Ivy cells: a population of nitric-oxide-producing, slow-spiking GABAergic neurons and their involvement in hippocampal network activity.
ABSTRACT: In the cerebral cortex, GABAergic interneurons are often regarded as fast-spiking cells. We have identified a type of slow-spiking interneuron that offers distinct contributions to network activity. "Ivy" cells, named after their dense and fine axons innervating mostly basal and oblique pyramidal cell dendrites, are more numerous than the parvalbumin-expressing basket, bistratified, or axo-axonic cells. Ivy cells express nitric oxide synthase, neuropeptide Y, and high levels of GABA(A) receptor alpha1 subunit; they discharge at a low frequency with wide spikes in vivo, yet are distinctively phase-locked to behaviorally relevant network rhythms including theta, gamma, and ripple oscillations. Paired recordings in vitro showed that Ivy cells receive depressing EPSPs from pyramidal cells, which in turn receive slowly rising and decaying inhibitory input from Ivy cells. In contrast to fast-spiking interneurons operating with millisecond precision, the highly abundant Ivy cells express presynaptically acting neuromodulators and regulate the excitability of pyramidal cell dendrites through slowly rising and decaying GABAergic inputs.
Project description:A large variety of GABAergic interneurons control information processing in the hippocampal circuits governing the formation of neuronal representations. Whether distinct hippocampal interneuron types contribute differentially to information processing during behavior is not known. We employed a new technique for recording and labeling interneurons and pyramidal cells in drug-free, freely moving rats. Recorded parvalbumin-expressing basket interneurons innervated somata and proximal pyramidal cell dendrites, whereas nitric oxide synthase- and neuropeptide Y-expressing ivy cells provided synaptic and extrasynaptic dendritic modulation. Basket and ivy cells showed distinct spike-timing dynamics, firing at different rates and times during theta and ripple oscillations. Basket, but not ivy, cells changed their firing rates during movement, sleep and quiet wakefulness, suggesting that basket cells coordinate cell assemblies in a behavioral state-contingent manner, whereas persistently firing ivy cells might control network excitability and homeostasis. Different interneuron types provide GABA to specific subcellular domains at defined times and rates, thereby differentially controlling network activity during behavior.
Project description:Electrophysiological experiments in the partial cortical isolation ("undercut" or "UC") model of injury-induced neocortical epileptogenesis have shown alterations in GABAergic synaptic transmission attributable to abnormalities in presynaptic terminals. To determine whether the decreased inhibition was associated with structural abnormalities in GABAergic interneurons, we used immunocytochemical techniques, confocal microscopy and EM in UC and control sensorimotor rat cortex to analyze structural alterations in fast-spiking parvalbumin-containing interneurons and pyramidal (Pyr) cells of layer V. Principle findings were: 1) there were no decreases in counts of parvalbumin (PV)- or GABA-immunoreactive interneurons in UC cortex, however there were significant reductions in expression of VGAT and GAD-65 and -67 in halos of GABAergic terminals around Pyr somata in layer V. 2) Consistent with previous results, somatic size and density of Pyr cells was decreased in infragranular layers of UC cortex. 3) Dendrites of biocytin-filled FS interneurons were significantly decreased in volume. 4) There were decreases in the size and VGAT content of GABAergic boutons in axons of biocytin-filled FS cells in the UC, together with a decrease in colocalization with postsynaptic gephyrin, suggesting a reduction in GABAergic synapses. Quantitative EM of layer V Pyr somata confirmed the reduction in inhibitory synapses. 5) There were marked and lasting reductions in brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-IR and -mRNA in Pyr cells and decreased TrkB-IR on PV cells in UC cortex. 6) Results lead to the hypothesis that reduction in trophic support by BDNF derived from Pyr cells may contribute to the regressive changes in axonal terminals and dendrites of FS cells in the UC cortex and decreased GABAergic inhibition. SIGNIFICANCE:Injury to cortical structures is a major cause of epilepsy, accounting for about 20% of cases in the general population, with an incidence as high as ~50% among brain-injured personnel in wartime. Loss of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons is a significant pathophysiological factor associated with epileptogenesis following brain trauma and other etiologies. Results of these experiments show that the largest population of cortical interneurons, the parvalbumin-containing fast-spiking (FS) interneurons, are preserved in the partial neocortical isolation model of partial epilepsy. However, axonal terminals of these cells are structurally abnormal, have decreased content of GABA synthetic enzymes and vesicular GABA transporter and make fewer synapses onto pyramidal neurons. These structural abnormalities underlie defects in GABAergic neurotransmission that are a key pathophysiological factor in epileptogenesis found in electrophysiological experiments. BDNF, and its TrkB receptor, key factors for maintenance of interneurons and pyramidal neurons, are decreased in the injured cortex. Results suggest that supplying BDNF to the injured epileptogenic brain may reverse the structural and functional abnormalities in the parvalbumin FS interneurons and provide an antiepileptogenic therapy.
