Buckling-induced retraction of spherical shells: A study on the shape of aperture.
ABSTRACT: Buckling of soft matter is ubiquitous in nature and has attracted increasing interest recently. This paper studies the retractile behaviors of a spherical shell perforated by sophisticated apertures, attributed to the buckling-induced large deformation. The buckling patterns observed in experiments were reproduced in computational modeling by imposing velocity-controlled loads and eigenmode-affine geometric imperfection. It was found that the buckling behaviors were topologically sensitive with respect to the shape of dimple (aperture). The shell with rounded-square apertures had the maximal volume retraction ratio as well as the lowest energy consumption. An effective experimental procedure was established and the simulation results were validated in this study.
Project description:Imperfection sensitivity is essential for mechanical behaviour of biopolymer shells characterized by high geometric heterogeneity. The present work studies initial post-buckling and imperfection sensitivity of a pressured biopolymer spherical shell based on non-axisymmetric buckling modes and associated mode interaction. Our results indicate that for biopolymer spherical shells with moderate radius-to-thickness ratio (say, less than 30) and smaller effective bending thickness (say, less than 0.2 times average shell thickness), the imperfection sensitivity predicted based on the axisymmetric mode without the mode interaction is close to the present results based on non-axisymmetric modes with the mode interaction with a small (typically, less than 10%) relative errors. However, for biopolymer spherical shells with larger effective bending thickness, the maximum load an imperfect shell can sustain predicted by the present non-axisymmetric analysis can be significantly (typically, around 30%) lower than those predicted based on the axisymmetric mode without the mode interaction. In such cases, a more accurate non-axisymmetric analysis with the mode interaction, as given in the present work, is required for imperfection sensitivity of pressured buckling of biopolymer spherical shells. Finally, the implications of the present study to two specific types of biopolymer spherical shells (viral capsids and ultrasound contrast agents) are discussed.
Project description:The collapse of axially compressed cylinders by buckling instability is a classic problem in engineering mechanics. We revisit the problem by considering fully localized post-buckling states in the form of one or multiple dimples. Using nonlinear finite-element methods and numerical continuation algorithms, we trace the evolution of odd and even dimples into one axially localized ring of circumferentially periodic diamond-shaped waves. The growth of the post-buckling pattern with varying compression is driven by homoclinic snaking with even- and odd-dimple solutions intertwined. When the axially localized ring of diamond-shaped buckles destabilizes, additional circumferential snaking sequences ensue that lead to the Yoshimura buckling pattern. The unstable single-dimple state is a mountain-pass point in the energy landscape and therefore forms the smallest energy barrier between the pre-buckling and post-buckling regimes. The small energy barrier associated with the mountain-pass point means that the compressed, pre-buckled cylinder is exceedingly sensitive to perturbations once the mountain-pass point exists. We parameterize the compressive onset of the single-dimple mountain-pass point with a single non-dimensional parameter, and compare the lower-bound buckling load suggested by this parameter with over 100 experimental data points from the literature. Good correlation suggests that the derived knockdown factor provides a less conservative design load than NASA's SP-8007 guideline.
Project description:We introduce a class of continuum shell structures, the Buckliball, which undergoes a structural transformation induced by buckling under pressure loading. The geometry of the Buckliball comprises a spherical shell patterned with a regular array of circular voids. In order for the pattern transformation to be induced by buckling, the possible number and arrangement of these voids are found to be restricted to five specific configurations. Below a critical internal pressure, the narrow ligaments between the voids buckle, leading to a cooperative buckling cascade of the skeleton of the ball. This ligament buckling leads to closure of the voids and a reduction of the total volume of the shell by up to 54%, while remaining spherical, thereby opening the possibility of encapsulation. We use a combination of precision desktop-scale experiments, finite element simulations, and scaling analyses to explore the underlying mechanics of these foldable structures, finding excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement. Given that this folding mechanism is induced by a mechanical instability, our Buckliball opens the possibility for reversible encapsulation, over a wide range of length scales.
Project description:Many organs are formed through folding of an epithelium. This change in shape is usually attributed to tissue heterogeneities, for example, local apical contraction. In contrast, compressive stresses have been proposed to fold a homogeneous epithelium by buckling. While buckling is an appealing mechanism, demonstrating that it underlies folding requires measurement of the stress field and the material properties of the tissue, which are currently inaccessible in vivo. Here, we show that monolayers of identical cells proliferating on the inner surface of elastic spherical shells can spontaneously fold. By measuring the elastic deformation of the shell, we infer the forces acting within the monolayer and its elastic modulus. Using analytical and numerical theories linking forces to shape, we find that buckling quantitatively accounts for the shape changes of our monolayers. Our study shows that forces arising from epithelial growth in three-dimensional confinement are sufficient to drive folding by buckling.
Project description:Numerical results for the axially compressed cylindrical shell demonstrate the post-buckling response snaking in both the applied load and corresponding end-shortening. Fluctuations in load, associated with progressive axial formation of circumferential rings of dimples, are well known. Snaking in end-shortening, describing the evolution from a single dimple into the first complete ring of dimples, is a recent discovery. To uncover the mechanics behind these different phenomena, simple finite degree-of-freedom cellular models are introduced, based on hierarchical arrangements of simple unit cells with snapback characteristics. The analyses indicate two fundamentally different variants to this new form of snaking. Each cell has its own Maxwell displacement, which are either separated or overlap. In the presence of energetic background disturbance, the differences between these two situations can be crucial. If the Maxwell displacements of individual cells are separated, then buckling is likely to occur sequentially, with the system able to settle into different localized states in turn. Yet if Maxwell displacements overlap, then a global buckling pattern triggers immediately as a dynamic domino effect. We use the term Maxwell tipping point to identify the point of switching between these two behaviours.
