Genomic organization and structure of Bruton agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase: localization of mutations associated with varied clinical presentations and course in X chromosome-linked agammaglobulinemia.
ABSTRACT: X chromosome-linked agammaglobulinemia is a life-threatening disease that involves a failure in normal development of B lymphocytes and is associated with missense mutations in BTK, a gene encoding a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase (Bruton agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase, EC 184.108.40.206), a member of the Tec family of protein-tyrosine kinases. The genomic organization has been determined by using conventional restriction fragment mapping, extended DNA sequencing, and PCR fragment-sizing approaches. The DNA sequences of the 18 coding exons composing BTK and their flanking-region sequences are reported; an additional exon(s) encodes a 5' untranslated segment. Single-base-pair substitutions and 4-nt deletions resulted in amino acid replacement, premature termination, frameshift, and exon deletion in a group of X chromosome-linked agammaglobulinemia patients exhibiting different clinical presentations and courses. The nature of the mutations is interpreted in terms of the genomic organization of the BTK gene and the disease course in individual patients. Several examples are found in which the same mutation occurs in unrelated patients, and one of these mutations occurs at the same codon that is substituted in the murine form of BTK, resulting in X chromosome-linked immunodeficiency disease. Considerable variation in presentation and disease course in X chromosome-linked agammaglobulinemia appears associated with the nature and position of different missense mutations.
Project description:Seven individuals with the diagnosis of X-linked agammaglobulinemia were analyzed for mutations in Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk) gene at both the cDNA transcript and genomic DNA levels. In addition, maternal carrier status was determined in six of the seven families by examining X chromosome-inactivation patterns for B cells in comparison with other types of blood cells. Three categories of mutations were identified: (1) three patients have missense mutations in either the pleckstrin or SH2 domains of Btk; (2) three patients exhibit mutations at or near intron/exon splice sites, two of which represent inherited mutations within the kinase domain; and (3) one patient has inherited a 2.5-kb deletion with the loss of a DNA segment encoding three exons of the kinase domain. Variation in the lengths of Btk transcripts was evident in two patients with splice-site mutations and in the patient with the DNA deletion. Sequences of the different cDNA transcripts from the patients with 3' splice-site mutations reveal complex patterns of exon skipping involving from one to four exons of the kinase domain. These findings implicate 3' splice sites of the penultimate exon in the recognition or processing of upstream exons.
Project description:BACKGROUND: X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a rare inherited disease characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, a paucity or absence of peripheral lymphoid tissue, an absence of circulating B cells, and marked depression of serum IgG, IgA, and IgM. Germline mutation of the BTK gene has been identified as a cause of XLA. These mutations cause defects in early B cell development. CASE PRESENTATION: In this study, we report a variant form of XLA with partial B cell function that results from a missense mutation (c.1117C > G) in exon 13 of the BTK gene. A genetic analysis of the family revealed an affected male sibling with a c.1117C > G mutation. He was observed with low level of serum immunoglobulin and CD19+ B cell and received the IVIG replacement therapy regularly in follow up. Four female carriers were found. CONCLUSION: BTK mutation analysis is necessary in the diagnosis of XLA and may be used for subsequent genetic counseling, carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis.
Project description:X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a clinically and genetically well-defined immunodeficiency and the most common form of agammaglobulinemia. It is characterized by susceptibility to recurrent bacterial infections, profound hypogammaglobulinemia, and few or no circulating B cells. XLA is caused by mutations in the BTK gene, which encodes Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK). Because of its X-linked recessive inheritance pattern, XLA virtually only affects males, and the mother is the carrier of the mutation in 80-85% of the males with this condition. In the remaining 15-20% of the cases, the affected male is considered to have a de novo mutation. Here, we present the case of a child with a diagnosis of XLA caused by a missense mutation in the BTK gene (c.494G>A/p.C165Y). Apparently, his mother was wild type for this gene, which implied that the mutation was de novo, but careful analysis of Sanger electropherograms and the use of high-coverage massive parallel sequencing revealed low-level maternal gonosomal mosaicism. The mutation was detected in various samples from the mother (blood, urine, buccal swab, and vaginal swab) at a low frequency of 2-5%, and the status of the patient's mutation changed from de novo to inherited. This study underscores the importance of accurately establishing the parents' status on detection of an apparently de novo mutation in a patient, as inadvertent low-level mosaicism may lead to misinterpretation of the risk of recurrence, vital for genetic counseling.
