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Feeding a High Concentrate Diet Down-Regulates Expression of ACACA, LPL and SCD and Modifies Milk Composition in Lactating Goats.
ABSTRACT: High concentrate diets are fed to early and mid-lactation stages dairy ruminants to meet the energy demands for high milk production in modern milk industry. The present study evaluated the effects of a high concentrate diet on milk fat and milk composition, especially, cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in milk and gene expression of lactating goats. Eight mid-lactating goats with rumen fistula were randomly assigned into a high concentrate diet (HCD) group and low concentrate diet (LCD) group. High concentrate diet feeding significantly increased lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in plasma and decreased milk fat content, vaccenic acid (VA) and cis-9, trans-11 CLA in milk of the lactating goats. The mRNA expression levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein B 1c (SREBP1c), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthetase (FASN) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase ? (ACACA, ACC?) involving in lipid metabolism were analyzed, and ACACA and LPL all decreased in their expression level in the mammary glands of goats fed a high concentrate diet. DNA methylation rate of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) was elevated and decreased, and SCD mRNA and protein expression was reduced significantly in the mammary glands of goats fed a high concentrate diet. In conclusion, feeding a high concentrate diet to lactating goats decreases milk fat and reduced expression of SCD in the mammary gland, which finally induced cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in milk.
Project description:It is well known that feeding a high concentrate (HC) diet to lactating ruminants likely induces subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) and leads to a decrease in milk fat production. However, the effects of feeding a HC diet for long periods on milk fatty acids composition and the mechanism behind the decline of milk fat still remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of feeding a HC diet to lactating dairy goats on milk fat yield and fatty acids composition with an emphasis on the mechanisms underlying the milk fat depression. Seventeen mid-lactating dairy goats were randomly allocated to three groups. The control treatment was fed a low-concentrate diet (35% concentrate, n = 5, LC) and there were two high-concentrate treatments (65% concentrate, HC), one fed a high concentrate diet for a long period (19 wks, n = 7, HL); one fed a high concentrate diet for a short period of time (4 wk, n = 5, HS). Milk fat production and fatty acids profiles were measured. In order to investigate the mechanisms underlying the changes in milk fat production and composition, the gene expression involved in lipid metabolism and DNA methylation in the mammary gland were also analyzed.Milk production was increased by feeding the HC diet in the HS and HL groups compared with the LC diet (P < 0.01), while the percentage of milk fat was lower in the HL (P < 0.05) but not in the HS group. The total amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in the milk was not changed by feeding the HC diet, whereas the levels of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were markedly decreased in the HL group compared with the LC group (P < 0.05). Among these fatty acids, the concentrations of C15:0 (P < 0.01), C17:0 (P < 0.01), C17:1 (P < 0.01), C18:1n-9c (P < 0.05), C18:3n-3r (P < 0.01) and C20:0 (P < 0.01) were markedly lower in the HL group, and the concentrations of C20:0 (P < 0.05) and C18:3n-3r (P < 0.01) were lower in the HS group compared with the LC group. However, the concentrations of C18:2n-6c (P < 0.05) and C20:4n-6 (P < 0.05) in the milk fat were higher in the HS group. Real-time PCR results showed that the mRNA expression of the genes involved in milk fat production in the mammary gland was generally decreased in the HL and HS groups compared with the LC group. Among these genes, ACSL1, ACSS1 & 2, ACACA, FAS, SCD, FADS2, and SREBP1 were down-regulated in the mammary gland of the HL group (P < 0.05), and the expressions of ACSS2, ACACA, and FADS2 mRNA were markedly decreased in the HS goats compared with the LC group (P < 0.05). In contrast to the gene expression, the level of DNA methylation in the promoter regions of the ACACA and SCD genes was increased in the HL group compared with the LC group (P < 0.05). The levels of ACSL1 protein expression and FAS enzyme activity were also decreased in the mammary gland of the HL compared with the LC group (P < 0.05).Long-term feeding of a HC diet to lactating goats induced milk fat depression and FAs profile shift with lower MUFAs but higher SFAs. A general down-regulation of the gene expression involved in the milk fat production and a higher DNA methylation in the mammary gland may contribute to the decrease in milk fat production in goats fed a HC diet for long time periods.