Project description:GABAergic inhibition plays a critical role in the regulation of neuronal activity. In the neocortex, inhibitory interneurons that target the dendrites of pyramidal cells influence both electrical and biochemical postsynaptic signaling. Voltage-gated ion channels strongly shape dendritic excitability and the integration of excitatory inputs, but their contribution to GABAergic signaling is less well understood. By combining 2-photon calcium imaging and focal GABA uncaging, we show that voltage-gated potassium channels normally suppress the GABAergic inhibition of calcium signals evoked by back-propagating action potentials in dendritic spines and shafts of cortical pyramidal neurons. Moreover, the voltage-dependent inactivation of these channels leads to enhancement of dendritic calcium inhibition following somatic spiking. Computational modeling reveals that the enhancement of calcium inhibition involves an increase in action potential depolarization coupled with the nonlinear relationship between membrane voltage and calcium channel activation. Overall, our findings highlight the interaction between intrinsic and synaptic properties and reveal a novel mechanism for the activity-dependent regulation of GABAergic inhibition.
Project description:In the human neocortex, single excitatory pyramidal cells can elicit very large glutamatergic EPSPs (VLEs) in inhibitory GABAergic interneurons capable of triggering their firing with short (3-5 ms) delay. Similar strong excitatory connections between two individual neurons have not been found in nonhuman cortices, suggesting that these synapses are specific to human interneurons. The VLEs are crucial for generating neocortical complex events, observed as single pyramidal cell spike-evoked discharge of cell assemblies in the frontal and temporal cortices. However, long-term plasticity of the VLE connections and how the plasticity modulates neocortical complex events has not been studied. Using triple and dual whole-cell recordings from synaptically connected human neocortical layers 2-3 neurons, we show that VLEs in fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons exhibit robust activity-induced long-term depression (LTD). The LTD by single pyramidal cell 40 Hz spike bursts is specific to connections with VLEs, requires group I metabotropic glutamate receptors, and has a presynaptic mechanism. The LTD of VLE connections alters suprathreshold activation of interneurons in the complex events suppressing the discharge of fast-spiking GABAergic cells. The VLEs triggering the complex events may contribute to cognitive processes in the human neocortex, and their long-term plasticity can alter the discharging cortical cell assemblies by learning.
Project description:Spatio-temporal cortical activity patterns relative to both peripheral input and local network activity carry information about stimulus identity and context. GABAergic interneurons are reported to regulate spiking at millisecond precision in response to sensory stimulation and during gamma oscillations; their role in regulating spike timing during induced network bursts is unclear. We investigated this issue in murine auditory thalamo-cortical (TC) brain slices, in which TC afferents induced network bursts similar to previous reports in vivo. Spike timing relative to TC afferent stimulation during bursts was poor in pyramidal cells and SOM+ interneurons. It was more precise in PV+ interneurons, consistent with their reported contribution to spiking precision in pyramidal cells. Optogenetic suppression of PV+ cells unexpectedly improved afferent-locked spike timing in pyramidal cells. In contrast, our evidence suggests that PV+ cells do regulate the spatio-temporal spike pattern of pyramidal cells during network bursts, whose organization is suited to ensemble coding of stimulus information. Simulations showed that suppressing PV+ cells reduces the capacity of pyramidal cell networks to produce discriminable spike patterns. By dissociating temporal precision with respect to a stimulus versus internal cortical activity, we identified a novel role for GABAergic cells in regulating information processing in cortical networks.
