3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM) and its ring-substituted halogenated analogs (ring-DIMs) induce differential mechanisms of survival and death in androgen-dependent and -independent prostate cancer cells.
ABSTRACT: We recently reported that novel ring-substituted analogs of 3,3'-diindolylmethane (ring-DIMs) induce apoptosis and necrosis in androgen-dependent and -independent prostate cancer cells. In this paper, we have focused on the mechanism(s) associated with ring-DIM-mediated cell death, and on identifying the specific intracellular target(s) of these compounds. The 4,4'- and 7,7'-dichloroDIMs and 4,4'- and 7,7'-dibromoDIMs induced the death of LNCaP, C42B and DU145 prostate cancer cells, but not that of immortalized normal human prostate epithelial (RWPE-1) cells. Ring-DIMs caused the early loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and decreased mitochondrial ATP generation in prostate cancer cells. Cyclosporin A, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, inhibited ring-DIM-mediated cell death, and salubrinal, an inhibitor of ER stress, inhibited cell death mediated only by 4,4'-dihaloDIMs. We found that although salubrinal did not inhibit the onset of ER stress, it prevented 4,4'-dibromoDIM mediated loss of MMP. Salubrinal potentiated cell death in response to 7,7'-dihaloDIMs and DIM, and this effect concurred with increased loss of MMP. Using in silico 3-D docking affinity analysis, we identified Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) as a potential direct target for the most toxic ring-DIM, 4,4'-dibromoDIM. An inhibitor of CaMKII, KN93, but not its inactive analog KN92, abrogated cell death mediated by 4,4'-dibromoDIM. The ring-DIMs induced ER stress and autophagy, but these processes were not necessary for ring-DIM-mediated cell death. Inhibition of autophagy with bafilomycin A1, 3-methyladenine or by LC3B gene silencing sensitized LNCaP and C42B, but not ATG5-deficient DU145 cells to ring-DIM- and DIM-mediated cell death. We propose that autophagy induced by the ring-DIMs and DIM has a cytoprotective function in prostate cancer cells.
Project description:Di(1H-indol-3-yl)(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)methane (DIM-Ph-4-CF3) is an analog of orphan nuclear receptor 4A1 (NR4A1) ligand cytosporone B. We have synthesized several oxidation products of DIM-Ph-4-CF3, focusing on analogs with electron-withdrawing or donating groups at their phenyl ring 4-positions, and examined their anti-cancer activity and mechanism-of-action. Mesylates (DIM-Ph-4-X+ OMs-s) having CF3, CO2Me and Cl groups were more effective inhibitors of cancer cell viability than their precursors. 19F NMR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry strongly indicated interactions of DIM-Ph-4-CF3+ OMs- with the NR4A1 ligand binding domain, and compound-induced apoptosis of prostate cancer cells was dependent on NR4A1. DIM-Ph-4-CF3+ OMs- showed robust inhibition of LNCaP prostate cancer xenografts with no apparent toxicity. In vitro and in vivo, DIM-Ph-4-CF3+ OMs- activated proapoptotic unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling in prostate cancer cells. Independently of DIM-Ph-4-CF3+ OMs-, the bulk of NR4A1 localized to the cytoplasm in various cancer cell lines, suggesting a cytoplasmic mechanism-of-action of DIM-Ph-4-CF3+ OMs- in UPR induction and cell death. In summary, the data suggest that oxidized analogs of DIM-Ph-4-CF3 possess potent and safe anti-cancer activity which is mediated through UPR signaling downstream of NR4A1 binding.
