Early radiographic diagnosis of peri-implantitis enhances the outcome of peri-implantitis treatment: a 5-year retrospective study after non-surgical treatment.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: This retrospective study evaluated the relationship between the timing of peri-implantitis diagnosis and marginal bone level after a 5-year follow-up of non-surgical peri-implantitis treatment. METHODS: Thirty-three patients (69 implants) were given peri-implantitis diagnosis in 2008-2009 in Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. Among them, 31 implants from 16 patients were included in this study. They were treated non-surgically in this hospital, and came for regular maintenance visits for at least 5 years after peri-implantitis treatment. Radiographic marginal bone levels at each interval were measured and statistical analysis was performed. RESULTS: Timing of peri-implantitis was one of the significant factors affecting initial bone loss and total bone loss not additional bone after peri-implantitis diagnosis. Patients with cardiovascular disease and diabetic mellitus were positively influenced on both initial bone loss and total bone loss. Patients who needed periodontal treatment after implant placement showed a negative effect on bone loss compared to those who needed periodontal treatment before implant placement during entire periods. Implant location also significantly influenced on amounts of bone loss. Mandibular implants showed less bone loss than maxillary implants. Among surgical factors, combined use of autogenous and xenogenic bone graft materials showed a negative effect on bone loss compared to autogenous bone graft materials. Use of membrane negatively affected on initial bone loss but positively on additional bone loss and total bone loss. Thread exposure showed positive effects on initial bone loss and total bone loss. CONCLUSIONS: Early peri-implantitis diagnosis led to early non-surgical intervention for peri-implantitis treatment, which resulted in the maintenance of the bone level as well as preservation of the implant.
Project description:Dental implants are one of the most frequently used treatment options for tooth replacement. Approximately 30% of patients with dental implants develop peri-implantitis, which is an oral inflammatory disease that leads to loss of the supporting tissues, predominately the bone. For the development of future therapeutic strategies, it is essential to understand the molecular pathophysiology of human dental peri-implant infections. Here, we describe the gene and protein expression patterns of peri-implantitis bone tissue compared with healthy peri-implant bone tissue. Furthermore, cells from the osteoblastic lineage derived from peri-implantitis samples were immortalized and characterized. We applied microarray, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and Western blot analyses. The levels of typical bone matrix molecules, including SPP1, BGLAP, and COL9A1, in patients with peri-implantitis were reduced, while the inflammation marker interleukin 8 (IL8) was highly expressed. RUNX2, one of the transcription factors of mature osteoblasts, was also decreased in peri-implantitis. Finally, the human telomerase reverse transcriptase immortalized cell line from peri-implantitis exhibited a more fibro-osteoblastic character than did the healthy control.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Animal studies are pivotal in allowing experimentation to identify efficacious treatment protocols for resolution of peri-implantitis. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize an expedited dog peri-implantitis model clinically, radiographically, and microbiologically. METHODS:Eight hound dogs underwent extractions (week 0) and implant (3.3 × 8.5 mm) placement with simultaneous surgical defect creation and ligature placement for induction of peri-implantitis (week 10). Ligatures were replaced at 6 weeks (week 16) and removed after 9 weeks (week 19) when supporting bone loss involved approximately 50% of the peri-implant bone. Microbial samples from the defects and healthy control implant sites collected at week 19 were analyzed utilizing a microarray. Clinical measures of inflammation were obtained and radiographic bone loss was measured from periapical radiographs. Radiographic depth and width measurements of bony defect were repeated at weeks 10 (baseline), 16, and 19. Canonical analysis of principal coordinates was used to visualize overall differences in microbial abundance between peri-implantitis and healthy implants. RESULTS:This accelerated disease protocol led to intrabony defect creation with a mean depth and width of 4.3 mm and 3.5 mm, respectively after 9 weeks of ligature placement. Microbial identification revealed 59 total bacteria in peri-implant sites, 21 of which were only present in peri-implant sites as compared to healthy controls. Overall microbial beta diversity (microbial between-sample compositional diversity) differed between peri-implantitis and healthy implants (p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS:Within the limitations of this study, this protocol led to expedited generation of peri-implant defects with a microbial profile indicative of a shift to disease and defect patterns conducive to regenerative treatment. However, the possibility of potential spontaneous resolution of lesions due to the lack of a chronicity interval as compared to chronic disease models need to be further clarified and considered during preclinical peri-implantitis model selection.
