Radiofrequency ablation for treatment of refractory gastric antral vascular ectasia (with video).
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) is a known cause of gastrointestinal bleeding and chronic iron deficiency anemia. Endoscopic therapy with argon plasma coagulation (APC) is widely used for treatment of GAVE, but most patients continue to require repeated blood transfusions and multiple endoscopic procedures (refractory GAVE). We describe our initial experience regarding safety and efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) therapy in treating patients with refractory GAVE. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We prospectively enrolled seven patients with refractory GAVE who had multiple prior treatments with APC. These patients were treated with RFA (HALO90 ULTRA Ablation Catheter System; Covidien, GI Solutions, Sunnyvale, CA) at Ertan Digestive Disease Center at our tertiary University Hospital. RESULTS: Seven patients underwent a total of 12 RFA procedures for treatment of refractory GAVE. The median number of RFA procedures was 2 (Range, 1 - 3). Average pre- and post-procedural hemoglobin were 9.3 g/dL and 10.16 g/dL, respectively. Five of seven patients (71 %) were transfusion-free after the RFA treatments while two patients continued to require blood transfusions. There were no complications in this series. CONCLUSION: RFA can be an effective alternative to APC for treatment of GAVE refractory to previous endoscopic therapy. Additional studies are needed to identify which subset of patients will benefit the most with RFA treatment.
Project description:Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) is one of the uncommon causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Major treatment of GAVE includes pharmacotherapy, endoscopy, and surgery. The efficacy and safety of pharmacotherapy have not been sufficiently confirmed; and surgery is just considered when conservative treatment is ineffective. By comparison, endoscopy is a common treatment option for GAVE. This paper reviews the currently used endoscopic approaches for GAVE, mainly including argon plasma coagulation (APC), radiofrequency ablation (RFA), and endoscopic band ligation (EBL). It also summarizes their efficacy and procedure-related adverse events. The endoscopic success rate of APC is 40-100%; however, APC needs several treatment sessions, with a high recurrence rate of 10-78.9%. The endoscopic success rates of RFA and EBL are 90-100% and 77.8-100%, respectively; and their recurrence rates are 21.4-33.3% and 8.3-48.1%, respectively. Hyperplastic gastric polyps and sepsis are major adverse events of APC and RFA; and Mallory-Weiss syndrome is occasionally observed after APC. Adverse events of EBL are rare and mild, such as nausea, vomiting, esophageal or abdominal pain, and hyperplastic polyps. APC is often considered as the first-line choice of endoscopic treatment for GAVE. RFA and EBL have been increasingly used as alternatives in patients with refractory GAVE. A high recurrence of GAVE after endoscopic treatment should be fully recognized and cautiously managed by follow-up endoscopy. In future, a head-to-head comparison of different endoscopic approaches for GAVE is warranted.
Project description:GAVE is an uncommon cause of upper nonvariceal bleeding and often manifests itself as occult bleeding with chronic anemia. To date, the standard of care for GAVE is endoscopic treatment with thermoablative techniques. Despite good technical results, approximately two thirds of patients remain dependent on transfusions after the therapy. One of the emerging and more promising endoscopic treatments for GAVE is radiofrequency ablation (RFA). The aim of this study is to perform a systematic review of literature in order to assess current evidence supporting the effectiveness of this technique for treatment of refractory GAVE.Through electronic search, we identified 14 records, and after removal of duplicates and irrelevant studies, we selected 10 studies on radiofrequency ablation of GAVE: 4 prospective open-label single-center studies, 1 retrospective multicentric study, and 5 case reports.Among all 72 treated patients reported in literature, 74.3% achieved a clinical response, while nonfatal AEs have been reported in 4.2% of cases.Despite some qualitative limitations, all literature data support effectiveness of RFA for treatment of refractory GAVE. In the future, large prospective controlled trials with adequate follow-up are needed to better assess the effectiveness and safety of this procedure.
