Identification of patients with RAG mutations previously diagnosed with common variable immunodeficiency disorders.
ABSTRACT: Combined immunodeficiency (CID) presents a unique challenge to clinicians. Two patients presented with the prior clinical diagnosis of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) disorder marked by an early age of presentation, opportunistic infections, and persistent lymphopenia. Due to the presence of atypical clinical features, next generation sequencing was applied documenting RAG deficiency in both patients.Two different genetic analysis techniques were applied in these patients including whole exome sequencing in one patient and the use of a gene panel designed to target genes known to cause primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDD) in a second patient. Sanger dideoxy sequencing was used to confirm RAG1 mutations in both patients.Two young adults with a history of recurrent bacterial sinopulmonary infections, viral infections, and autoimmune disease as well as progressive hypogammaglobulinemia, abnormal antibody responses, lymphopenia and a prior diagnosis of CVID disorder were evaluated. Compound heterozygous mutations in RAG1 (1) c256_257delAA, p86VfsX32 and (2) c1835A>G, pH612R were documented in one patient. Compound heterozygous mutations in RAG1 (1) c.1566G>T, p.W522C and (2) c.2689C>T, p. R897X) were documented in a second patient post-mortem following a fatal opportunistic infection.Astute clinical judgment in the evaluation of patients with PIDD is necessary. Atypical clinical findings such as early onset, granulomatous disease, or opportunistic infections should support the consideration of atypical forms of late onset CID secondary to RAG deficiency. Next generation sequencing approaches provide powerful tools in the investigation of these patients and may expedite definitive treatments.
Project description:Background: Variants in recombination-activating genes (RAG) are common genetic causes of autosomal recessive forms of combined immunodeficiencies (CID) ranging from severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), Omenn syndrome (OS), leaky SCID, and CID with granulomas and/or autoimmunity (CID-G/AI), and even milder presentation with antibody deficiency. Objective: We aim to estimate the incidence, clinical presentation, genetic variability, and treatment outcome with geographic distribution of patients with the RAG defects in populations inhabiting South, West, and East Slavic countries. Methods: Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected from RAG-deficient patients of Slavic origin via chart review, retrospectively. Recombinase activity was determined in vitro by flow cytometry-based assay. Results: Based on the clinical and immunologic phenotype, our cohort of 82 patients from 68 families represented a wide spectrum of RAG deficiencies, including SCID (n = 20), OS (n = 37), and LS/CID (n = 25) phenotypes. Sixty-seven (81.7%) patients carried RAG1 and 15 patients (18.3%) carried RAG2 biallelic variants. We estimate that the minimal annual incidence of RAG deficiency in Slavic countries varies between 1 in 180,000 and 1 in 300,000 live births, and it may vary secondary to health care disparities in these regions. In our cohort, 70% (n = 47) of patients with RAG1 variants carried p.K86Vfs*33 (c.256_257delAA) allele, either in homozygous (n = 18, 27%) or in compound heterozygous (n = 29, 43%) form. The majority (77%) of patients with homozygous RAG1 p.K86Vfs*33 variant originated from Vistula watershed area in Central and Eastern Poland, and compound heterozygote cases were distributed among all Slavic countries except Bulgaria. Clinical and immunological presentation of homozygous RAG1 p.K86Vfs*33 cases was highly diverse (SCID, OS, and AS/CID) suggestive of strong influence of additional genetic and/or epigenetic factors in shaping the final phenotype. Conclusion: We propose that RAG1 p.K86Vfs*33 is a founder variant originating from the Vistula watershed region in Poland, which may explain a high proportion of homozygous cases from Central and Eastern Poland and the presence of the variant in all Slavs. Our studies in this cohort of RAG1 founder variants confirm that clinical and immunological phenotypes only partially depend on the underlying genetic defect. As access to HSCT is improving among RAG-deficient patients in Eastern Europe, we anticipate improvements in survival.
Project description:With the accessibility of next-generation sequencing modalities, an increasing number of primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDDs) such as common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) have gained improved understanding of molecular pathogenesis and disease phenotype with the identification of a genetic etiology. We report a patient with early-onset CVID due to an autosomal dominant loss-of-function mutation in NFKB2 who developed a severe herpes vegetans cutaneous infection as well as concurrent herpes simplex virus viremia. The case highlights features of CVID, unique aspects of NF-κB2 deficiency including susceptibility to herpesvirus infections, the detection of neutralizing anticytokine antibodies, and the complexity of medical management of patients with a PIDD that can be aided by a known genetic diagnosis.