Project description:The aim of this multicenter cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of peri-implantitis and to assess its association with several patient- and implant-related factors. Patients with at least one implant, who came for a recall visit to one of the four centers over a period of five months, were enrolled. Presence of peri-implantitis (defined as bleeding on probing, exudate/suppuration, bone loss > 0.2 mm/year and increased pocket depth) and several other variables (e.g., smoking habits, history of periodontitis, diabetes) were recorded. Out of 248 enrolled patients (1162 implants), 10 patients had at least one implant with peri-implantitis (4.03%); a total of 14 implants were affected (1.20%). A statistically significant association between peri-implantitis and diabetes was found (OR 8.65; CI: 1.94-38.57). Smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day (OR: 0.53; CI 0.03-9.45) and history of periodontitis (OR: 2.42; CI: 0.49-11.89) were not found to be statistically associated with peri-implantitis. Even if implant therapy is a consolidated treatment, biological complications do happen. Strict supportive therapy recalls could lead to lower rates of peri-implantitis and earlier diagnosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Due to the risk of peri-implantitis, following dental implant placement, this study aimed to evaluate risk indicators associated with marginal bone loss from a retrospective open cohort study of 4,591 dental implants, placed in private practice, with 5- to 10-year follow-up. Furthermore, the prevalence of mucositis and peri-implantitis among the study cohort was evaluated, comparing strict versus relaxed criteria for bleeding on probing. METHODS:Periapical radiographs were used to evaluate changes in crestal bone level. Peri-implant soft tissue was evaluated using an ordinal mucosal index in comparison with the conventional binary threshold for bleeding (i.e., present or not). Periodontal probing depth was not evaluated. Linear mixed models were used to evaluate bone level over time, and other risk indicators, at the patient and implant level. RESULTS:Risk indicators found to have a significant impact on bone level included: autoimmune disease, heavy smoking, bisphosphonate therapy, implant location, diameter and design, and the presence of a bone defect at site of implantation. The prevalence of mucositis at the implant level was 38.6% versus 14.2% at 6 to 7 years, when using strict versus relaxed criteria, respectively. The prevalence of peri-implantitis after 6 to 7 years was 4.7% and 3.6% when using strict versus relaxed criteria, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:The results of this study identify several risk factors associated with bone loss. Furthermore, the prevalence of mucositis and peri-implantitis was shown to be lower at both the implant and the patient when using strict versus relaxed criteria based on the assessment of oral health surrounding dental implants.
Project description:Peri-implantitis represents a major complication that can compromise the success and survival of implant-supported rehabilitations. Both surgical and nonsurgical treatment protocols were proposed to improve clinical parameters and to treat implants affected by peri-implantitis. A systematic review of the literature was performed on electronic databases. The use of air-polishing powder in surgical treatment of peri-implantitis was investigated. A total of five articles, of different study designs, were included in the review. A meta-analysis could not be performed. The data from included studies reported a substantial benefit of the use of air-polishing powders for the decontamination of implant surface in surgical protocols. A case report of guided bone regeneration in sites with implants affected by peri-implantitis was presented. Surgical treatment of peri-implantitis, though demanding and not supported by a wide scientific literature, could be considered a viable treatment option if an adequate decontamination of infected surfaces could be obtained.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Peri-implantitis and periodontitis are different entities in immune characteristics even though they share similar features in clinical and radiologic signs. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2), one of the key pathogen-recognition receptors in the innate immune system, plays an important role in the progression of periodontitis. However, the role of TLR-2 in peri-implantitis remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of TLR-2 in inflammation and alveolar bone loss in a murine model of ligature-induced peri-implantitis and to compare it with ligature-induced periodontitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Smooth-surface titanium implants were placed in the alveolar bone of the left maxillary molars of wild-type (WT) and Tlr2 knockout (Tlr2-KO) mice 6 weeks after tooth extraction. Silk ligatures were applied to the left implant fixtures and the right maxillary second molars to induce peri-implantitis and periodontitis 4 weeks after implant placement. Two weeks after ligation, bone loss around the implants and maxillary second molars was analysed by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and inflammation around the implants and maxillary second molars was assessed at the same time point using histology and TRAP staining, respectively. Expression of mRNA for proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1? [Il1?], tumor necrosis factor-? [Tnf?]), an anti-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-10 [Il10]) and osteoclastogenesis-related cytokines (Rankl, osteoprotegerin [Opg]) were evaluated, in gingival tissue, using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). RESULTS:The success rate of implant osseointegration was significantly higher in Tlr2-KO mice (85.71%) compared with WT mice (53.66%) (P = .0125). Micro-CT revealed significantly decreased bone loss in Tlr2-KO mice compared with WT mice (P = .0094) in peri-implantitis. The levels of mRNA for Il1? (P = .0055), Tnf? (P = .01) and Il10 (P = .0019) in gingiva were significantly elevated in the peri-implantitis tissues of WT mice, but not in Tlr2-KO mice, compared with controls. However, the gingival mRNA ratios of Rankl/Opg in peri-implant tissues were significantly upregulated in both WT (P = .0488) and Tlr2-KO (P = .0314) mice. Ligature-induced periodontitis exhibited similar patterns of bone loss and inflammatory cytokine profile in both groups of mice, except that the level of Il10 was elevated (P = .0114) whereas the Rankl/Opg ratio was not elevated (P = .9755) in Tlr2-KO