Project description:To evaluate long-term endoscopic resolution and recurrence rate of gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) after argon plasma coagulation (APC) treatment.This was an IRB-approved retrospective single center study that included patients endoscopically treated for GAVE between 1/1/2008 to 12/31/2014. The primary and secondary end points of the study were rate of endoscopic resolution of GAVE after APC treatment and recurrence rate of GAVE after endoscopic resolution, respectively. Endoscopic resolution of GAVE was defined as no endoscopic evidence of GAVE after treatment with APC. Recurrence of GAVE was defined as endoscopic reappearance of GAVE after prior resolution.Twenty patients met the study criteria. Median age (range) of the patients was 59.5 years (42-74 years). GAVE was associated with underlying cirrhosis in 16 (80%) patients. Indications for initial esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) included hematemesis and/or melena (9/20, 45%), iron deficiency anemia (6/20, 30%), screening or surveillance of varices (4/20, 20%), and occult gastrointestinal bleeding (1/20, 5%). The patients were treated with a total of 55 APC sessions (range 1-7 sessions). Successful endoscopic resolution of GAVE was achieved in 8 out of 20 patients (40%). There was no correlation between number of treatment sessions and GAVE treatment success (P = NS). Recurrence of GAVE was noted on a subsequent EGD in 2 out of 8 patients (25%) with prior endoscopic resolution of GAVE. Median follow-up period for the study population was 627 d (range 63-1953 d).Endoscopic resolution rate of GAVE was low (40%) with a 25% recurrence rate after treatment with APC. These rates suggest that APC treatment of GAVE may not be optimal in many circumstances.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Temsirolimus has important clinical activity in both untreated and previously treated patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. Targeted therapy-related stomatitis and mucositis have occurred during targeted therapies, but there is no consensus on which strategy is the most effective. We herein report a case in which several sessions of endoscopic hemostasis with argon plasma coagulation (APC) effectively resolved life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding that had occurred during targeted therapy. This is the first case report of such an adverse drug reaction in the literature.<h4>Case presentation</h4>A 47-year-old female patient with advanced renal cell carcinoma was treated with temsirolimus. Eight weeks after starting targeted therapy, the patient was admitted to our hospital for worsened fatigue, pallor, and hematemesis. A complete blood count showed a marked drop in her hemoglobin level from 10.1 g/dl 4 days earlier to 2.9 g/dl. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed diffuse mucosal bleeding of the antrum. Endoscopy revealed diffuse reddish spots that resembled gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) extending from the pylorus into the antrum. One month after endoscopic hemostasis with APC and stopping temsirolimus, significant improvement was shown in the gastric erythema and GAVE like lesions.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Minor hemorrhagic events are relatively common in patients treated with targeted agents. Life-threatening hemorrhagic events are rarer than minor hemorrhagic complications. In the present case, endoscopic hemostasis with APC effectively prevented severe anemia and blood loss due to gastrointestinal bleeding.
Project description:Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is very effective for eradication of flat Barrett's mucosa in dysplastic Barrett's esophagus after endoscopic resection of raised lesions. However, in a minority of the time, RFA may be ineffective at eradication of the Barrett's mucosa. Achieving complete eradication of intestinal metaplasia can be challenging in these patients. This review article focuses on the management of patients with dysplastic Barrett's esophagus refractory to RFA therapy. Management strategies discussed in this review include optimizing the RFA procedure, optimizing acid suppression (with medical, endoscopic, and surgical management), cryotherapy, hybrid argon plasma coagulation, and EndoRotor resection.
Project description:<b>Background and study aims </b> While argon plasma coagulation (APC) is the first-line treatment for gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE), endoscopic band ligation (EBL) has shown promising results. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of EBL for the treatment of GAVE. <b>Methods </b> Individualized search strategies were developed in accordance with PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines through September 1, 2020. Measured outcomes included endoscopic success (defined as GAVE eradication/improvement), change in hemoglobin, transfusion dependency, number of treatment sessions, adverse events, rebleeding, and bleeding-associated mortality. Outcomes were compared among studies evaluating EBL versus APC. <b>Results </b> Eleven studies (n = 393; 59.39 % female; mean age 58.65 ± 8.85 years) were included. Endoscopic success was achieved in 87.84 % [(95 % CI, 80.25 to 92.78); I <sup>2</sup> = 11.96 %] with a mean number of 2.50 ± 0.49 treatment sessions and average of 12.40 ± 3.82 bands applied. For 8 studies comparing EBL (n = 143) versus APC (n = 174), there was no difference in baseline patient characteristics. However, endoscopic success was significantly higher for EBL [OR 6.04 (95 % CI 1.97 to 18.56; <i>P</i> = 0.002], requiring fewer treatment sessions (2.56 ± 0.81 versus 3.78 ± 1.17; <i>P</i> < 0.001). EBL was also associated with a greater increase in post-procedure hemoglobin [mean difference 0.35 (95 % CI 0.07 to 0.62; <i>P</i> = 0.0140], greater reduction in transfusions required [mean difference -1.46 (95 % CI -2.80 to -0.12; <i>P</i> = 0.033], and fewer rebleeding events [OR 0.11 (95 % CI, 0.04 to 0.36); <i>P</i> < 0.001]. There was no difference in adverse events or bleeding-associated mortality ( <i>P</i> > 0.050). <b>Conclusions </b> EBL appears to be safe and effective for treatment of GAVE, with improved outcomes when compared to APC.
