Are gastroenterologists willing to implement imaging-guided surveillance for Barrett's esophagus? Results from a national survey.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) has published a Preservation and Incorporation of Valuable Endoscopic Innovations (PIVI) statement on incorporating an imaging-guided surveillance protocol to replace the current practice of four-quadrant biopsies every two centimeters for Barrett's esophagus (BE) surveillance. We sought to determine if current gastroenterologists would be willing to apply these changes to their practice and identify any barriers to implementation. METHODS: We collected data using surveys that were distributed at two national meetings and using a random selection process emailed surveys to members listed in the American Gastroenterological Association directory. Physicians from a variety of practice settings participated. Primary outcomes of our study included determining whether clinicians would be willing to accept an imaging-based surveillance protocol, their reasons for not doing so, and whether a financial incentive would be persuade them to implement the protocol. Continuous variables were reported as mean ± standard deviation. Categorical variables were summarized with percentages and 95 % confidence intervals. RESULTS: Gastroenterologists (172) completed the survey; and 140 (81.4 %) of them stated they would implemented the PIVI recommendations into practice. Using a multivariate analysis of the data, physicians who reported a financial incentive for submitting biopsy specimens to pathology were less likely to implement the PIVI recommendations. The two main barriers to implementation of the protocol were medical-legal and financial reasons. Of the 32 gastroenterologists who were not willing to implement the imaging-guided surveillance protocol, 20 (62.5 %) stated that they would implement it if there were a financial incentive. DISCUSSION: The PIVI statement focuses on re-evaluating our current method of surveillance for BE. The results of our survey show that gastroenterologists may be willing to implement an imaging-guided surveillance program, but concerns regarding financial compensation and proper training in advanced imaging techniques remain.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The number of health-related wearable devices is growing but it is not clear if Americans are willing to adopt health insurance wellness programs based on wearables and the incentives with which they would be more willing to adopt. METHODS:In this cross-sectional study we used a survey methodology, usage vignettes and a dichotomous scale to examine U.S. residents' willingness to adopt wearables (WTAW) in six use-cases where it was mandatory to use a wearable device and share the resulting data with a health insurance company. Each use-case was tested also for the influence of additional economic incentives on WTAW. RESULTS:A total of 997 Americans across 46 states participated in the study. Most of them were 25 to 34?years old (40.22%), 57.27% were female, and 74.52% were white. On average, 69.5% of the respondents were willing to adopt health-insurance use-cases based on wearable devices, though 77.8% of them were concerned about issues related to economic benefits, data privacy and to a lesser extent, technological accuracy. WTAW was 11-18% higher among consumers in use-cases involving health promotion and disease prevention. Furthermore, additional economic incentives combined with wearables increased WTAW overall. Notably, financial incentives involving providing healthcare credits, insurance premium discount, and/or wellness product discounts had particularly greater effectiveness for increasing WTAW in the consumer use-cases involving participation: for health promotion (RR?=?1.06 for financial incentive, 95% CI: 1.01-1.11; P?=?0.018); for personalized products and services (RR?=?1.11 for financial incentive, 95% CI: 1.01-1.21; P?=?0.018); and for automated underwriting discount at annual renewal (RR?=?1.28 for financial incentive, 95% CI: 1.20-1.37; P?<?0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Under the adequate economic, data privacy and technical conditions, 2 out of 3 Americans would be willing to adopt health insurance wellness programs based on wearable devices, particularly if they have benefits related to health promotion and disease prevention, and particularly with financial incentives.