Project description:Background:Starch is an important substance that supplies energy to ruminants. To provide sufficient energy for high-yielding dairy ruminants, they are typically fed starch-enriched diets. However, starch-enriched diets have been proven to increase the risk of milk fat depression (MFD) in dairy cows. The starch present in ruminant diets could be divided into rumen-degradable starch (RDS) and rumen escaped starch (RES) according to their different degradation sites (rumen or intestine). Goats and cows have different sensitivities to MFD. Data regarding the potential roles of RDS in milk fat synthesis in the mammary tissue of dairy goats and in regulating the occurrence of MFD are limited. Results:Eighteen Guanzhong dairy goats (day in milk?=?185?±?12 d) with similar parity, weight, and milk yield were selected and randomly assigned to one of three groups (n?=?6), which were fed an LRDS diet (Low RDS?=?20.52%), MRDS diet (Medium RDS?=?22.15%), or HRDS diet (High RDS?=?24.88%) for 5?weeks. Compared with that of the LRDS group, the milk fat contents in the MRDS and HRDS groups significantly decreased. The yields of short-, medium- and long-chain fatty acids decreased in the HRDS group. Furthermore, increased RDS significantly decreased ruminal B. fibrisolvens and Pseudobutyrivibrio abundances and increased the trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and trans-10 C18:1 contents in the rumen fluid.A multiomics study revealed that the HRDS diet affected mammary lipid metabolism down-regulation of ACSS2, MVD, AGPS, SCD5, FADS2, CERCAM, SC5D, HSD17B7, HSD17B12, ATM, TP53RK, GDF1 and LOC102177400. Remarkably, the significant decrease of INSIG1, whose expression was depressed by trans-10, cis-12 CLA, could reduce the activity of SREBP and, consequently, downregulate the downstream gene expression of SREBF1. Conclusions:HRDS-induced goat MFD resulted from the downregulation of genes involved in lipogenesis, particularly, INSIG1. Specifically, even though the total starch content and the concentrate-to-fiber ratio were the same as those of the high-RDS diet, the low and medium RDS diets did not cause MFD in lactating goats.
Project description:Milk fat depression (MFD) is characterized by a reduction in the content of milk fat, presumably caused by the anti-lipogenic effects of rumen biohydrogenation intermediates, such as trans-10 cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). In this study, RNA-Seq technology was used to help elucidate the mammary responses involved in CLA-induced MFD in lactating ewes. To this end, we compared the milk somatic cell transcriptome of ewes suffering from CLA-induced MFD with control ewes (i.e., those without MFD), as well as with ewes fed a diet supplemented with fish oil (FO-MFD) that we previously reported affects the mammary transcriptome. In the differential expression analysis between CLA-MFD and controls, we identified 1,524 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), whereas 653 were detected between CLA- and FO-MFD groups. Although this article focuses on lipid metabolism, CLA affected the expression of many genes related to other biological processes, especially immunity. Among the 55 genes shared by both MFD conditions, some genes linked to fatty acid synthesis, such as ACACA, AACS, ACSS2, or ACSS3, were downregulated. In addition, this study provides a list of candidate genes that are not usually considered in the nutrigenomics of MFD but that may act as key regulators of this syndrome in dairy ewes.
Project description:PURPOSE: The mechanism underlying the decline in milk quality during periods of feeding high-concentrate diets to dairy ruminants is not well documented. The aim of this study was to investigate the metabolic changes in the liver that contribute to the input of substrate precursors to the mammary gland after feeding a high-concentrate diet to lactating goats for a long period. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Eight mid-lactating goats with rumen cannulas were randomly assigned to two groups. For 9 weeks, the treatment group was fed a high-concentrate diet (60% concentrate of dry matter, HC) and the control group was fed a low-concentrate diet (40% concentrate of dry matter, LC). Ruminal fluid, plasma, and liver tissues were sampled, microarray techniques and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to evaluate metabolic parameters and gene expression in liver. RESULTS: Feeding a 60%-concentrate diet for 9 weeks resulted in a significant decrease in rumen pH. Changes in fat and protein content also occurred, which negatively affected milk quality. Plasma levels of leptin (p?=?0.058), non-esterified fatty acid (p?=?0.071), and glucose (p?=?0.014) increased markedly in HC group. Plasma cortisol concentration was significantly elevated in the treatment group (p<0.05). Expression of the glucocorticoid receptor protein gene was significantly down-regulated (p<0.05) in the liver. The expression of genes for interleukin 1?, serum amyloid A, C-reactive protein, and haptoglobin mRNA was significantly increased (p<0.05) in the HC group. GeneRelNet analysis showed that gene expression involved in inflammatory responses and the metabolism of lipids, protein, and carbohydrate were significantly altered by feeding a high-concentrate diet for 9 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Activation of the acute phase response and the inflammatory response may contribute to nutrient partitioning and re-distribution of energy in the liver, and ultimately lead to a decline in milk quality.