Project description:Damaged DNA shows increased mobility, which can promote interactions with repair-conducive nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). This apparently random mobility is paradoxically abrogated upon disruption of microtubules or kinesins, factors that typically cooperate to mediate the directional movement of macromolecules. Here, we resolve this paradox by uncovering DNA damage-inducible intranuclear microtubule filaments (DIMs) that mobilize damaged DNA and promote repair. Upon DNA damage, relief of centromeric constraint induces DIMs that cooperate with the Rad9 DNA damage response mediator and Kar3 kinesin motor to capture DNA lesions, which then linearly move along dynamic DIMs. Decreasing and hyper-inducing DIMs respectively abrogates and hyper-activates repair. Accounting for DIM dynamics across cell populations by measuring directional changes of damaged DNA reveals that it exhibits increased non-linear directional behavior in nuclear space. Abrogation of DIM-dependent processes or repair-promoting factors decreases directional behavior. Thus, inducible and dynamic nuclear microtubule filaments directionally mobilize damaged DNA and promote repair.
Project description:1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substituted phenyl)methane (C-DIM) compounds exhibit antineoplastic activity in multiple cancer cell lines and the p-hydroxyphenyl analog (DIM-C-pPhOH) inactivates nuclear receptor 4A1 (NR4A1) in lung and pancreatic cancer cell lines. Using a series of 14 different p-substituted phenyl C-DIMs, we show that several compounds including DIM-C-pPhOH directly interacted with the ligand binding domain of NR4A1. Computational-based molecular modeling studies showed high-affinity interactions of DIM-C-pPhOH and related compounds within the ligand binding pocket of NR4A1, and these same compounds decreased NR4A1-dependent transactivation in colon cancer cells transfected with a construct containing 3 tandem Nur77 binding response elements linked to a luciferase reporter gene. Moreover, we also show that knockdown of NR4A1 by RNA interference (small interfering NR4A1) or treatment with DIM-C-pPhOH and related compounds decreased colon cancer cell growth, induced apoptosis, decreased expression of survivin and other Sp-regulated genes, and inhibited mammalian target of rapamycin signaling. Thus, C-DIMs such as DIM-C-pPhOH directly bind NR4A1 and are NR4A1 antagonists in colon cancer cells, and their antineoplastic activity is due, in part, to their interactions with nuclear NR4A1.
Project description:Nerve growth factor-induced B (NGFI-B) genes are orphan nuclear receptors, and NGFI-B alpha (Nur77, TR3) is overexpressed in bladder tumors and bladder cancer cells compared with nontumorous bladder tissue. 1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-methoxyphenyl)-methane (DIM-C-pPhOCH(3)) and 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-phenyl)methane have previously been identified as activators of Nur77, and both compounds inhibited growth and induced apoptosis of UC-5 and KU7 bladder cancer cells. The proapoptotic effects of methylene-substituted diindolylmethanes (C-DIMs) were unaffected by cotreatment with leptomycin B and were dependent on nuclear Nur77, and RNA interference with a small inhibitory RNA for Nur77 (iNur77) demonstrated that C-DIM-induced activation of apoptosis was Nur77-dependent. Microarray analysis of DIM-C-pPhOCH(3)-induced genes in UC-5 bladder cancer cells showed that this compound induced multiple Nur77-dependent proapoptotic or growth inhibitory genes including tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), cystathionase, p21, p8, and sestrin-2. DIM-C-pPhOCH(3) (25 mg/kg/d) also induced apoptosis and inhibited tumor growth in athymic nude mice bearing KU7 cells as xenografts, demonstrating that Nur77-active C-DIMs exhibit potential for bladder cancer chemotherapy by targeting Nur77, which is overexpressed in this tumor type.