Project description:Background: X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is caused by a mutation of the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) gene and is the most common genetic mutation in patients with congenital agammaglobulinemia. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical features, genetic defects, and/or BTK expression in patients suspected of having XLA who were referred from the Taiwan Foundation of Rare Disorders (TFRD). Methods: Patients with recurrent bacterial infections in the first 2 years of life, serum IgG/A/M below 2 standard deviations of the normal range, and ?2% CD19+B cells were enrolled during the period of 2004-2019. The frequency of infections, pathogens, B-lymphocyte subsets, and family pedigree were recorded. Peripheral blood samples were sent to our institute for BTK expression and genetic analysis. Results: Nineteen (from 16 families) out of 29 patients had BTK mutations, including 7 missense mutations, 7 splicing mutations, 1 nonsense mutation, 2 huge deletions, and 2 nucleotide deletions. Six novel mutations were detected: c.504G>T [p.K168N], c.895-2A>G [p.Del K290 fs 23*], c.910T>G [p.F304V], c.1132T>C [p.T334H], c.1562A>T [p.D521V], and c.1957delG [Del p.D653 fs plus 45 a.a.]. All patients with BTK mutations had obviously decreased BTK expressions. Pseudomonas sepsis developed in 14 patients and led to both Shanghai fever and recurrent hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Recurrent sinopulmonary infections and bronchiectasis occurred in 11 patients. One patient died of pseudomonas sepsis and another died of hepatocellular carcinoma before receiving optimal treatment. Two patients with contiguous gene deletion syndrome (CGS) encompassing the TIMM8A/DDP1 gene presented with early-onset progressive post-lingual sensorineural Deafness, gradual Dystonia, and Optic Neuronopathy syndrome (DDON) or Mohr-Tranebjaerg syndrome (MTS). Conclusion: Pseudomonas sepsis was more common (74%) than recurrent sinopulmonary infections in Taiwanese XLA patients, and related to Shanghai fever and recurrent HLH, both of which were prevented by regular immunoglobulin infusions. Approximately 10% of patients belonged to CGS involving the TIMM8A/DDP1 gene and presented with the DDON/MTS phenotype in need of aggressive psychomotor therapy.
Project description:X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a humoral primary immunodeficiency. XLA patients typically present with very low numbers of peripheral B cells and a profound deficiency of all immunoglobulin isotypes. Most XLA patients carry mutations in Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) gene.The genetic background and clinical features of 174 Chinese patients with XLA were investigated. The relationship between specific BTK gene mutations and severity of clinical manifestations was also examined. Mutations were graded from mild to severe based on structural and functional prediction through bioinformatics analysis.One hundred twenty-seven mutations were identified in 142 patients from 124 families, including 45 novel mutations and 82 recurrent mutations that were distributed over the entire BTK gene sequence. Variation in phenotypes was observed, and there was a tendency of association between genotype and age of disease onset.This report constitutes the largest group of patients with BTK mutations in China. A genotype-phenotype correlation was observed in this study. Early diagnosis of congenital agammaglobulinemia should be based on clinical symptoms, family history, and molecular analysis of the BTK gene.
Project description:BACKGROUND:X-linked agammaglobulinemia is a primary immunodeficiency disease caused by gene mutations of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK). We found a new mutation point and summarized the correlation analysis and performed a literature review. CASE SUMMARY:The proband was a 5-year-old boy. He was admitted to our hospital due to a recurrent cough and a fever that had persisted for a month. He had a history of multiple respiratory infections and sinusitis. There was no immunodeficiency or recurrent infection history among his family members. Agammaglobulinemia was characterized as follows: Immunoglobulin (Ig) A, 90.0 mg/dL (90-450 mg/dL); IgG, 20.0 mg/dL (800-1800 mg/dL); and IgM, 18.0 mg/dL (60-280 mg/dL). Notably, the assessment of IgG subtypes revealed the following very low levels: Subtype 1, 0.26 g/L (3.62-12.28 g/L); subtype 2, 0.10 g/L (0.57-2.9 g/L); subtype 3, 0.009 g/L (0.129-0.789 g/L); and subtype 4, 0.003 g/L (0.013-1.446 g/L). Cellular immunological test results were as follows: CD3, 74.6% (50%-84.0%); CD4, 47.3% (27.0%-51.0%); and CD8, 24.9% (15.0%-44.0%). A de novo hemizygous deletion in BTK was detected: c.902_c.904delAAG/p.E301del. Transcript levels of the mutant BTK were similar to those of the wild-type gene, though overexpression resulted in markedly reduced levels of mutant BTK (9.49% ± 1.58%), relative to the wild-type BTK (75.8% ± 2.98%, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION:This case of X-linked agammaglobulinemia was attributed to a de novo hemizygous deletion mutation in BTK (c.902_c.904delAAG/p.E301del). The mutation resulted in markedly reduced BTK protein stability in vitro.
