Facile chemoenzymatic synthesis of biotinylated heparosan hexasaccharide.
ABSTRACT: A biotinylated heparosan hexasaccharide was synthesized using a one-pot multi-enzyme strategy, in situ activation and transfer of N-trifluoroacetylglucosamine (GlcNTFA) to a heparin backbone significantly improved the synthetic efficiency. The biotinylated hexasaccharide could serve as a flexible core to diversify its conversion into heparan sulfate isoforms with potential biological applications and therapeutics.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Heparosan is the unsulfated precursor of heparin and heparan sulfate and its synthesis is typically the first step in the production of bioengineered heparin. In addition to its utility as the starting material for this important anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory drug, heparosan is a versatile compound that possesses suitable chemical and physical properties for making a variety of high-quality tissue engineering biomaterials, gels and scaffolds, as well as serving as a drug delivery vehicle. The selected production host was the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium, which represents an increasingly used choice for high-yield production of intra- and extracellular biomolecules for scientific and industrial applications. RESULTS:We have engineered the metabolism of B. megaterium to produce heparosan, using a T7 RNA polymerase (T7 RNAP) expression system. This system, which allows tightly regulated and efficient induction of genes of interest, has been co-opted for control of Pasteurella multocida heparosan synthase (PmHS2). Specifically, we show that B. megaterium MS941 cells co-transformed with pT7-RNAP and pPT7_PmHS2 plasmids are capable of producing heparosan upon induction with xylose, providing an alternate, safe source of heparosan. Productivities of ~ 250 mg/L of heparosan in shake flasks and ~ 2.74 g/L in fed-batch cultivation were reached. The polydisperse Pasteurella heparosan synthase products from B. megaterium primarily consisted of a relatively high molecular weight (MW) heparosan (~ 200-300 kD) that may be appropriate for producing certain biomaterials; while the less abundant lower MW heparosan fractions (~ 10-40 kD) can be a suitable starting material for heparin synthesis. CONCLUSION:We have successfully engineered an asporogenic and non-pathogenic B. megaterium host strain to produce heparosan for various applications, through a combination of genetic manipulation and growth optimization strategies. The heparosan products from B. megaterium display a different range of MW products than traditional E. coli K5 products, diversifying its potential applications and facilitating increased product utility.
Project description:In vertebrates and bacteria, heparosan the precursor of heparin is synthesized by glycosyltransferases via the stepwise addition of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine and UDP-glucuronic acid. As heparin-like molecules represent a great interest in the pharmaceutical area, the cryptic Pasteurella multocida heparosan synthase PmHS2 found to catalyze heparosan synthesis using substrate analogs has been studied. In this paper, we report an efficient way to purify PmHS2 and to maintain its activity stable during 6 months storage at -80 degrees Celsius using His-tag purification and a desalting step. In the presence of 1 mM of each nucleotide sugar, purified PmHS2 synthesized polymers up to an average molecular weight of 130 kDa. With 5 mM of UDP-GlcUA and 5 mM of UDP-GlcNAc, an optimal specific activity, from 3 to 6 h of incubation, was found to be about 0.145 nmol/microg/min, and polymers up to an average of 102 kDa were synthesized in 24 h. In this study, we show that the chain length distribution of heparosan polymers can be controlled by change of the initial nucleotide sugar concentration. It was observed that low substrate concentration favors the formation of high molecular weight heparosan polymer with a low polydispersity while high substrate concentration did the opposite. Similarities in the polymerization mechanism between PmHS2, PmHS1, and PmHAS are discussed.
Project description:Heparosan is the key precursor for the preparation of bioengineered heparin, a potential replacement for porcine intestinal heparin, an important anticoagulant drug. The molecular weight (MW) distribution of heparosan produced by the fermentation of E. coli K5 was investigated. Large-slab isocratic and mini-slab gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) were used to analyze the MW and polydispersity of heparosan. A preparative method that allowed fractionation by continuous-elution PAGE was used to obtain heparosan MW standards. The MWs of the heparosan standards were determined by electrospray ionization Fourier-transform mass spectrometry (ESI-FT-MS). A ladder of the standards was then used to determine the MW properties of polydisperse heparosan samples. Unbleached and bleached heparosan produced by fermentation of E. coli K5 had similar number-averaged MWs (M(N)), weight-averaged MWs (M(W)), and MW ranges of 3,000 to 150,000 Da.
Project description:Heparosan is a polysaccharide, which serves as the critical precursor in heparin biosynthesis and chemoenzymatic synthesis of bioengineered heparin. Because the molecular weight of microbial heparosan is considerably larger than heparin, the controlled depolymerization of microbial heparosan is necessary prior to its conversion to bioengineered heparin. We have previously reported that other acidic polysaccharides could be partially depolymerized with maintenance of their internal structure using a titanium dioxide-catalyzed photochemical reaction. This photolytic process is characterized by the generation of reactive oxygen species that oxidize individual saccharide residues within the polysaccharide chain. Using a similar approach, a microbial heparosan from Escherichia coli K5 of molecular weight >15,000 was depolymerized to a heparosan of molecular weight 8,000. The (1)H-NMR spectra obtained showed that the photolyzed heparosan maintained the same structure as the starting heparosan. The polysaccharide chains of the photochemically depolymerized heparosan were also characterized by electrospray ionization-Fourier-transform mass spectrometry. While the chain of K5 heparosan starting material contained primarily an even number of saccharide residues, as a result of coliphage K5 lyase processing, both odd and even chain numbers were detected in the photochemically-depolymerized heparosan. These results suggest that the photochemical depolymerization of heparosan was a random process that can take place at either the glucuronic acid or the N-acetylglucosamine residue within the heparosan polysaccharide.
