Socioeconomic Status and Overweight: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study of Japanese Children and Adolescents.
ABSTRACT: Socioeconomic status (SES) as a determinant of obesity has received scant attention in Japan. This study examined the association between SES and overweight among Japanese children and adolescents.Cross-sectional analyses of a representative sample of Japanese children (6-11 years: n = 397) and adolescents (12-18 years: n = 397) were performed, with measured heights and weights from the 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the 2010 Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions. Overweight, including obesity, was defined by International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. SES indicators included household income, equivalent household expenditure, parental educational attainment, and parental occupational class.Overweight prevalence was 12.3% in children and 9.1% in adolescents. Adolescents living in middle-income households were more likely to be overweight than those living in high-income households (OR 2.26, 95% CI, 1.01-5.67) after adjustment for age, sex, and parental weight status. Similarly, adolescents living in households with low expenditure levels were more likely to be overweight than those living in households with high expenditure levels (OR 3.40, 95% CI, 1.20-9.60). In contrast, no significant association was observed among children.Our results indicated that low household economic status was associated with being overweight, independent of parental weight status, among Japanese adolescents.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To examine (1) the association between household socioeconomic status (SES) and whether a household spends money on cigarettes and (2) socioeconomic variations in proportion of total household expenditure spent on cigarettes among smoking households. METHODS:We pooled data from six consecutive years, 2010-2015, of the Consumer Expenditure Interview Survey. The interviews involved a structured questionnaire about household income, demographics and expenditures including expenditure on cigarettes. Households that reported cigarette expenditure in the previous 3?months were distinguished as smoking households. SES indicators were household poverty status, education and occupation of the head of household. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of household smoking status with SES. Fractional logistic regression was used to assess the association of cigarette expenditure as a proportion of total household expenditure with SES. The analysis sample size was 39?218. RESULTS:The probability of spending money on cigarettes was higher among lower SES households. Households in poverty compared with those above 300% of poverty threshold had 1.86 (95% CI 1.61 to 2.16), households headed by a person with less than high school education compared with those headed by a person with at least a bachelor's degree had 3.37 (95% CI 2.92 to 3.89) and households headed by a blue-collar work compared with those headed by a person in a managerial occupation had 1.45 (95% CI 1.26 to 1.66) higher odds of spending money on cigarettes. Similarly, the proportion of total household expenditure spent on cigarettes was higher among lower SES smoking households. CONCLUSION:Lower SES households are more likely to spend money on cigarettes and spend a larger proportion of their total expenditure on cigarettes. We recommend strategies effective in reducing smoking among low SES smokers.
Project description:The distributions of socioeconomic status (SES) factors have been changing in Japan. We examined the relationships among SES and self-rated health (SRH) in Japanese adults.We analyzed 1,178 men and 1,555 women. We showed the distribution of SRH by sex and age and examined cross-sectional relationships among educational attainment, marital/living statuses, working status, household income and expenditure, and fine SRH (defined as excellent, very good, or good). We adjusted for age, subjective symptoms, visiting doctors, monthly equivalent household expenditure (EHE), and living in their own house.The age-standardized prevalence of fine SRH was 79% and 73% among men and women, respectively. Among men, graduating from high school (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-2.19, relative to graduating from elementary or junior high school) and university or junior college (aOR 1.74; 95% CI, 1.15-2.62) was associated with fine SRH. Among women, graduating from university or junior college was associated with fine SRH (aOR 1.65; 95% CI, 1.12-2.46). Neither marital/living status nor working status was associated with SRH after adjustments for age in either sex. Among women, high EHE and income were associated with fine SRH (the highest expenditure group: aOR 1.80; 95% CI, 1.22-2.65; the highest income group: aOR 2.15; 95% CI, 1.34-3.46, relative to the corresponding lowest group). These simple relationships were not observed for men.High educational attainment was associated with fine SRH. Relationships among household income, EHE, and fine SRH differed by sex.