Project description:Dairy ruminants are often fed high grain diets to meet the energy demand for high milk production. As a result, body metabolism occurs change and milk quality was suppression. As the vital organ that controls metabolism, the liver contributes to the input of substrate precursors to the mammary gland. To further investigate the role of genes in feeding high concentrate diet metabolic characters, a comparison of mRNA expression profiles in liver of feeding high-concentrate diet (60% concentrate of dry matter, HC) and low-concentrate diet (40% concentrate of dry matter, LC) was carried out.When compaired with LC goats, 43 genes were significantly down-regulated and 112 genes were significantly up-regulated (fold change >2 and p value < 0.01) in the liver of HC among the 115 probes. Through Co-expression network analysis to find K-core regulatory factors (genes). These genes were mainly involved in immune and inflammatory responses (n = 8), lipid metabolism (n = 5), protein metabolism (n = 26), carbohydrate metabolism (n = 7). These results were further described in the unpublished paper Eight mid-lactating goats (LC, n=3;HC, n=5). Liver samples were immersed in liquid nitrogen immediately after collection and then stored at -70 °C. Total RNA was isolated using the Trizol reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA), according to the manufacturer’s instructions. samples were named as LC1-3 and HC1-3, representing 3 respective liver RNA samples each from LC and HC goats. Microarray experiment was performed by a service provider
Project description:Abstract Milk fat synthesis of ruminants can be inhibited by intermediates of ruminal fatty acid biohydrogenation including trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). These biohydrogenation intermediates signal a coordinated downregulation of genes involved in mammary FA synthesis, transport, and esterification. We have previously reported decreased mammary expression of sterol response element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), SREBP1-activating proteins, and thyroid hormone-responsive spot 14 (S14) in the cow during diet-induced milk fat depression (MFD), and treatment with trans-10, cis-12 CLA. Liver x receptors (LXR) and retinoid x receptors (RXR) regulate lipogenesis and are known to bind polyunsaturated FA and LXR agonist increases lipid synthesis in mammary epithelial cell culture. The current studies investigated if biohydrogenation products of rumen origin inhibit mammary lipogenesis through LXR and/or RXR. Expression of LXRs was not different in lactating compared to nonlactating bovine mammary tissue, and expression of LXRs, RXR?, and selected LXR and RXR target genes was not changed in mammary tissue during diet-induced or CLA-induced MFD in the cow. In bovine mammary epithelial cell culture, LXR agonist stimulated lipogenesis and expression of LXRß, ATP-binding cassette 1 (ABCA1), SREBP1c, and S14, but LXR activation did not overcome CLA inhibition of lipogenesis and downregulation of LXRß, SREBP1c, and S14 expression. Lastly, expression of the LXR-regulated carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) was higher in lactating than nonlactating tissue and was decreased during CLA-induced MFD. We conclude that changes in mammary LXR expression in dairy cows are not involved in MFD and that trans-10, cis-12 CLA inhibition of lipogenesis and diet-induced MFD appears independent of direct LXR signaling.
Project description:The aim of this study was to evaluate protein expression patterns of liver in response to subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) induced by high-concentrate diet. Sixteen healthy mid-lactating goats were randomly divided into 2 groups and fed either a high-forage (HF) diet or a high-concentrate (HC) diet. The HC diet was expected to induce SARA. After ensuring the occurrence of SARA, liver samples were collected. Proteome analysis with differential in gel electrophoresis technology revealed that, 15 proteins were significantly modulated in liver in a comparison between HF and HC-fed goats. These proteins were found mainly associated with metabolism and energy transfer after identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight. The results indicated that glucose, lipid and protein catabolism could be enhanced when SARA occurred. It prompted that glucose, lipid and amine acid in the liver mainly participated in oxidation and energy supply when SARA occurred, which possibly consumed more precursors involved in milk protein and milk fat synthesis. These results suggest new candidate proteins that may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms that mediate liver adaptation to SARA.