Project description:X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is an inherited immunodeficiency that results from mutations within the gene encoding Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK). Many XLA-associated mutations affect splicing of BTK pre-mRNA and severely impair B cell development. Here, we assessed the potential of antisense, splice-correcting oligonucleotides (SCOs) targeting mutated BTK transcripts for treating XLA. Both the SCO structural design and chemical properties were optimized using 2'-O-methyl, locked nucleic acid, or phosphorodiamidate morpholino backbones. In order to have access to an animal model of XLA, we engineered a transgenic mouse that harbors a BAC with an authentic, mutated, splice-defective human BTK gene. BTK transgenic mice were bred onto a Btk knockout background to avoid interference of the orthologous mouse protein. Using this model, we determined that BTK-specific SCOs are able to correct aberrantly spliced BTK in B lymphocytes, including pro-B cells. Correction of BTK mRNA restored expression of functional protein, as shown both by enhanced lymphocyte survival and reestablished BTK activation upon B cell receptor stimulation. Furthermore, SCO treatment corrected splicing and restored BTK expression in primary cells from patients with XLA. Together, our data demonstrate that SCOs can restore BTK function and that BTK-targeting SCOs have potential as personalized medicine in patients with XLA.
Project description:In 1993, two groups showed that X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) was due to mutations in a tyrosine kinase now called Btk. Most laboratories have been able to detect mutations in Btk in 80%-90% of males with presumed XLA. The remaining patients may have mutations in Btk that are difficult to identify, or they may have defects that are phenotypically similar to XLA but genotypically different. We analyzed 101 families in which affected males were diagnosed as having XLA. Mutations in Btk were identified in 38 of 40 families with more than one affected family member and in 56 of 61 families with sporadic disease. Excluding the patients in whom the marked decrease in B cell numbers characteristic of XLA could not be confirmed by immunofluorescence studies, mutations in Btk were identified in 43 of 46 patients with presumed sporadic XLA. Two of the three remaining patients had defects in other genes required for normal B cell development, and the third patient was unlikely to have XLA, on the basis of results of extensive Btk analysis. Our techniques were unable to identify a mutation in Btk in one male with both a family history and laboratory findings suggestive of XLA. DNA samples from 41 of 49 of the mothers of males with sporadic disease and proven mutations in Btk were positive for the mutation found in their son. In the other 8 families, the mutation appeared to arise in the maternal germ line. In 20 families, haplotype analysis showed that the new mutation originated in the maternal grandfather or great-grandfather. These studies indicate that 90%-95% of males with presumed XLA have mutations in Btk. The other patients are likely to have defects in other genes.
Project description:Mutations in the Bruton agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase (BTK) gene are responsible for X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). Unfolded or misfolded proteins can trigger stress pathways in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), known as unfolded protein response (UPR). The aim was to clarify the involvement of UPR in XLA pathophysiology. By reverse transcription-quantitative PCR, we evaluated the expression of BTK and 12 UPR-related genes in eight patients. Moreover, we assessed the BTK protein expression and pattern in the patients' monocytes by flow cytometry and fluorescence immunocytochemistry. We found a reduced BTK expression in patients with stop codon mutations (P < 0.02). However, missense mutations did not affect BTK expression. Flow cytometry showed a reduction of BTK in patients which was corroborated by an absent or nonfunctional protein synthesis revealed by immunocytochemistry. In contrast with the other UPR-related genes, X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) was markedly upregulated in the patients (P < 0.01), suggesting Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation since BTK directly interacts with TLRs as a negative regulator and XBP1 can be activated in direct response to TLR ligation. Different BTK mutations can be identified by the BTK expression. Inasmuch as UPR-related genes were downregulated or unaltered in patients, we speculate the involvement of the TLRs-XBP1 axis in the XLA pathophysiology. Such data could be the basis for further studies of this novel pathomechanism concerning XLA.
Project description:BACKGROUND: X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a primary immune deficiency characterized by recurrent bacterial infections and profoundly depressed serum immunoglobulin levels and circulating mature B cells. It is caused by mutations of the Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) gene and is the most common form of inherited antibody deficiency. To our knowledge, this is the first report of XLA from Vietnam. METHODS: We investigated the BTK gene mutations and clinical features of four unrelated Vietnamese children. RESULTS: The mean ages at onset and at diagnosis were 2.5 and 8 years, respectively. All patients had a medical history of otitis media, pneumonia, and septicemia at the time of diagnosis. Other infections reported included sinusitis, bronchiectasis, arthritis, skin infections, meningitis, and recurrent diarrhea. We identified one previously reported mutation (c.441G >A) and three novel mutations: two frameshifts (c.1770delG and c.1742 delG), and one nonsense (c.1249A >T). CONCLUSIONS: The delayed diagnosis may be attributable to insufficient awareness of this rare disease on the background of frequent infections even in the immunocompetent pediatric population in Vietnam. Our results further support the importance of molecular genetic testing in diagnosis of XLA.