ABSTRACT: A convergent total synthesis of the architecturally complex indole diterpenoid (-)-nodulisporic acid D has been achieved. Key synthetic transformations include vicinal difunctionalization of an advanced ?,?-unsaturated aldehyde to form the E,F-trans-fused 5,6-ring system of the eastern hemisphere and a cascade cross-coupling/indolization protocol leading to the CDE multisubstituted indole core.
Project description:Prenylation of aromatic compounds is a key tailoring reaction in biosynthesis of bioactive indole-diterpenes. Here, we identify NodD1 as the enzyme responsible for the bisprenylation of nodulisporic acid F. This prenyltransferase showed a preference for its natural indole-diterpene substrate whereas other related enzymes were not able to catalyse this conversion.
Project description:General strategies for the chemical synthesis of organic compounds, especially of architecturally complex natural products, are not easily identified. Here we present a method to establish a strategy for such syntheses, which uses network analysis. This approach has led to the identification of a versatile synthetic intermediate that facilitated syntheses of the diterpenoid alkaloids weisaconitine D and liljestrandinine, and the core of gomandonine. We also developed a web-based graphing program that allows network analysis to be easily performed on molecules with complex frameworks. The diterpenoid alkaloids comprise some of the most architecturally complex and functional-group-dense secondary metabolites isolated. Consequently, they present a substantial challenge for chemical synthesis. The synthesis approach described here is a notable departure from other single-target-focused strategies adopted for the syntheses of related structures. Specifically, it affords not only the targeted natural products, but also intermediates and derivatives in the three families of diterpenoid alkaloids (C-18, C-19 and C-20), and so provides a unified synthetic strategy for these natural products. This work validates the utility of network analysis as a starting point for identifying strategies for the syntheses of architecturally complex secondary metabolites.
Project description:We demonstrate a new synthetic strategy to cyclophanes containing thiophene and indole moieties via Grignard addition, Fischer indolization and ring-closing metathesis as key steps.
Project description:A concise approach toward the total synthesis of the communesin alkaloids and perophoramidine is reported. The strategy relies on the use of the interrupted Fischer indolization to build the tetracyclic indoline core of the natural products. Studies to probe the scope and limitations of this plan are presented. Although the methodology does not tolerate a C8-allyl substituent en route to the challenging vicinal quaternary stereocenters, variation at C7 and on the C ring is permitted.
Project description:The construction of an unprecedented class of an indole-based library, namely, a 6,7-annulated-4-substituted 93-member indole library, using a strategic combination of 6,7-indolyne cycloaddition and cross-coupling reactions under both Suzuki-Miyaura and Buchwald-Hartwig conditions is described. This work represents the first example of library development that employs the indole aryne methodology. Annulated indoles, with the exception of only a few biologically active natural products (i.e., the trikentrins, herbindoles, teleocidins, and nodulisporic acids), have no representation in the PubChem or MLSMR databases. These structural entities are therefore predicted to have unique chemical property space characteristics and a high probability of exhibiting interesting biological activity.
Project description:Tubingensin B is an indole diterpenoid that bears a daunting chemical structure featuring a disubstituted carbazole unit, five stereogenic centres-three of which are quaternary-and a decorated [3.2.2]-bridged bicycle. We describe our synthetic design toward a concise and enantiospecific total synthesis of tubingensin B, which hinges on the strategic use of a transient aryne intermediate. Although initial studies led to unexpected reaction outcomes, we ultimately implemented a sequence of carbazolyne cyclization followed by Rh-catalysed fragmentation to install the seven-membered ring and vicinal quaternary stereocentres of the natural product. Coupled with a late-stage radical cyclization to construct the [3.2.2]-bridged bicycle, these efforts have enabled the total synthesis of tubingensin B. The design and evolution of our succinct total synthesis underscores the utility of long-avoided aryne intermediates for the introduction of structural motifs that have conventionally been viewed as challenging.
Project description:A multi-component radical addition strategy enables difunctionalization of alkenes with heteroarenes and a variety of radical precursors, including N3, P(O)R2, and CF3. This unified approach for coupling diverse classes of electrophilic radicals and heteroarenes to vinyl ethers allows for direct, vicinal C-C as well as C-N, C-P, and C-Rf bond formation.
Project description:A unified synthetic strategy leading to the total synthesis of (-)-nodulisporic acids D, C, and B is described. Key synthetic transformations include a nickel-chromium-mediated cyclization, an aromatic ring functionalization employing a novel copper-promoted alkylation, a palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling cascade/indole ring construction, and a palladium-mediated regio- and diastereoselective allylic substitution/cyclization reaction, the latter to construct ring D.
Project description:Our synthesis of the CDE ring fragment of pectenotoxin-4 utilised two key steps to make the complex bicyclic ketal unit: (i) a rhodium-catalysed vinyl group 1,4-addition as the major C–C bond forming step; (ii) a stereoselective Sharpless Asymmetric Dihydroxylation (SAD) of the resulting 1,1-disubstituted homoallylic alcohol. Subsequent acid-catalysed cyclisation afforded the desired [5,6]-bicyclic ketal of the target molecule. This methodology was shown to be compatible with the desired E ring fragment 35 in order to construct the CDE fragment 37 of pectenotoxin-4.
Project description:We developed a direct vicinal difunctionalization of alkenes with iodine and TBHP at room temperature. This iodination and peroxidation in a one-pot synthesis produces 1-(tert-butylperoxy)-2-iodoethanes, which are inaccessible through conventional synthetic methods. This method generates multiple radical intermediates in situ and has excellent regioselectivity, a broad substrate scope and mild conditions. The iodine and peroxide groups of 1-(tert-butylperoxy)-2-iodoethanes have several potential applications and allow further chemical modifications, enabling the preparation of synthetically valuable molecules.