Project description:Common variable immunodeficiency disorder (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency disease (PIDD) often associated with severe and chronic infections. Patients commonly receive immunoglobulin (Ig) treatment to reduce the cycle of recurrent infection and improve physical functioning. However, how Ig treatment in CVID affects quality of life (QOL) has not been thoroughly evaluated. The purpose of a recent Immune Deficiency Foundation (IDF) mail survey was to assess the factors that are associated with QOL in patients with CVID receiving Ig treatment.A 75-question survey developed by the IDF and a 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) to assess QOL were mailed to adults with CVID. Mean SF-12 scores were compared between patients with CVID and the general US adult population normative sample.Overall, 945 patients with CVID completed the surveys. More than half of the patients (54.9%) received intravenous Ig and 44.9% received subcutaneous Ig treatment. Patients with CVID had significantly lower SF-12 scores compared with the general US population regardless of sex or age (p < 0.05). Route of IgG replacement did not dramatically improve QOL. SF-12 scores were highest in patients with CVID who have well-controlled PIDD, lacked physical impairments, were not bothered by treatment, and received Ig infusions at home.These data provide insight into what factors are most associated with physical and mental health, which can serve to improve QOL in patients in this population. Improvements in QOL can result from early detection of disease, limiting digestive system disease, attention to fatigue, and implementation of an individual treatment plan for the patient.
Project description:Recombination-activating genes 1 and 2 (RAG1 and RAG2) play a critical role in T and B cell development by initiating the recombination process that controls the expression of T cell receptor (TCR) and immunoglobulin genes. Mutations in the RAG1 and RAG2 genes in humans cause a broad spectrum of phenotypes, including severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) with lack of T and B cells, Omenn syndrome, leaky SCID, and combined immunodeficiency with granulomas or autoimmunity (CID-G/AI). Using next-generation sequencing, we analyzed the TCR and B cell receptor (BCR) repertoire in 12 patients with RAG mutations presenting with Omenn syndrome (n = 5), leaky SCID (n = 3), or CID-G/AI (n = 4). Restriction of repertoire diversity skewed usage of variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) segment genes, and abnormalities of CDR3 length distribution were progressively more prominent in patients with a more severe phenotype. Skewed usage of V, D, and J segment genes was present also within unique sequences, indicating a primary restriction of repertoire. Patients with Omenn syndrome had a high proportion of class-switched immunoglobulin heavy chain transcripts and increased somatic hypermutation rate, suggesting in vivo activation of these B cells. These data provide a framework to better understand the phenotypic heterogeneity of RAG deficiency.
Project description:Patients with mutations of the recombination-activating genes (RAG) present with diverse clinical phenotypes, including severe combined immune deficiency (SCID), autoimmunity, and inflammation. However, the incidence and extent of immune dysregulation in RAG-dependent immunodeficiency have not been studied in detail. Here, we have demonstrated that patients with hypomorphic RAG mutations, especially those with delayed-onset combined immune deficiency and granulomatous/autoimmune manifestations (CID-G/AI), produce a broad spectrum of autoantibodies. Neutralizing anti-IFN-α or anti-IFN-ω antibodies were present at detectable levels in patients with CID-G/AI who had a history of severe viral infections. As this autoantibody profile is not observed in a wide range of other primary immunodeficiencies, we hypothesized that recurrent or chronic viral infections may precipitate or aggravate immune dysregulation in RAG-deficient hosts. We repeatedly challenged Rag1S723C/S723C mice, which serve as a model of leaky SCID, with agonists of the virus-recognizing receptors TLR3/MDA5, TLR7/-8, and TLR9 and found that this treatment elicits autoantibody production. Altogether, our data demonstrate that immune dysregulation is an integral aspect of RAG-associated immunodeficiency and indicate that environmental triggers may modulate the phenotypic expression of autoimmune manifestations.
Project description:Overall, this work describes the largest cohort of patients with RAG mutations and an associated phenotype consisting of combined immunodeficiency and granulomatous lesions and/or autoimmunity (CID-G/AI). By using multiple methods (microarray, ELISA and multiplex bead technology), we have consistently identified a distinctive signature of anti-cytokine antibodies in patients with RAG-dependent immunodeficiencies, especially in those with CID-G/AI and a history of severe viral infections. These autoantibodies were not detected in a large panel of patients with other forms of primary immunodeficiency, and may therefore represent a novel biomarker panel of this condition. Known autoantigens, cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and receptors were printed onto microarrays. All targets were printed in triplicate. Arrays were probed with diluted plasma and autoantibodies were detected with a AF647 conjugated anti-human IgG secondary.