Project description:The chemoenzymatic synthesis of heparan sulfate tetrasaccharide (1) and hexasaccharide (2) with a fluorous tag attached at the reducing end is reported. The fluorous tert-butyl dicarbonate ((F)Boc) tag did not interfere with enzymatic recognition for both elongation and specific sulfation, and flash purification was performed by standard fluorous solid-phase extraction (FSPE). Based on an (F)Boc attached disaccharide as acceptor, a series of partial N-sulfated, 6-O-sulfated heparan sulfate oligosaccharides were successfully synthesized employing fluorous techniques.
Project description:Heparan sulfate and heparin are highly sulfated polysaccharides that consist of a repeating disaccharide unit of glucosamine and glucuronic or iduronic acid. The 2-O-sulfated iduronic acid (IdoA2S) residue is commonly found in heparan sulfate and heparin; however, 2-O-sulfated glucuronic acid (GlcA2S) is a less abundant monosaccharide (?<5% of total saccharides). Here, we report the synthesis of three GlcA2S-containing hexasaccharides using a chemoenzymatic approach. For comparison purposes, additional IdoA2S-containing hexasaccharides were synthesized. Nuclear magnetic resonance analyses were performed to obtain full chemical shift assignments for the GlcA2S- and IdoA2S-hexasaccharides. These data show that GlcA2S is a more structurally rigid saccharide residue than IdoA2S. The antithrombin (AT) binding affinities of a GlcA2S- and an IdoA2S-hexasaccharide were determined by affinity co-electrophoresis. In contrast to IdoA2S-hexasaccharides, the GlcA2S-hexasaccharide does not bind to AT, confirming that the presence of IdoA2S is critically important for the anticoagulant activity. The availability of pure synthetic GlcA2S-containing oligosaccharides will allow the investigation of the structure and activity relationships of individual sites in heparin or heparan sulfate.
Project description:Heparan sulfate (HS) and heparin are highly sulfated polysaccharides exhibiting essential physiological functions. The sulfation patterns determine the functional selectivity for HS and heparin. Chemical synthesis of HS, especially those larger than a hexasaccharide, remains challenging. Enzymatic synthesis of HS has recently gained momentum. Here we describe the divergent assembly of HS heptasaccharides and nonasaccharides from a common hexasaccharide precursor. The hexasaccharide precursor was synthesized via a chemical method. The subsequent elongation, sulfation and epimerization were completed by glycosyltransferases, HS sulfotransferases and epimerase. Using the synthesized heptasaccharides, we discovered that the iduronic acid is critical for binding to fibroblast growth factor-2. We also designed a synthetic path to prepare a nonasaccharide with an antithrombin-binding affinity of 3 nM. Our method demonstrated the feasibility of combining chemical and enzymatic synthesis to prepare structurally defined HS oligosaccharides with desired biological activities.
Project description:Pasteurella multocida heparosan synthase PmHS2 is a dual action glycosyltransferase that catalyzes the polymerization of heparosan polymers in a non-processive manner. The two PmHS2 single-action transferases, obtained previously by site-directed mutagenesis, have been immobilized on Ni(II)-nitrilotriacetic acid agarose during the purification step. A detailed study of the polymerization process in the presence of non-equal amounts of PmHS2 single-action transferases revealed that the glucuronyl transferase (PmHS2-GlcUA(+)) is the limiting catalyst in the polymerization process. Using experimental design, it was determined that the N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase (PmHS2-GlcNAc(+)) plays an important role in the control of heparosan chain elongation depending on the number of heparosan chains and the UDP-sugar concentrations present in the reaction mixture. Furthermore, for the first time, the synthesis of heparosan oligosaccharides alternately using PmHS2-GlcUA(+) and PmHS2-GlcNAc(+) is reported. It was shown that the synthesis of heparosan oligosaccharides by PmHS2 single-action transferases do not require the presence of template molecules in the reaction mixture.
Project description:Heparosan is an acidic polysaccharide natural product, which serves as the critical precursor in heparin biosynthesis and in the chemoenzymatic synthesis of bioengineered heparin. Heparosan is also the capsular polysaccharide of Escherichia coli K5 strain. The current study was focused on the examination of the fermentation of E. coli K5 with the goal of producing heparosan in high yield and volumetric productivity. The structure and molecular weight properties of this bacterial heparosan were determined using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and Fourier transform mass spectrometry. Fermentation of E. coli K5 in a defined medium using exponential fed-batch glucose addition with oxygen enrichment afforded heparosan at 15?g/L having a number average molecular weight of 58,000?Da and a weight average molecular weight of 84,000?Da.
Project description:The structure of heparosan capsular polysaccharide (CPS) has been determined using enzymatic digestion with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Previous errors in the assignment of the glycolipid acceptor structure, from which heparosan is extended, have been corrected. The structure of heparosan CPS is GlcNAc ?-1,[4GlcA ?-1,4GlcNAc ?-1,]n4GlcA ?-1,[4Kdo ?-2,7Kdo ?-2,]0 or 14Kdo ?-2,7Kdo ?-2,4Kdo ?-2,7Kdo ?-2,4Kdo ?-2,7Kdo ?-2,4Kdo ?-PG-I (C16:0 or C18:0) (where n is ~250 for a CPS of 100 kDa).