Project description:Background and study aims ?Implementation of optical diagnosis of diminutive polyps may potentially increase the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of colonoscopies. To adopt such strategy in clinical practice, the Preservation and Incorporation of Valuable endoscopic Innovations (PIVI) thresholds provide the basis to be met: ??90?% negative predictive value (NPV) for diagnosis of adenomatous histology and ??90?% agreement on surveillance intervals. We evaluated this within the Dutch Bowel Cancer Screening Program (BCSP). Patients and methods ?Endoscopic and histological data were collected from participants of the national bowel cancer screening program with an unfavorable fecal immunochemical test referred for colonoscopy between February 2014 and August 2015 at four endoscopy centers. The "resect and discard" scenario was studied, resecting diminutive polyps without histological evaluation. Agreement between optical diagnosis and histological diagnosis was measured for surveillance intervals according to Dutch, European and American post-polypectomy surveillance guideline. Results ?Fifteen certified endoscopists participated in this study and included 3028 diminutive polyps. In 2,330 patients both optical and histological diagnosis were available. Optical diagnosis of diminutive polyps showed NPV of 84?% (95?% CI 80-87) for adenomatous histology in the rectosigmoid. Applying the 'resect and discard' strategy resulted in 90.6?%, 91.2?%, 90.9?% agreement on surveillance intervals for the Dutch, European and American guideline respectively. Conclusion? Our data representing current clinical practice in the Dutch BCSP practice on optical diagnosis of diminutive polyps showed that accuracy of predicting histology remains challenging, and risk of incorrect optical diagnosis is still significant. Therefore, it is too early to safely implement these strategies.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Financial incentives are often used to influence professional practice, yet the factors which influence their effectiveness and their behavioural mechanisms are not fully understood. In keeping with clinical guidelines, Childsmile (Scotland's oral health improvement programme) advocates twice yearly fluoride varnish application (FVA) for children in dental practice. To support implementation Childsmile offered dental practitioners a fee-per-item payment for varnishing 2-5-year-olds' teeth through a pilot. In October 2011 payment was extended to all dental practitioners. This paper compares FVA pre- and post-roll-out and explores the financial incentive's behavioural mechanisms.<h4>Methods</h4>A natural experimental approach using a longitudinal cohort of dental practitioners (n =?1090) compared FVA pre- (time 1) and post- (time 2) financial incentive. Responses from practitioners who did not work in a Childsmile pilot practice when considering their 2-5-year-old patients (novel incentive group) were compared with all other responses (continuous incentive group). The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) was used to measure change in behavioural mechanisms associated with the incentive. Analysis of covariance was used to investigate FVA rates and associated behavioural mechanisms in the two groups.<h4>Results</h4>At time 2, 709 74%, of eligible responders, were followed up. In general, FVA rates increased over time for both groups; however, the novel incentive group experienced a greater increase (? [95% CI]?=?0.82 [0.72 to 0.92]) than the continuous incentive group. Despite this, only 33% of practitioners reported 'always' varnishing increased risk 2-5-year-olds' teeth following introduction of the financial incentive, 19% for standard risk children. Domain scores at time 2 (adjusting for time 1) increased more for the novel incentive group (compared to the continuous incentive group) for five domains: knowledge, social/professional role and identity, beliefs about consequences, social influences and emotion.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In this large, prospective, population-wide study, a financial incentive moderately increased FVA in dental practice. Novel longitudinal use of a validated theoretical framework to understand behavioural mechanisms suggested that financial incentives operate through complex inter-linked belief systems. While financial incentives are useful in narrowing the gap between clinical guidelines and FVA, multiple intervention approaches are required.
