ABSTRACT: Unilateral focal neuromyotonia has been rarely reported in fingers or extraocular muscles. We report a case of segmental neuromyotonia in a 20-year-old boy who presented to us with intermittent tightness in right upper limb. Electromyography revealed myokymic and neuromyotonic discharges in proximal as well as distal muscles of the right upper limb. Patient's symptoms responded well to phenytoin therapy. Such an atypical involvement of two contiguous areas of a single limb in neuromyotonia has not been reported previously. Awareness of such an atypical presentation of the disease can be important in timely diagnosis and treatment of a patient.
Project description:Ocular neuromyotonia (ONM) is characterized by episodic diplopia, which is usually triggered by prolonged eccentric gaze of the affected extraocular muscles. The spell is characterized by involuntary, occasionally painful, sustained contraction of one or more extraocular muscles innervated by the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nerve. ONM usually occurs as a late consequence of radiotherapy around the parasellar area, although idiopathic cases have been reported. Most cases are unilateral; however, bilateral ONM has occasionally been described.A 60-year-old woman presented with a 4-month history of episodic, painful, horizontal binocular diplopia. She underwent external beam radiotherapy to the skull base for treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The tumor was well controlled. General neurological examination findings were unremarkable. Neuro-ophthalmic examination revealed normal visual acuity, visual fields, pupils, and fundi. Ocular alignment showed orthotropia with normal ocular motility. Myasthenic eyelid signs were absent. However, she developed episodes of involuntary sustained contraction of the medial rectus muscle following prolonged eccentric gaze toward the affected medial rectus muscle, which resulted in esotropia upon returning to the primary position. The esotropic episodes spontaneously resolved after approximately 2 min. These spells affected both medial rectus muscles. Both pupils remained normal throughout the examination. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed neither brain parenchyma/brain stem lesions nor tumor recurrence. Her symptoms were successfully treated with carbamazepine.Episodic esotropia in the adducting eye following prolonged horizontal eccentric gaze is a significant characteristic of ONM affecting the bilateral medial rectus muscles (i.e., bilateral oculomotor ONM). In spite of its extreme rarity, ONM should be considered as a differential diagnosis of episodic diplopia, especially in patients with a history of radiotherapy around the parasellar area. Careful examination with prolonged eccentric gaze should be performed to achieve a correct diagnosis and avoid an extensive unnecessary workup.
Project description:Ocular neuromyotonia (ONM) is a neuro-ophthalmic disorder characterized by episodic diplopia caused by contraction of one or more ocular muscles due to spontaneous excitation of the respective ocular motor nerve. We report a patient whose ocular neuromyotonia arose in the setting of a subacute demyelinating polyneuropathy consistent with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and subsequently resolved following the initiation of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) for her neuropathy. Our patient provides additional evidence towards the role of demyelination and ephaptic neurotransmission in ocular neuromyotonia and also represents the first reported case of ocular neuromyotonia associated with a systemic neurological condition.
Project description:This article describes the clinical and electromyographic findings of neuromyotonia in a 19-month-old male crossbred Quarter Horse that presented with stiffness and muscle asymmetry in the hind limbs as well as sacrococcygeal, paravertebral, and gluteal myokymia. An electromyographic study showed spontaneous continuous muscle fiber activity with high-frequency discharges, fibrillations, positive sharp waves, fasciculation potentials, and complex repetitive discharges. Histological examination of the gluteal muscle showed a mixed neurogenic and myopathic pattern. The findings are consistent with neuromyotonia.