Project description:<h4>Background and aims</h4>Recent data support a role for endoscopic radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in unresectable cholangiocarcinoma by improving stent patency and overall survival.<h4>Methods</h4>We describe 3 patients with inoperable cholangiocarcinoma with jaundice and cholestasis who were recommended palliative chemotherapy. They underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with single-operator cholangioscope and intraductal RFA.<h4>Results</h4>The procedures were performed without adverse events in all patients, with clinical and analytical improvement 1 month later.<h4>Conclusions</h4>RFA is a promising and safe palliative treatment in patients with unresectable cholangiocarcinoma.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Pancreatic metastases (PM) from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are rare, are associated with favorable outcomes and are usually handled by surgery or VEGFR inhibitors, which both have side effects. Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS)-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an innovative approach to treat focally deep metastases and could be a relevant technique to control PM from RCC.<h4>Methods</h4>This monocentric, prospective study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of EUS-RFA to treat PM. We included patients with confirmed and progressive PM from RCC. PM was ablated under general anesthesia with a linear EUS scope and a EUS-RFA 19-gauge needle electrode placed into the tumor.<h4>Results</h4>Twelve patients from Paoli-Calmettes Institute were recruited between May 2017 and December 2019. Median age was 70.5 years (range 61-75), 50% were female, 100% were ECOG 0-1. At inclusion, mean PM size was 17 mm (range 3-35 mm); and all were progressive before EUS-RFA. Seven patients had EUS-RFA as the only treatment for RCC. We performed 26 EUS-RFA procedures and 21 PM was ablated. Median follow up was 27.7 months (range 6.4-57.1). For evaluable PM, the 6- and 12-month focal control rates were 84% and 73% respectively. One patient treated with TKI developed a paraduodenal abscess 2 months after EUS-RFA and another patient with biliary stent developed hepatic abscesses few days after EUS-RFA. No other severe side effects were experienced.<h4>Conclusions</h4>in this series, which is the largest ever reported, we showed that EUS-RFA is feasible and yields an excellent local control rate for PM from mRCC. With manageable complications, it could be a valuable alternative to pancreatic surgery in well-selected patients.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Recently, several new endoscopic treatments have been used to treat patients with Barrett's esophagus with high grade dysplasia. This systematic review aimed to determine the safety and effectiveness of these treatments compared with esophagectomy.<h4>Methods</h4>A comprehensive literature search was undertaken to identify studies of endoscopic treatments for Barrett's esophagus or early stage esophageal cancer. Information from the selected studies was extracted by two independent reviewers. Study quality was assessed and information was tabulated to identify trends or patterns. Results were pooled across studies for each outcome. Safety (occurrence of adverse events) and effectiveness (complete eradication of dysplasia) were compared across different treatments.<h4>Results</h4>The 101 studies that met the selection criteria included 8 endoscopic techniques and esophagectomy; only 12 were comparative studies. The quality of evidence was generally low. Methods and outcomes were inconsistently reported. Protocols, outcomes measured, follow-up times and numbers of treatment sessions varied, making it difficult to calculate pooled estimates.The surgical mortality rate was 1.2%, compared to 0.04% in 2831 patients treated endoscopically (1 death). Adverse events were more severe and frequent with esophagectomy, and included anastomotic leaks (9.4%), wound infections (4.1%) and pulmonary complications (4.1%). Four patients (0.1%) treated endoscopically experienced bleeding requiring transfusions. The stricture rate with esophagectomy (5.3%) was lower than with porfimer sodium photodynamic therapy (18.5%), but higher than aminolevulinic acid (ALA) 60 mg/kg PDT (1.4%). Dysphagia and odynophagia varied in frequency across modalities, with the highest rates reported for multipolar electrocoagulation (MPEC). Photosensitivity, an adverse event that occurs only with photodynamic therapy, was experienced by 26.4% of patients who received porfimer sodium.Some radiofrequency ablation (RFA) or argon plasma coagulation (APC) studies (used in multiple sessions) reported rates of almost 100% for complete eradication of dysplasia. But the study methods and findings were not adequately described. The other studies of endoscopic treatments reported similarly high rates of complete eradication.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Endoscopic treatments offer safe and effective alternatives to esophagectomy for patients with Barrett's esophagus and high grade dysplasia. Unfortunately, shortcomings in the published studies make it impossible to determine the comparative effectiveness of each of the endoscopic treatments.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To present the recommendations and supporting evidence for RBC transfusions in critically ill children with hematologic and oncologic disease from the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative. DESIGN:Consensus conference series of international, multidisciplinary experts in RBC transfusion management of critically ill children. METHODS:The panel of 38 experts developed evidence-based and, when evidence was lacking, expert-based clinical recommendations and research priorities for RBC transfusions in critically ill children. The hematologic/oncologic subgroup included seven experts. Electronic searches were conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases from 1980 to May 2017. Agreement was obtained using the Research and Development/UCLA Appropriateness Method. Results were summarized using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation method. RESULTS:The hematologic/oncologic subgroup developed 14 recommendations (seven clinical, seven research); all achieved greater than 80% agreement. In patients with sickle cell disease, Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative recommends: 1) RBC transfusion to achieve a target hemoglobin concentration of 10?g/dL rather than hemoglobin of less than 30% prior to surgical procedures requiring general anesthesia and 2) exchange transfusion over simple (nonexchange) transfusion if the child's condition is deteriorating (based on clinical judgment), otherwise a simple, nonexchange RBC transfusion is recommended. There is insufficient evidence to make recommendations on transfusion thresholds for patients with sickle cell disease prior to minor procedures, with acute stroke or with pulmonary hypertension. For patients with oncologic disease or undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant, a hemoglobin concentration of 7-8?g/dL is recommended. Due to lack of evidence, research is needed to clarify the appropriate transfusion thresholds in these patients. CONCLUSIONS:Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative developed specific pediatric recommendations regarding RBC transfusion management in critically ill children with sickle cell disease, oncologic disease, and hematopoietic stem cell transplant and recommendations to help guide future research priorities.