Project description:Importance:Payments from pharmaceutical and device manufacturers to physicians may influence the advice physicians give patients and peers. Objectives:To investigate the nature and amounts of monetary and other benefits that gastroenterologists received and to determine the participation of those receiving benefits in the formulation of clinical practice guidelines. Design, Setting, and Participants:This cohort study analyzed information from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Open Payments database, including all reports about payments that pharmaceutical and device manufacturers gave to adult or pediatric gastroenterologists in 2016. PubMed was used to examine the professional affiliations and publication records of top payment recipients. Panelists of clinical guidelines who also received personal financial rewards listed in the Open Payments database were identified. Main Outcomes and Measures:Payments made to gastroenterologists by pharmaceutical company and device manufacturers. Results:Of 15?497 gastroenterologists, 13?467 (86.9%) received a total of 432?463 payments accounting for a total expenditure of $67?144?862. Direct financial payments for consultations, talks, or other services were made to 2055 physicians and were responsible for 4.2% of payments (18?179 of 432?463), but for 62.7% of total expenditures ($42?086?207 of $67?144?862). Although a significant number of submissions were for food and beverages, they constituted only a small amount of total expenditure. For gastroenterologists treating adult patients, 10 products were linked to 63.8% of payments (11?221 of 17?588) related to direct financial rewards and 37.1% of the total expenditures ($24?892?643 of $67?144?862). Twenty-nine of 36 clinical practice guidelines included panelists who had received honoraria or consultation fees from industry sources, with amounts exceeding $10?000 in 8 of them (22%). Conclusions and Relevance:Most gastroenterologists accept meals or gifts from industry, with 2055 of 15?497 gastroenterologists receiving direct payments and 8 of 36 clinical practice guidelines panelists having received more than $10?000. Considering the known impact of such benefits on prescribing patterns and other professional behaviors, policy makers should consider revising regulations governing interactions with industry and disclosure formats alerting others to their potential biasing impact.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Text messaging systems are used to collect data on symptom prevalence. Using a text messaging system, we evaluated the effects of question load, question frequency, and financial incentive on response rates and reported infant diarrhoea rates in an infant diarrhoea survey. METHODS:We performed a factorial cross-over randomised controlled trial of an SMS surveying system for infant diarrhoea surveillance with treatments: financial incentive (yes/no), question load (1-question/3-question), and questioning frequency (daily/fortnightly). Participants progressed through all treatment combinations over eight two-week rounds. Data were analysed using multivariable logistic regressions to determine the impacts of the treatments on the response rates and reported diarrhoea rates. Attitudes were explored through qualitative interviews. RESULTS:For the 141 participants, the mean response rate was 47%. In terms of percentage point differences (ppd), daily questioning was associated with a lower response rate than fortnightly (-?1·2[95%CI:-4·9,2·5]); high (3-question) question loads were associated with a lower response rate than low (1-question) question loads (-?7·0[95%CI:-?10·8,-3·1]); and financial incentivisation was associated with a higher response rate than no financial incentivisation (6·4[95%CI:2·6,10·2]). The mean two-week diarrhoea rate was 36·4%. Daily questioning was associated with a higher reported diarrhoea rate than fortnightly (29·9[95%CI:22·8,36·9]); with little evidence for impact by incentivisation or question load. CONCLUSIONS:Close to half of all participants responded to the SMS survey. Daily questioning evoked a statistically higher rate of reported diarrhoea, while financial incentivisation and low (1-question) question loads evoked higher response rates than no incentive and high (3-question) question loads respectively. TRIAL REGISTRATION:The protocol was prospectively registered on ISRCTN on the 20th of March 2019 under number ISRCTN11410773 .