Project description:Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor I (COUP-TFI) is an orphan receptor and member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Among a series of methylene substituted diindolylmethanes (C-DIMs) containing substituted phenyl and heteroaromatic groups, we identified 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(4-pyridyl)-methane (DIM-C-Pyr-4) as an activator of COUP-TFI. Structure activity studies with structurally diverse heteroaromatic C-DIMs showed that the pyridyl substituted compound was active and the 4-pyridyl substituent was more potent than the 2- or 3-pyridyl analogs in transactivation assays in breast cancer cells. The DIM-C-Pyr-4 activated chimeric GAL4-COUP-TFI constructs containing full length, C- or N-terminal deletions, and transactivation was inhibited by phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and protein kinase A inhibitors. However, DIM-C-Pyr-4 also induced transactivation and interactions of COUP-TFI and steroid receptor coactivators-1 and -2 in mammalian two-hybrid assays, and ligand-induced interactions of the C-terminal region of COUP-TFI were not affected by kinase inhibitors. We also showed that DIM-C-Pyr-4 activated COUP-TFI-dependent early growth response 1 (Egr-1) expression and this response primarily involved COUP-TFI interactions with Sp3 and to a lesser extent Sp1 bound to the proximal region of the Egr-1 promoter. Modeling studies showed interactions of DIM-C-Pyr-4 within the ligand binding domain of COUP-TFI. This report is the first to identify a COUP-TFI agonist and demonstrate activation of COUP-TFI-dependent Egr-1 expression.
Project description:Opioids are driving-impairing medicines (DIM). To assess the evolution and trends of opioid analgesics use between 2015 and 2018 in Castile and Leon (Spain), a population-based registry study was conceived. The length of opioid use and its concomitant use with other DIMs were studied. Analyses were done considering age and gender distributions. Adjusted consumption for licensed drivers is also presented. Of the 5 million dispensations recorded between 2015 and 2018, opioid analgesics were dispensed to 11.44% of the general population and 8.72% of vehicle drivers. Increases among daily users (2.6 times higher) and chronic users (1.5% higher) were noted, supporting the overall increase in opioid use (1.5%). The use of multiple drugs including other DIMs was a common finding (mean ± SD, 2.54 ± 0.01). Acute use (5.26%) and chronic use (3.20%) were also frequent. Formulations combining opioid analgesics with nonopioid analgesics were preferred. The use of opioids increased in Spain between 2015 and 2018. Concomitant use with other DIMS especially affects women and the elderly. Frequent use of opioid analgesics with other DIMs is a serious problem for drivers and increases the risk of accidents. Promoting safe driving should be a main objective of health authorities, to be achieved by developing and implementing educational activities for healthcare professionals and patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:There is increasing appreciation that non-cancer cells within the tumour microenvironment influence cancer progression and anti-cancer drug efficacy. For metastatic prostate cancer (PCa), the bone marrow microenvironment influences metastasis, drug response, and possibly drug resistance. METHODS:Using a novel microwell platform, the Microwell-mesh, we manufactured hundreds of 3D co-culture microtissues formed from PCa cells and bone marrow stromal cells. We used luciferase-expressing C42B PCa cells to enable quantification of the number of PCa cells in complex microtissue co-cultures. This strategy enabled us to quantify specific PCa cell growth and death in response to drug treatment, in different co-culture conditions. In parallel, we used Transwell migration assays to characterize PCa cell migration towards different 2D and 3D stromal cell populations. RESULTS:Our results reveal that PCa cell migration varied depending on the relative aggressiveness of the PCa cell lines, the stromal cell composition, and stromal cell 2D or 3D geometry. We found that C42B cell sensitivity to Docetaxel varied depending on culture geometry, and the presence or absence of different stromal cell populations. By contrast, the C42B cell response to Abiraterone Acetate was dependent on geometry, but not on the presence or absence of stromal cells. CONCLUSION:In summary, stromal cell composition and geometry influences PCa cell migration, growth and drug response. The Microwell-mesh and microtissues are powerful tools to study these complex 3D interactions.