Project description:Background:Self-medication (SM) is a public health concern globally. This study aimed to measure socioeconomic inequality in SM and identify its main determinants among Iranian households. Methods:A total of 38,859 households from the 2018 Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) were included in the study. Data on SM, household size, age, gender and education status of the head of household, monthly household's expenditures (as a proxy for socioeconomic status), health insurance coverage and living areas and provinces were obtained for the survey. The concentration curve and the normalized concentration index (Cn ) were used to quantify the magnitude of socioeconomic inequality in SM among Iranian households. The Cn was decomposed to identify the main determinants of socioeconomic inequality in SM in Iran. Results:The results indicated that 18.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 17.7% to 18.5%) of households in Iran had SM practice in the past month. The results suggested a higher concentration of SM among the rich households (Cn = 0.0466; 95% CI= 0.0321 to 0.0612) in Iran. The concentration of SM among high SES households was also found in urban (0.0311; 95% CI=0.0112 to 0.0510) and rural (= 0.0513; 95% CI=0.0301 to 0.0726) areas. SM was concentrated among the rich households in Tehran, Qom, Esfahan, Ardebil, Golestan, and Sistan and Baluchestan provinces. In contrast, a higher concentration of SM was found among the poor households in Semnan, North Khorasan, Kerman, Bushehr, and South Khorasan provinces. The decomposition revealed SES of household, itself, as the main contributing factor to the concentration of SM among the wealthy households. Conclusion:This study demonstrated that SM is more concentrated among socioeconomically advantaged households in Iran. Thus, effective evidence-based interventions should be implemented to improve awareness about SM and its negative consequences. Further studies are required to investigate the consequences of SM practice among people.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: There is limited evidence about levels of socio-economic and other differences in catastrophic health spending in Nigeria and in many sub-Saharan African countries. The study estimated the level of catastrophic healthcare expenditures for different healthcare services and facilities and their distribution across socioeconomic status (SES) groups. METHODS: The study took place in four Local Government Areas in southeast Nigeria. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires administered to 4873 households. Catastrophic health expenditures (CHE) were measured using a threshold of 40% of monthly non-food expenditure. We examined both total monthly health expenditure and disaggregated expenditure by source and type of care. RESULTS: The average total household health expenditure per month was 2354 Naira ($19.6). For outpatient services, average monthly expenditure was 1809 Naira ($15.1), whilst for inpatient services it was 610 Naira ($5.1). Higher health expenditures were incurred by urban residents and the better-off SES groups. Overall, 27% of households incurred CHE, higher for poorer socioeconomic groups and for rural residents. Only 1.0% of households had a member that was enrolled in a health insurance scheme. CONCLUSION: The worse-off households (the poorest SES and rural dwellers) experienced the highest burden of health expenditure. There was almost a complete lack of financial risk protection. Health reform mechanisms are needed to ensure universal coverage with financial risk protection mechanisms.
Project description:Parental obesity has been identified as a predominant risk factor for childhood overweight and obesity. We investigated the relationship between parent and child obesity in South Korea, particularly linked with varying family structures.Data for households with children aged 2-18 years were taken from the pooled data of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007-2010 conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC). The sample consisted of 17?453 individuals (7879 children and 9574 adults) from 5048 households with children for this study. Children's overweight and obesity prevalence was compared using both International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF) and KCDC cutoff points according to parental weight status and household structure. Logistic regression analysis was used.Significantly greater odds of overweight and obesity existed among children living with both parents (odds ratio (OR)=3.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.71, 4.65) or one parent (mother: OR=1.6, 95% CI: 1.22, 2.12; father: OR=1.7, 95% CI: 1.37, 1.99). The adjusted ORs for overweight and obesity among children living with overweight mother only or overweight grandparent only were approximately double that of children living with normal-weight mother (OR=2.2, 95% CI: 1.22-3.82) or normal-weight grandparent (OR=2.1, 95% CI: 1.06-4.05).Children living with overweight parent(s) or grandparent(s) were positively correlated with the risk for childhood overweight and obesity. Socioeconomic status did not affect the observed relationships in this population, whereas the role of genetic, dietary and activity patterns requires further exploration.
Project description:The Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System has since 2001 conducted a biannual household asset survey in order to quantify household socio-economic status (SES) in a rural population living in northeast South Africa. The survey contains binary, ordinal and nominal items. In the absence of income or expenditure data, the SES landscape in the study population is explored and described by clustering the households into homogeneous groups based on their asset status. A model-based approach to clustering the Agincourt households, based on latent variable models, is proposed. In the case of modeling binary or ordinal items, item response theory models are employed. For nominal survey items, a factor analysis model, similar in nature to a multinomial probit model, is used. Both model types have an underlying latent variable structure-this similarity is exploited and the models are combined to produce a hybrid model capable of handling mixed data types. Further, a mixture of the hybrid models is considered to provide clustering capabilities within the context of mixed binary, ordinal and nominal response data. The proposed model is termed a mixture of factor analyzers for mixed data (MFA-MD). The MFA-MD model is applied to the survey data to cluster the Agincourt households into homogeneous groups. The model is estimated within the Bayesian paradigm, using a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. Intuitive groupings result, providing insight to the different socio-economic strata within the Agincourt region.
Project description:Evidence suggests that socioeconomically disadvantaged children may experience a greater increase in overweight risk during macroeconomic downturns. We examined whether inequalities in the risk of overweight between Japanese children from single- and two-parent households increased after the 2008 global financial crisis. We used data from ten waves (2001 to 2011) of a nationwide longitudinal survey following all Japanese children born within 2 weeks in 2001 (boys: n = 15,417, girls: n = 14,245). Child overweight was defined according to age- and sex-specific cut-offs for Body Mass Index (BMI). Interaction between a binary measure of crisis onset (September 2008) and single-parent status was assessed using generalized estimating equation models. Covariates included baseline household income and income loss during the crisis. Girls from single-parent households showed a greater increase in the odds of overweight after crisis onset (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 1.23; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04⁻1.46) compared to girls from households with two parents, regardless of household financial status. A similar though statistically non-significant trend was observed among boys (AOR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.92⁻1.30). Child overweight risk by single-parent status may increase during macroeconomic downturns, at least among girls. Financial aid to single-parent households may not suffice to redress this gap.