Project description:Financial incentives and audit plus feedback on performance are two strategies commonly used by governments to motivate general practitioners (GP) to undertake specific healthcare activities. However, in recent years, governments have reduced or removed incentive payments without evidence of the potential impact on GP behaviour and patient outcomes. This trial (known as ACCEPt-able) aims to determine whether preventive care activities in general practice are sustained when financial incentives and/or external audit plus feedback on preventive care activities are removed. The activity investigated is annual chlamydia testing for 16- to 29-year-old adults, a key preventive health strategy within this age group.ACCEPt-able builds on a large cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) that evaluated a 3-year chlamydia testing intervention in general practice. GPs were provided with a support package to facilitate annual chlamydia testing of all sexually active 16- to 29-year-old patients. This package included financial incentive payments to the GP for each chlamydia test conducted and external audit plus feedback on each GP's chlamydia testing rates. ACCEPt-able is a factorial cluster RCT in which general practices are randomised to one of four groups: (i) removal of audit plus feedback-continue to receive financial incentive payments for each chlamydia test; (ii) removal of financial incentive payments-continue to receive audit plus feedback; (iii) removal of financial incentive payments and audit plus feedback; and (iv) continue financial incentive payments and audit plus feedback. The primary outcome is chlamydia testing rate measured as the proportion of sexually active 16- to 29-year-olds who have a GP consultation within a 12-month period and at least one chlamydia test.This will be the first RCT to examine the impact of removal of financial incentive payments and audit plus feedback on the chlamydia testing behaviour of GPs. This trial is particularly timely and will increase our understanding about the impact of financial incentives and audit plus feedback on GP behaviour when governments are looking for opportunities to control healthcare budgets and maximise clinical outcomes for money spent. The results of this trial will have implications for supporting preventive health measures beyond the content area of chlamydia.The trial has been registered on the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ( ACTRN12614000595617 ).
Project description:Accurate optical analysis of colorectal polyps (optical biopsy) could prevent unnecessary polypectomies or allow a "resect and discard" strategy with surveillance intervals determined based on the results of the optical biopsy; this could be less expensive than histopathologic analysis of polyps. We prospectively evaluated real-time optical biopsy analysis of polyps with narrow band imaging (NBI) by community-based gastroenterologists.We first analyzed a computerized module to train gastroenterologists (N = 13) in optical biopsy skills using photographs of polyps. Then we evaluated a practice-based learning program for these gastroenterologists (n = 12) that included real-time optical analysis of polyps in vivo, comparison of optical biopsy predictions to histopathologic analysis, and ongoing feedback on performance.Twelve of 13 subjects identified adenomas with >90% accuracy at the end of the computer study, and 3 of 12 subjects did so with accuracy ?90% in the in vivo study. Learning curves showed considerable variation among batches of polyps. For diminutive rectosigmoid polyps assessed with high confidence at the end of the study, adenomas were identified with mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive values of 81% (73%-89%), 85% (74%-96%), 78% (66%-92%), and 91% (86%-97%), respectively. The adjusted odds ratio for high confidence as a predictor of accuracy was 1.8 (95% CI, 1.3-2.5). The agreement between surveillance recommendations informed by high-confidence NBI analysis of diminutive polyps and results from histopathologic analysis of all polyps was 80% (95% CI, 77%-82%).In an evaluation of real-time optical biopsy analysis of polyps with NBI, only 25% of gastroenterologists assessed polyps with ?90% accuracy. The negative predictive value for identification of adenomas, but not the surveillance interval agreement, met the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy-recommended thresholds for optical biopsy. Better results in community practice must be achieved before NBI-based optical biopsy methods can be used routinely to evaluate polyps; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01638091.
Project description:Importance:Achieving linkage to care and viral suppression in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients improves their well-being and prevents new infections. Current gaps in the HIV care continuum substantially limit such benefits. Objective:To evaluate the effectiveness of financial incentives on linkage to care and viral suppression in HIV-positive patients. Design, Setting, and Participants:A large community-based clinical trial that randomized 37 HIV test and 39 HIV care sites in the Bronx, New York, and Washington, DC, to financial incentives or standard of care. Interventions:Participants at financial incentive test sites who had positive test results for HIV received coupons redeemable for $125 cash-equivalent gift cards upon linkage to care. HIV-positive patients receiving antiretroviral therapy at financial incentive care sites received $70 gift cards quarterly, if virally suppressed. Main Outcomes and Measures:Linkage to care: proportion of HIV-positive persons at the test site who linked to care within 3 months, as indicated by CD4+ and/or viral load test results done at a care site. Viral suppression: proportion of established patients at HIV care sites with suppressed viral load (<400 copies/mL), assessed at each calendar quarter. Outcomes assessed through laboratory test results reported to the National HIV Surveillance System. Results:A total of 1061 coupons were dispensed for linkage to care at 18 financial incentive test sites and 39?359 gift cards were dispensed to 9641 HIV-positive patients eligible for gift cards at 17 financial incentive care sites. Financial incentives did not increase linkage to care (adjusted odds ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.73-1.67; P?=?.65). However, financial incentives significantly increased viral suppression. The overall proportion of patients with viral suppression was 3.8% higher (95% CI, 0.7%-6.8%; P?=?.01) at financial incentive sites compared with standard of care sites. Among patients not previously consistently virally suppressed, the proportion virally suppressed was 4.9% higher (95% CI, 1.4%-8.5%; P?=?.007) at financial incentive sites. In addition, continuity in care was 8.7% higher (95% CI, 4.2%-13.2%; P?<?.001) at financial incentive sites. Conclusions and Relevance:Financial incentives, as used in this study (HPTN 065), significantly increased viral suppression and regular clinic attendance among HIV-positive patients in care. No effect was noted on linkage to care. Financial incentives offer promise for improving adherence to treatment and viral suppression among HIV-positive patients. Trial Registration:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01152918.