Project description:Familial hepatic veno-occlusive disease with immunodeficiency (VODI, OMIM: 235550) is a rare form of combined immune deficiency (CID) that presents in the first few months of life with failure to thrive, recurrent infections, opportunistic infections along with liver impairment. Herein, we are describing a Pakistani patient with a homozygous novel variant in the SP110 gene, presenting with classical phenotypic manifestations of VODI. He presented at the age of 3 months with opportunistic infections and later developed liver failure. Conclusion. Hepatic veno-occlusive disease with immunodeficiency is a rare cause of immunodeficiency, and this is the first case report from the Middle East in a patient of Pakistani origin. It is important to have a high suspicion for this disease, in patients presenting early life with a picture of CID and deranged liver function, as the earlier the diagnosis and treatment, the better the prognosis.
Project description:Immunodeficiency, centromeric instability and facial anomalies syndrome 2 (ICF2) is a rare autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency disorder. So far, 27 patients have been reported. Here, we present three siblings with ICF2 due to a homozygous ZBTB24 gene mutation (c.1222 T>G, p. (Cys408Gly)). Immune deficiency in these patients ranged from late-onset combined immunodeficiency (CID) with severe respiratory tract infections and recurrent shingles to asymptomatic selective antibody deficiency. Evident clinical heterogeneity manifested despite a common genetic background, suggesting the pathogenic relevance of epigenetic modification. Immunological follow-up reveals a previously unidentified gradual depletion of B and CD4⁺ T cells in all three presented patients with transition of a common variable immunodeficiency (CVID)-like disease to late-onset-CID in one of them. Considering all previously published cases with ICF2, we identify inadequate antibody responses to vaccines and reduction in CD27⁺ memory B cells as prevalent immunological traits. High mortality among ICF2 patients (20%) together with the progressive course of immunodeficiency suggest that hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) should be considered as a treatment option in due time.
Project description:Deficiencies in T regulatory (Treg) and Th17 cells attenuate peripheral tolerance and the IL-17 family of cytokines, contributing to autoimmune disorders and opportunistic (fungal) infections, respectively. Because of limited blood samples from patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs), a positive correlation/linear relationship between Treg and Th17 cells and their respective expressions of transcription factors forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) and retinoic acid-related orphan receptor ? (ROR?t) by real-time PCR (RT-PCR) amplification, was used to predict the percentages of Treg and Th17 cells in peripheral blood. Compared to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) expression, the percentages of Treg and Th17 cells were calculated as the linear relationship to the 2-?CT value (cycle threshold). Among 91 PIDs patients, 68 and 78 had predicted Treg and Th17 percentages below 5% of the normal ranges (0.859 and 0.734%, respectively), which expanded different categories beyond obvious T cell deficiency. Notably, FOXP3 was undetectable in one patient (CVID), ROR?t was undetectable in six patients (one CVID, one CID, two neutropenia, one WAS, and one CMC), and both were undetectable in four patients (two SCID, one STAT1, and one periodic fever). In contrast, two patients with auto-IFN? antibodies had increased susceptibility to intracellular mycobacterial infections, interrupted Th1 development and subsequent elevation in the Th17 cells. Both predicted Treg and Th17 percentages in the PIDs patients were more independent of age (months) than in the controls. The predicted Th17/Treg ratio in the PIDs patients, overall, was lower than that in the healthy controls (0.79 ± 0.075 vs. 1.16 ± 0.208; p = 0.038). In conclusion, lower predicted Treg and Th17 cell populations calculated by RT-PCR-amplified FOXP3 and ROR?t in PIDs patients at diagnosis can explain the higher potential phenotypes of autoimmune disorders and opportunistic infections, although effective interventions in the early stage might have prevented such phenotypic development and caused a statistical bias in the comparisons.
Project description:Infection with the opportunistic enteric pathogen Clostridium difficile is an increasingly common clinical complication that follows antibiotic treatment-induced gut microbiota perturbation. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are early responders to enteric pathogens; however, their role during C. difficile infection is undefined. To identify immune pathways that mediate recovery from C. difficile infection, we challenged C57BL/6, Rag1(-/-) (which lack T and B cells), and Rag2(-/-)Il2rg(-/-) (Rag?c(-/-)) mice (which additionally lack ILCs) with C. difficile. In contrast to Rag1(-/-) mice, ILC-deficient Rag?c(-/-) mice rapidly succumbed to infection. Rag1(-/-) but not Rag?c(-/-) mice upregulate expression of ILC1- or ILC3-associated proteins following C. difficile infection. Protection against infection was restored by transferring ILCs into Rag?c(-/-) mice. While ILC3s made a minor contribution to resistance, loss of IFN-? or T-bet-expressing ILC1s in Rag1(-/-) mice increased susceptibility to C. difficile. These data demonstrate a critical role for ILC1s in defense against C. difficile.