098 glaucoma eyes in 34 clinical centers in CBIITS, 195 OAG eyes that had undergone previous trabeculectomy and/or lens extraction were included. Limbus- or fornix-based trabeculectomy with mitomycin C were performed. Surgical failure (IOP ≥ 21, 18, or 15 mmHg for criterion A, B or C, respectively; <20% decrease from baseline; reoperation for glaucoma; or loss of light perception vision) was counted. There were 106 and 89 eyes treated with limbus- and fornix-based trabeculectomies, respectively. At 3 years, IOP (mean ± SD) was 12.5 ± 5.9 and 14.1 ± 6.4 mmHg and the cumulative probabilities of failure during 3 years were 30.2% and 50.5% for criterion A, 40.3% and 57.4% for criterion B, and 57.9% and 65.8% for criterion C in the limbus- and the fornix-based group, respectively. Fornix-based incisions were associated with surgical failure in Cox-proportional multivariable analysis for criterion A [relative risk (RR) = 1.96], and B [RR = 1.60]. Limbus-based trabeculectomy had a higher probability of success in OAG eyes with prior ocular surgery.