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) in general, and in particular the trans-10,cis-12 (t10,c12-CLA) isomer are potent modulators of milk fat synthesis in dairy cows. Studies in rodents, such as mice, have revealed that t10,c12-CLA is responsible for hepatic lipodystrophy and decreased adipose tissue with subsequent changes in the fatty acid distribution. The present study aimed to investigate the fatty acid distribution of lipids in several body tissues compared to their distribution in milk fat in early lactating cows in response to CLA treatment. Effects in mammary gland are further analyzed at gene expression level. METHODS: Twenty-five Holstein heifers were fed a diet supplemented with (CLA groups) or without (CON groups) a rumen-protected CLA supplement that provided 6 g/d of c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA. Five groups of randomly assigned cows were analyzed according to experimental design based on feeding and time of slaughter. Cows in the first group received no CLA supplement and were slaughtered one day postpartum (CON0). Milk samples were taken from the remaining cows in CON and CLA groups until slaughter at 42 (period 1) and 105 (period 2) days in milk (DIM). Immediately after slaughter, tissue samples from liver, retroperitoneal fat, mammary gland and M. longissimus (13th rib) were obtained and analyzed for fatty acid distribution. Relevant genes involved in lipid metabolism of the mammary gland were analyzed using a custom-made microarray platform. RESULTS: Both supplemented CLA isomers increased significantly in milk fat. Furthermore, preformed fatty acids increased at the expense of de novo-synthesized fatty acids. Total and single trans-octadecenoic acids (e.g., t10-18:1 and t11-18:1) also significantly increased. Fatty acid distribution of the mammary gland showed similar changes to those in milk fat, due mainly to residual milk but without affecting gene expression. Liver fatty acids were not altered except for trans-octadecenoic acids, which were increased. Adipose tissue and M. longissimus were only marginally affected by CLA supplementation. CONCLUSIONS: Daily supplementation with CLA led to typical alterations usually observed in milk fat depression (reduction of de novo-synthesized fatty acids) but only marginally affected tissue lipids. Gene expression of the mammary gland was not influenced by CLA supplementation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The molecular events associated with regulation of milk fat synthesis in the bovine mammary gland remain largely unknown. Our objective was to study mammary tissue mRNA expression via quantitative PCR of 45 genes associated with lipid synthesis (triacylglycerol and phospholipids) and secretion from the late pre-partum/non-lactating period through the end of subsequent lactation. mRNA expression was coupled with milk fatty acid (FA) composition and calculated indexes of FA desaturation and de novo synthesis by the mammary gland. RESULTS: Marked up-regulation and/or % relative mRNA abundance during lactation were observed for genes associated with mammary FA uptake from blood (LPL, CD36), intracellular FA trafficking (FABP3), long-chain (ACSL1) and short-chain (ACSS2) intracellular FA activation, de novo FA synthesis (ACACA, FASN), desaturation (SCD, FADS1), triacylglycerol synthesis (AGPAT6, GPAM, LPIN1), lipid droplet formation (BTN1A1, XDH), ketone body utilization (BDH1), and transcription regulation (INSIG1, PPARG, PPARGC1A). Change in SREBF1 mRNA expression during lactation, thought to be central for milk fat synthesis regulation, was < or =2-fold in magnitude, while expression of INSIG1, which negatively regulates SREBP activation, was >12-fold and had a parallel pattern of expression to PPARGC1A. Genes involved in phospholipid synthesis had moderate up-regulation in expression and % relative mRNA abundance. The mRNA abundance and up-regulation in expression of ABCG2 during lactation was markedly high, suggesting a biological role of this gene in milk synthesis/secretion. Weak correlations were observed between both milk FA composition and desaturase indexes (i.e., apparent SCD activity) with mRNA expression pattern of genes measured. CONCLUSION: A network of genes participates in coordinating milk fat synthesis and secretion. Results challenge the proposal that SREBF1 is central for milk fat synthesis regulation and highlight a pivotal role for a concerted action among PPARG, PPARGC1A, and INSIG1. Expression of SCD, the most abundant gene measured, appears to be key during milk fat synthesis. The lack of correlation between gene expression and calculated desaturase indexes does not support their use to infer mRNA expression or enzyme activity (e.g., SCD). Longitudinal mRNA expression allowed development of transcriptional regulation networks and an updated model of milk fat synthesis regulation.
Project description:Exogenous trans-10, cis-12-CLA (CLA) reduces lipid synthesis in murine adipose and mammary (MG) tissues. However, genomewide alterations in MG and liver (LIV) associated with dietary CLA during lactation remain unknown. We fed mice (n = 5/diet) control or control?+?trans-10, cis-12-CLA (37?mg/day) between d 6 and d 10 postpartum. The 35,302 annotated murine exonic evidence-based oligo (MEEBO) microarray and quantitative RT-PCR were used for transcript profiling. Milk fat concentration was 44% lower on d 10 versus d 6 due to CLA. The CLA diet resulted in differential expression of 1,496 genes. Bioinformatics analyses underscored that a major effect of CLA on MG encompassed alterations in cellular signaling pathways and phospholipid species biosynthesis. Dietary CLA induced genes related to ER stress (Xbp1), apoptosis (Bcl2), and inflammation (Orm1, Saa2, and Cp). It also induced marked inhibition of PPAR ? signaling, including downregulation of Pparg and Srebf1 and several lipogenic target genes (Scd, Fasn, and Gpam). In LIV, CLA induced hepatic steatosis probably through perturbations in the mitochondrial functions and induction of ER stress. Overall, results from this study underscored the role of PPAR ? signaling on mammary lipogenic target regulation. The proinflammatory effect due to CLA could be related to inhibition of PPAR ? signaling.