Project description:Scleral buckling is a highly successful technique for the repair of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment that requires intra-operative examination of the retina and treatment of retinal breaks via indirect ophthalmoscopy. Data suggest that scleral buckling likely results in improved outcomes for many patients but is declining in popularity, perhaps because of significant advances in vitrectomy instrumentation and visualization systems. Emerging data suggest that chandelier-assisted scleral buckling is safe and has many potential advantages over traditional buckling techniques. By combining traditional scleral buckling with contemporary vitreoretinal visualization techniques, chandelier-assistance may increase the popularity of scleral buckling to treat primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment for surgeons of the next generation, maintaining buckling as an option for appropriate patients in the future.
Project description:Arteries are often subjected to torsion due to body movement and surgical procedures. While it is essential that arteries remain stable and patent under twisting loads, the stability of arteries under torsion is poorly understood. The goal of this work was to experimentally investigate the buckling behavior of arteries under torsion and to determine the critical buckling torque, the critical buckling twist angle, and the buckling shape. Porcine common carotid arteries were slowly twisted in vitro until buckling occurred while subjected to a constant axial stretch ratio (1.1, 1.3, 1.5 (in vivo level) and 1.7) and lumen pressure (20, 40, 70 and 100 mmHg). Upon buckling, the arteries snapped to form a kink. For a group of six arteries, the axial stretch ratio significantly affected the critical buckling torque ([Formula: see text]) and the critical buckling twist angle ([Formula: see text]). Lumen pressure also significantly affected the critical buckling torque ([Formula: see text]) but had no significant effect on the critical twist angle ([Formula: see text]). Convex material constants for a Fung strain energy function were determined and fit well with the axial force, lumen pressure, and torque data measured pre-buckling. The material constants are valid for axial stretch ratios, lumen pressures, and rotation angles of 1.3-1.5, 20-100 mmHg, and 0-270[Formula: see text], respectively. The current study elucidates the buckling behavior of arteries under torsion and provides new insight into mechanical instability of blood vessels.
Project description:Lithographically defined electrical interconnects with thin, filamentary serpentine layouts have been widely explored for use in stretchable electronics supported by elastomeric substrates. We present a systematic and thorough study of buckling physics in such stretchable serpentine microstructures, and a strategic design of serpentine layout for ultra-stretchable electrode, via analytical models, finite element method (FEM) computations, and quantitative experiments. Both the onset of buckling and the postbuckling behaviors are examined, to determine scaling laws for the critical buckling strain and the limits of elastic behavior. Two buckling modes, namely the symmetric and anti-symmetric modes, are identified and analyzed, with experimental images and numerical results that show remarkable levels of agreement for the associated postbuckling processes. Based on these studies and an optimization in design layout, we demonstrate routes for application of serpentine interconnects in an ultra-stretchable electrode that offer, simultaneously, an areal coverage as high as 81%, and a biaxial stretchability as large as ~170%.
Project description:Many natural fruits and vegetables adopt an approximately spheroidal shape and are characterized by their distinct undulating topologies. We demonstrate that various global pattern features can be reproduced by anisotropic stress-driven buckles on spheroidal core/shell systems, which implies that the relevant mechanical forces might provide a template underpinning the topological conformation in some fruits and plants. Three dimensionless parameters, the ratio of effective size/thickness, the ratio of equatorial/polar radii, and the ratio of core/shell moduli, primarily govern the initiation and formation of the patterns. A distinct morphological feature occurs only when these parameters fall within certain ranges: In a prolate spheroid, reticular buckles take over longitudinal ridged patterns when one or more parameters become large. Our results demonstrate that some universal features of fruit/vegetable patterns (e.g., those observed in Korean melons, silk gourds, ribbed pumpkins, striped cavern tomatoes, and cantaloupes, etc.) may be related to the spontaneous buckling from mechanical perspectives, although the more complex biological or biochemical processes are involved at deep levels.
Project description:Dimple colloids with well-defined cavities were synthesized by a modified dispersion polymerization. The key step in the procedure is the delayed addition of cross-linkers into the reaction mixture. By systematically studying the effect of the delayed addition time and the concentration of the cross-linker on the resulting particle morphology, we identified the dominating driving force that underlies dimple formation. The delayed addition of cross-linkers results in colloids with a core-shell morphology consisting of a core rich in linear polymers and a cross-linked shell. This morphology was confirmed by selectively etching non-cross-linked material using dimethylformamide. With polymerization proceeding, consumption of monomers present in the swollen particles leads to contraction of the particles, which is larger for the core composed of linear polymers compared to the stiffer cross-linked shell. To accommodate this decrease in volume, the outer cross-linked shell has to buckle, resulting in a well-defined dimple. Furthermore, we extended the procedure to incorporate functional monomers, yielding chemically modifiable dimple particles. Subsequently, we showed that by leveraging the core-shell structure, these dimple particles can be used to prepare dumbbell-shaped colloids with one hollow and one solid lobe. These partially hollow anisotropic particles assemble into strings with well-defined orientations in an alternating current electric field.