Project description:<b>Objective:</b> To assess how pet owners perceive the role of veterinary medicine in addressing climate change and animal health and determine if there is a client-driven economic incentive to establish sustainable veterinary business practices. <b>Sample:</b> 1,044 dog and/or cat owners residing in the United States who had used veterinary services within the last 3 years. <b>Procedures:</b> An online Amazon mTurk survey about climate change and the perceived effects on client-owned dogs and cats was distributed to pet owners. <b>Results:</b> Most respondents believe climate change is occurring, and two-thirds of pet owners would value knowing their veterinarian received training on the animal health impacts of climate change. Over half of the respondents would pay more for veterinary services at a clinic with a reduced environmental impact. Additionally, clients would value some form of sustainability certification to aid in identification of such practices. Demographic influences found to be statistically significant included age, political ideology and where one resides (i.e., urban, suburban, or rural) whereas gender and income level, were not found to be significant. <b>Conclusions and Clinical Relevance:</b> Our data suggest there is an economic incentive for veterinary professionals to be knowledgeable about the health impacts of climate change and to implement and market sustainable practice initiatives. Prioritizing sustainable practice initiatives and climate change education in veterinary practices has the potential to mutually benefit both practitioner and client through shared patient health and financial incentives.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Various studies are currently investigating ways to prevent lifestyle-related diseases and obesity among workers through interventions using incentive strategies, including price discounts for low-fat snacks and sugar-free beverages at workplace cafeterias or vending machines, and the provision of a free salad bar in cafeterias. Rather than assessing individual or group interventions, we will focus on the effectiveness of nutrition education programs at the population level, which primarily incorporate financial incentive strategies to prevent obesity. This paper describes the protocol of a systematic review that will examine the effectiveness of financial incentive programs at company cafeterias in improving dietary habits, nutrient intake, and obesity prevention. METHODS/DESIGN: We will conduct searches in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO. Interventions will be assessed using data from randomized control trials (RCTs) and cluster RCTs. However, if few such trials exist, we will include quasi-RCTs. We will exclude controlled before-and-after studies and crossover RCTs. We will assess food-based interventions that include financial incentive strategies (discount strategies or social marketing) for workplace cafeterias, vending machines, and kiosks. Two authors will independently review studies for inclusion and will resolve differences by discussion and, if required, through consultation with a third author. We will assess the risk of bias of included studies according to the Cochrane Collaboration's "risk of bias" tool. DISCUSSION: The purpose of this paper is to outline the study protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis that will investigate the effectiveness of population-level, incentive-focused interventions at the workplace cafeteria that aim to promote and prevent obesity. This review will give an important overview of the available evidence about the effectiveness of incentive-based environmental interventions to improve obesity prevention in the workplace and will guide future research in nutrition education and health promotion globally. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42014010561.