Project description:Acquired neuromyotonia is increasingly recognized as an autoimmune disorder, frequently associated with antibodies against voltage-gated potassium channel complex proteins.We present a case of acquired neuromyotonia as the heralding symptom of recurrent thymoma in a patient with myasthenia gravis.A report of a single case of a 53-year-old man with myasthenia gravis and a prior thymectomy presenting with 2 months of diffuse, involuntary muscle twitching in the absence of myasthenic symptoms, electrophysiologically confirmed to be neuromyotonia. Further evaluation revealed the recurrence of malignant thymoma, accompanied by refractory arrhythmia. Serologic and cerebrospinal fluid testing confirmed the presence of antibodies directed against 2 voltage-gated potassium channel–associated proteins: LGI1 and Caspr2.This case highlights the overlap of myasthenia, neuromyotonia, and thymoma, emphasizing the importance of appropriate tumor screening in the presence of either of the former 2 conditions.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Acquired neuromyotonia can occur in patients with thymoma, alone or in association with myasthenia gravis (MG), but the clinical prognostic significance of such comorbidity is largely unknown. The clinico-pathological features were investigated along with the occurrence of neuromyotonia as predictors of tumour recurrence in patients with thymoma-associated myasthenia. METHODS:A total number of 268 patients with thymomatous MG were studied retrospectively. Patients with symptoms of spontaneous muscle overactivity were selected for autoantibody testing using immunohistology for neuronal cell-surface proteins and cell-based assays for contactin-associated protein 2 (CASPR2), leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1), glycine receptor and Netrin-1 receptor antibodies. Neuromyotonia was diagnosed according to the presence of typical electromyography abnormalities and/or autoantibodies against LGI1/CASPR2. RESULTS:Overall, 33/268 (12%) MG patients had a thymoma recurrence. Five/268 (2%) had neuromyotonia, four with typical autoantibodies, including LGI1 (n = 1), CASPR2 (n = 1) or both (n = 2). Three patients had Netrin-1 receptor antibodies, two with neuromyotonia and concomitant CASPR2+LGI1 antibodies and one with spontaneous muscle overactivity without electromyography evidence of neuromyotonia. Thymoma recurrence was more frequent in those with (4/5, 80%) than in those without (28/263, 10%, P < 0.001) neuromyotonia. Neuromyotonia preceded the recurrence in 4/5 patients. In univariate analysis, predictors of thymoma recurrence were age at thymectomy [odds ratio (OR) 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93-0.97], Masaoka stage ≥IIb (OR 10.73, 95% CI 2.38-48.36) and neuromyotonia (OR 41.78, 95% CI 4.71-370.58). CONCLUSIONS:De novo occurrence of neuromyotonia in MG patients with previous thymomas is a rare event and may herald tumour recurrence. Neuronal autoantibodies can be helpful to assess the diagnosis. These observations provide pragmatic risk stratification for tumour vigilance in patients with thymomatous MG.
Project description:To identify cell-surface antibodies in patients with neuromyotonia and to describe the main clinical implications.Sera of 3 patients with thymoma-associated neuromyotonia and myasthenia gravis were used to immunoprecipitate and characterize neuronal cell-surface antigens using reported techniques. The clinical significance of antibodies against precipitated proteins was assessed with sera of 98 patients (neuromyotonia 46, myasthenia gravis 52, thymoma 42; 33 of them with overlapping syndromes) and 219 controls (other neurologic diseases, cancer, and healthy volunteers).Immunoprecipitation studies identified 3 targets, including the Netrin-1 receptors DCC (deleted in colorectal carcinoma) and UNC5A (uncoordinated-5A) as well as Caspr2 (contactin-associated protein-like 2). Cell-based assays with these antigens showed that among the indicated patients, 9 had antibodies against Netrin-1 receptors (7 with additional Caspr2 antibodies) and 5 had isolated Caspr2 antibodies. Only one of the 219 controls had isolated Caspr2 antibodies with relapsing myelitis episodes. Among patients with neuromyotonia and/or myasthenia gravis, the presence of Netrin-1 receptor or Caspr2 antibodies predicted thymoma (p < 0.05). Coexisting Caspr2 and Netrin-1 receptor antibodies were associated with concurrent thymoma, myasthenia gravis, and neuromyotonia, often with Morvan syndrome (p = 0.009). Expression of DCC, UNC5A, and Caspr2 proteins was demonstrated in paraffin-embedded thymoma samples (3) and normal thymus.Antibodies against Netrin-1 receptors (DCC and UNC5a) and Caspr2 often coexist and associate with thymoma in patients with neuromyotonia and myasthenia gravis.This study provides Class III evidence that antibodies against Netrin-1 receptors can identify patients with thymoma (sensitivity 21.4%, specificity 100%).