mice compared with control mice. Histological findings showed increased numbers of TRAP-positive cells and infiltrated inflammatory cells in ligature-induced peri-implantitis in both WT (P < .01) and Tlr2-KO mice (P < .05), and the numbers of both types of cell were significantly higher in WT mice than in Tlr2-KO mice (P < .01). CONCLUSION:This study suggests that TLR-2 mediates bone loss in both peri-implantitis and periodontitis. However, different molecular features may exist in the pathogenesis of the two diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Peri-implantitis is a chronic inflammation, resulting in loss of supporting bone around implants. Chronic periodontitis is a risk indicator for implant failure. Both diseases have a common etiology regarding inflammatory destructive response. BRINP3 gene is associated with aggressive periodontitis. However, is still unclear if chronic periodontitis and peri-implantitis have the same genetic background. The aim of this work was to investigate the association between BRINP3 genetic variation (rs1342913 and rs1935881) and expression and susceptibility to both diseases. METHODS:Periodontal and peri-implant examinations were performed in 215 subjects, divided into: healthy (without chronic periodontitis and peri-implantitis, n = 93); diseased (with chronic periodontitis and peri-implantitis, n = 52); chronic periodontitis only (n = 36), and peri-implantitis only (n = 34). A replication sample of 92 subjects who lost implants and 185 subjects successfully treated with implants were tested. DNA was extracted from buccal cells. Two genetic markers of BRINP3 (rs1342913 and rs1935881) were genotyped using TaqMan chemistry. Chi-square (p < 0.05) compared genotype and allele frequency between groups. A subset of subjects (n = 31) had gingival biopsies harvested. The BRINP3 mRNA levels were studied by CT method (2(??CT)). Mann-Whitney test correlated the levels of BRINP3 in each group (p < 0.05). RESULTS:Statistically significant association between BRINP3 rs1342913 and peri-implantitis was found in both studied groups (p = 0.04). The levels of BRINP3 mRNA were significantly higher in diseased subjects compared to healthy individuals (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION:This study provides evidence that the BRINP3 polymorphic variant rs1342913 and low level of BRINP3 expression are associated with peri-implantitis, independently from the presence of chronic periodontitis.
Project description:AIM:The aim of this case-series study is to evaluate the prevalence of mucositis, peri-implantitis, and survival and success rates of oxide-coated implants in subjects treated for periodontitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Twenty-four subjects treated for generalized chronic periodontitis (GCP) and five treated for generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP) were orally rehabilitated with a total of 130 dental implants. Subjects were examined 2 to 4 weeks prior to extraction of non-retainable teeth and at insertion of superstructure. Additional examinations were performed during a 3-month recall schedule over a 3- to 6-year follow-up period. Radiographs were taken after insertion of the superstructure and 1, 3, and 5 years later. RESULTS:The results showed implant survival rates of 97.1% in GCP subjects versus 96.2% in GAP subjects. The implant success rate was 77.9% in GCP subjects and 38.5% in GAP subjects. In GCP subjects, mucositis was present in 7.7% and peri-implantitis in 12.5% of the implants. In GAP subjects, 28.0% of the implants showed mucositis and 32.0% peri-implantitis. Implant failure, mucositis, and peri-implantitis were more evident in GAP subjects. Peri-implantitis was more prevalent for implants in the maxilla and implants?>10 mm. After 5 years, the mean peri-implant bone loss in GAP subjects was 2.89 mm and in GCP subjects 1.38 mm. CONCLUSIONS:Periodontally diseased subjects treated in a supportive periodontal therapy can be successfully rehabilitated with oxide-coated dental implants for a follow-up period of 3- to 6-years. Implants in the maxilla and GAP subjects were more susceptible to mucositis and peri-implantitis, with lower implant survival and success rates.
Project description:Peri-implantitis is one of the most important biological complication of dental implants. It has inflammatory nature, proved association with plaque accumulation in peri-implant tissues, and can be progressive on background of several factors, like comorbidity factors and bad habits. The prophylaxis and different methods of treatment were discussed during last 30 years, and surgical and nonsurgical techniques have their foes, benefits, and disadvantages. In this article, we describe the case series of various nonsurgical treatments of peri-implantitis with the use of protocols based on the application of local antibiotics (doxycycline, lincomycin, and erythromycin), mechanical and chemical debridement of dental implant surface, and mini-invasive regenerative technique with injections of bovine collagen. All these three cases demonstrated good results with the maintenance of bone level and absence of clinical signs of inflammation for at least a year according to the X-ray imaging (bone defect volume) and clinic assessments (probing depth, bleeding or suppuration, mucosa color, and pain presence).
Project description:The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the incidence and prevalence of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis in patients with a fixed full-arch prosthesis supported by two axial and two tilted implants.Sixty-nine patients were included in the study. Each patient received a fixed full-arch prosthesis supported by two mesial axial and two distal tilted implants to rehabilitate the upper arch, the lower arch, or both. Three hundred thirty-six implants for 84 restorations were delivered. Patients were scheduled for follow-up visits every 6 months in the first 2 years and yearly after. At each follow-up visit peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis were diagnosed if present.The overall follow-up range was from 12 to 130 months (mean 63,2 months). Three patients presented peri-implantitis. The prevalence of peri-implant mucositis ranged between 0 and 7,14% of patients (5,06% of implants) while the prevalence of peri-implantitis varied from 0 to 4,55% of patients (3,81% of implants).The prevalence and incidence of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis are lower than most of the studies in literature. Therefore this kind of rehabilitation could be considered a feasible option, on the condition of adopting a systematic hygienic protocol.