Project description:To identify potential mechanisms underlying prostate cancer chemotherapy response and resistance, we compared the gene expression profiles in high-risk human prostate cancer specimens before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical prostatectomy. Among the molecular signatures associated with chemotherapy, transcripts encoding inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (ID1) were significantly upregulated. The patient biochemical relapse status was monitored in a long-term follow-up. Patients with ID1 upregulation were found to be associated with longer relapse-free survival than patients without ID1 increase. This in vivo clinical association was mechanistically investigated. The chemotherapy-induced ID1 upregulation was recapitulated in the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Docetaxel dose-dependently induced ID1 transcription, which was mediated by ID1 promoter E-box chromatin modification and c-Myc binding. Stable ID1 overexpression in LNCaP increased cell proliferation, promoted G(1) cell cycle progression, and enhanced docetaxel-induced cytotoxicity. These changes were accompanied by a decrease in cellular mitochondria content, an increase in BCL2 phosphorylation at serine 70, caspase-3 activation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. In contrast, ID1 siRNA in the LNCaP and C42B cell lines reduced cell proliferation and decreased docetaxel-induced cytotoxicity by inhibiting cell death. ID1-mediated chemosensitivity enhancement was in part due to ID1 suppression of p21. Overexpression of p21 in LNCaP-ID1-overexpressing cells restored the p21 level and reversed ID1-enhanced chemosensitivity. These molecular data provide a mechanistic rationale for the observed in vivo clinical association between ID1 upregulation and relapse-free survival. Taken together, it shows that ID1 expression has a novel therapeutic role in prostate cancer chemotherapy and prognosis.
Project description:The development of prostate cancer and its progression to castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) after antiandrogen ablation therapy are driven by persistent biological activity of androgen receptor (AR) signaling. Moreover, studies have shown that more than 50% of human prostate cancers overexpress ERG (v-ets avian erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene related gene) due to AR-regulated TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene. However, the reported roles of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion in cancer progression are not clear. In this study, we investigated the signal transduction in the AR/TMPRSS2-ERG/Wnt signaling network for studying the aggressive behavior of prostate cancer cells and further assessed the effects of BR-DIM and CDF [natural agents-derived synthetic formulation and analogue of 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) and curcumin, respectively, with improved bioavailability] on the regulation of AR/TMPRSS2-ERG/Wnt signaling. We found that activation of AR resulted in the induction of ERG expression through TMPRSS2-ERG fusion. Moreover, we found that ERG overexpression and nuclear translocation activated the activity of Wnt signaling. Furthermore, forced overexpression of ERG promoted invasive capacity of prostate cancer cells. More important, we found that BR-DIM and CDF inhibited the signal transduction in the AR/TMPRSS2-ERG/Wnt signaling network, leading to the inactivation of Wnt signaling consistent with inhibition of prostate cancer cell invasion. In addition, BR-DIM and CDF inhibited proliferation of prostate cancer cells and induced apoptotic cell death. On the basis of our findings, we conclude that because BR-DIM and CDF downregulate multiple signaling pathways including AR/TMPRSS2-ERG/Wnt signaling, these agents could be useful for designing novel strategies for the prevention and/or treatment of prostate cancer.
Project description:Insulins and some oral antidiabetics are considered to be driving-impairing medicines (DIM) and they belong to the Driving under the Influence of Drugs, alcohol, and medicines (DRUID) category I (minor influence on fitness to drive). The trend of antidiabetics use in Castilla y León from 2015 to 2018 is presented through a population-based registry study. Treatment duration with these medicines and the concomitant use of other DIMs were observed. An adjustment method was used with information from the drivers' license census. For all calculations, age and gender were taken into account. 3.98% of the general population used at least one antidiabetic, as well as 2.92% of drivers. The consumption of antidiabetics in men was higher than in women (4.35% vs. 3.61%, p = 0.001), and the use increases with age, especially from 35-39 years to 75-79 years in men and 85-89 years in women. Antidiabetics were consumed chronically, specifically 100% in the case of insulins and 95% in the case of oral antidiabetics. In addition to antidiabetics, 2.5 ± 1.86 DIMs were consumed, mainly anxiolytics (25.53%), opioids (23.03%), other analgesics and antipiretics (19.13%), and antidepressants (17.73%). Collaboration between pharmacists and physicians is a priority to clearly transmitting risks to patients. It is necessary that the health authorities include information on DIMs, such as the DRUID classification, in the prescription and dispensing software.