Project description:Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM) is a heterogeneous group of disorders that may be associated with other anomalies. The association of a CFEOM syndrome with ulnar hand abnormalities (CFEOM/U) has not been reported to date.To describe a new autosomal recessive syndrome of CFEOM and ulnar hand abnormalities, and localise the disease causing gene.Clinical evaluation of the affected members and positional mapping.Six affected patients with CFEOM/U (aged 2 to 29 years) from a large consanguineous Turkish family were studied. Ophthalmological involvement was characterised by non-progressive restrictive ophthalmoplegia with blepharoptosis of the right eye. The postaxial oligodactyly/oligosyndactyly of the hands was more severe on the right side. A genome-wide scan established linkage of this new autosomal recessive syndrome to a locus on chromosome 21qter. The multipoint LOD score was 4.53 at microsatellite marker D21S1259, and fine mapping defined a approximately 1.5 Mb critical region between microsatellite marker D21S1897 and the telomere of the long arm.CFEOM/U maps to a 1.5 Mb region at chromosome 21qter. Future identification of the disease causing gene may provide insights into the development of the extraocular muscles and brain stem alpha motor neurones, as well as anteroposterior limb development.
Project description:The human primary motor cortex (M1) undergoes considerable reorganization in response to traumatic upper limb amputation. The representations of the preserved arm muscles expand, invading portions of M1 previously dedicated to the hand, suggesting that former hand neurons are reassigned to the control of remaining proximal upper limb muscles. Hand allograft offers a unique opportunity to study the reversibility of such long-term cortical changes. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation in patient LB, who underwent bilateral hand transplantation 3 years after a traumatic amputation, to longitudinally track both the emergence of intrinsic (from the donor) hand muscles in M1 as well as changes in the representation of stump (upper arm and forearm) muscles. The same muscles were also mapped in patient CD, the first bilateral hand allograft recipient. Newly transplanted intrinsic muscles acquired a cortical representation in LB's M1 at 10 months postgraft for the left hand and at 26 months for the right hand. The appearance of a cortical representation of transplanted hand muscles in M1 coincided with the shrinkage of stump muscle representations for the left but not for the right side. In patient CD, transcranial magnetic stimulation performed at 51 months postgraft revealed a complete set of intrinsic hand-muscle representations for the left but not the right hand. Our findings show that newly transplanted muscles can be recognized and integrated into the patient's motor cortex.
Project description:Sparing of the extraocular muscles in muscular dystrophy is controversial. To address the potential role of utrophin in this sparing, mdx:utrophin(+/-) and mdx:utrophin(-/-) mice were examined for changes in myofiber size, central nucleation, and Pax7-positive and MyoD-positive cell density at intervals over their life span. Known to be spared in the mdx mouse, and contrary to previous reports, the extraocular muscles from both the mdx:utrophin(+/-) and mdx:utrophin(-/-) mice were also morphologically spared. In the mdx:utrophin(+/)(-) mice, which have a normal life span compared to the mdx:utrophin(-/-) mice, the myofibers were larger at 3 and 12 months than the wild type age-matched eye muscles. While there was a significant increase in central nucleation in the extraocular muscles from all mdx:utrophin(+/)(-) mice, the levels were still very low compared to age-matched limb skeletal muscles. Pax7- and MyoD-positive myogenic precursor cell populations were retained and were similar to age-matched wild type controls. These results support the hypothesis that utrophin is not involved in extraocular muscle sparing in these genotypes. In addition, it appears that these muscles retain the myogenic precursors that would allow them to maintain their regenerative capacity and normal morphology over a lifetime even in these more severe models of muscular dystrophy.
Project description:Moebius syndrome is characterized by congenital unilateral or bilateral facial and abducens nerve palsies (sixth and seventh cranial nerves) causing facial weakness, feeding difficulties, and restricted ocular movements. Abnormalities of the chest wall such as Poland anomaly and variable limb defects are frequently associated with this syndrome. Most cases are isolated; however, rare families with autosomal dominant transmission with incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity have been described. The genetic basis of this condition remains unknown. In a cohort study of nine individuals suspected to have Moebius syndrome (six typical, three atypical), we performed whole-exome sequencing to try to identify a commonly mutated gene. Although no such gene was identified and we did not find mutations in PLXND1 and REV3L, we found a de novo heterozygous mutation, p.E410K, in the gene encoding tubulin beta 3 class III (TUBB3), in an individual with atypical Moebius syndrome. This individual was diagnosed with near-complete ophthalmoplegia, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and absence of the septum pellucidum. No substantial limb abnormalities were noted. Mutations in TUBB3 have been associated with complex cortical dysplasia and other brain malformations and congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 3A (CFEOM3A). Our report highlights the overlap of genetic etiology and clinical differences between CFEOM and Moebius syndrome and describes our approach to identifying candidate genes for typical and atypical Moebius syndrome.