Project description:AIM:Children and adolescents with low socioeconomic status (SES) suffer from mental health problems more often than their peers with high SES. The aim of the current study was to investigate the direct and interactive association between commonly used indicators of SES and the exposure to stressful life situations in relation to children's mental health problems. METHODS:The prospective BELLA cohort study is the mental health module of the representative, population-based German National Health Interview and Examination Survey for children and adolescents (KiGGS). Sample data include 2,111 participants (aged 7-17 years at baseline) from the first three measurement points (2003-2006, 2004-2007 and 2005-2008). Hierarchical multiple linear regression models were conducted to analyze associations among the SES indicators household income, parental education and parental unemployment (assessed at baseline), number of stressful life situations (e.g., parental accident, mental illness or severe financial crises; 1- and 2-year follow-ups) and parent-reported mental health problems (Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire; 2-year follow-up). RESULTS:All indicators of SES separately predicted mental health problems in children and adolescents at the 2-year follow-up. Stressful life situations (between baseline and 2-year follow-up) and the interaction of parental education and the number of stressful life situations remained significant in predicting children's mental health problems after adjustment for control variables. Thereby, children with higher educated parents showed fewer mental health problems in a stressful life situation. No moderating effect was found for household income and parental employment. Overall, the detected effect sizes were small. Mental health problems at baseline were the best predictor for mental health problems two years later. CONCLUSIONS:Children and adolescents with a low SES suffer from multiple stressful life situations and are exposed to a higher risk of developing mental health problems. The findings suggest that the reduction of socioeconomic inequalities and interventions for families with low parental education might help to reduce children's mental health problems.
Project description:Both low family socioeconomic status (SES) and low neighborhood SES have been associated with higher levels of childhood obesity. However, little is known about how these two factors operate together. The purpose of this study was to determine if the association between neighborhood SES and obesity varies across household SES. We used the first-grade round of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2011 (ECLS-K:2011). Household SES was defined based on income, education, and occupation. Neighborhood SES was defined by the percent of households living in poverty in the child's school district. Log-binomial regression models estimated the association between neighborhood SES and obesity and tested whether this association varied by household SES. We found the association between neighborhood SES and obesity varied significantly by household SES (p-interaction = 0.002). For children in the lowest tertile of neighborhood SES, prevalence of obesity was not statistically significantly different comparing children with low, middle or high household SES (Predicted probability (PP)lowest 0.20 (95% CI: 0.17, 0.23), PPmiddle 0.21 (95%CI: 0.18, 0.24), PPhighest 0.16 (95%CI: 0.12, 0.20)). Conversely, within the highest and the middle tertiles of neighborhood SES, children with high household SES have significantly lower prevalence of obesity compared to children with the lowest household SES (PP: 0.09 (95%CI: 0.07, 0.11) vs 0.19 (0.16, 0.21) and (PP: 0.07 (95%CI: 0.05, 0.09) vs 0.17 (0.13, 0.21) for highest vs lowest household SES in middle and high neighborhood SES, respectively). Hence, low-SES in either variable is enough to be associated with increased prevalence of obesity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Obesity has emerged as a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases in low and middle-income countries but may not follow typical socioeconomic status (SES)-related gradients seen in higher income countries. This study examines the associations between current and lifetime markers of SES and BMI categories (underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese) and central adiposity in Ghanaian adults. METHODS:Data from 4,464 adults (2,610 women) who participated in the World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 2 were examined. Multilevel multinomial and binomial logistic regression models were used to examine associations. SES markers included parental education, individual education, intergenerational educational mobility and household wealth. Intergenerational educational mobility was classified: stable-low (low parental and low individual education), stable-high (high parental and high individual education), upwardly (low parental and high individual education), or downwardly mobile (high parental and low individual education). RESULTS:The prevalence of obesity (12.9%) exceeded the prevalence of underweight (7.2%) in the population. High parental and individual education were significantly associated with higher odds of obesity and central adiposity in women. Compared to the stable low pattern, stable high (obesity: OR = 3.15; 95% CI: 1.96, 5.05; central adiposity: OR = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.03, 2.98) and upwardly (obesity: OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 11.13, 2.60; central adiposity: OR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.37) mobile education patterns were associated with higher odds of obesity and central adiposity in women, while stable high pattern was associated with higher odds of overweight (OR = 1.88; 95% CI: 1.11, 3.19) in men. Additionally, high compared to the lowest household wealth was associated with high odds of obesity and central adiposity in both sexes. CONCLUSION:Stable high and upwardly mobile education patterns are associated with higher odds of obesity and central adiposity in women while the stable high pattern was associated with higher odds of overweight in men.