Project description:Different GABAergic interneuron types have specific roles in hippocampal function, and anatomical as well as physiological features vary greatly between interneuron classes. Long-term plasticity of interneurons has mostly been studied in unidentified GABAergic cells and is known to be very heterogeneous. Here we tested whether cell type-specific plasticity properties in distinct GABAergic interneuron types might underlie this heterogeneity. We show that long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD), two common forms of synaptic plasticity, are expressed in a highly cell type-specific manner at glutamatergic synapses onto hippocampal GABAergic neurons. Both LTP and LTD are generated in interneurons expressing parvalbumin (PV+), whereas interneurons with similar axon distributions but expressing cannabinoid receptor-1 show no lasting plasticity in response to the same protocol. In addition, LTP or LTD occurs in PV+ interneurons with different efferent target domains. Perisomatic-targeting PV+ basket and axo-axonic interneurons express LTP, whereas glutamatergic synapses onto PV+ bistratified cells display LTD. Both LTP and LTD are pathway specific, independent of NMDA receptors, and occur at synapses with calcium-permeable (CP) AMPA receptors. Plasticity in interneurons with CP-AMPA receptors strongly modulates disynaptic GABAergic transmission onto CA1 pyramidal cells. We propose that long-term plasticity adjusts the synaptic strength between pyramidal cells and interneurons in a cell type-specific manner and, in the defined CA1 interneurons, shifts the spatial pattern of inhibitory weight from pyramidal cell dendrites to the perisomatic region.
Project description:The striatum, the entry nucleus of the basal ganglia, lacks laminar or columnar organization of its principal cells; nevertheless, functional data suggest that it is spatially organized. Here we examine whether the connectivity and synaptic organization of striatal GABAergic interneurons contributes to such spatial organization. Focusing on the two main classes of striatal GABAergic interneurons (fast-spiking interneurons [FSIs] and low-threshold-spiking interneurons [LTSIs]), we apply a combination of optogenetics and viral tracing approaches to dissect striatal microcircuits in mice. Our results reveal fundamental differences between the synaptic organizations of both interneuron types. FSIs target exclusively striatal projection neurons (SPNs) within close proximity and form strong synapses on the proximal somatodendritic region. In contrast, LTSIs target both SPNs and cholinergic interneurons, and synaptic connections onto SPNs are made exclusively over long distances and onto distal dendrites. These results suggest fundamentally different functions of FSIs and LTSIs in shaping striatal output.
Project description:We studied the transcriptomes of mouse CA1 inhibitory cells. Novel clustering methods identified all 23 previously described CA1 inhibitory types, while also suggesting 6 new inhibitory classes. Latent‐factor analysis revealed a common continuum of expression of many genes within and between classes, which we hypothesized correlates with a continuum from faster‐spiking cells that proximally target pyramidal cells, to slower active cells targeting pyramidal distal dendrites or interneurons. Overall design: 6971 single cells isolated from the mouse cortex CA1 region
Project description:Understanding any brain circuit will require a categorization of its constituent neurons. In hippocampal area CA1, at least 23 classes of GABAergic neuron have been proposed to date. However, this list may be incomplete; additionally, it is unclear whether discrete classes are sufficient to describe the diversity of cortical inhibitory neurons or whether continuous modes of variability are also required. We studied the transcriptomes of 3,663 CA1 inhibitory cells, revealing 10 major GABAergic groups that divided into 49 fine-scale clusters. All previously described and several novel cell classes were identified, with three previously described classes unexpectedly found to be identical. A division into discrete classes, however, was not sufficient to describe the diversity of these cells, as continuous variation also occurred between and within classes. Latent factor analysis revealed that a single continuous variable could predict the expression levels of several genes, which correlated similarly with it across multiple cell types. Analysis of the genes correlating with this variable suggested it reflects a range from metabolically highly active faster-spiking cells that proximally target pyramidal cells to slower-spiking cells targeting distal dendrites or interneurons. These results elucidate the complexity of inhibitory neurons in one of the simplest cortical structures and show that characterizing these cells requires continuous modes of variation as well as discrete cell classes.
Project description:Dendrite-targeting GABAergic interneurons powerfully control postsynaptic integration, synaptic plasticity, and learning. However, the mechanisms underlying the efficient GABAergic control of dendritic electrogenesis are not well understood. Using subtype-selective blockers for GABAA receptors, we show that dendrite-targeting somatostatin interneurons and NO-synthase-positive neurogliaform cells preferentially activate ?5-subunit- containing GABAA receptors (?5-GABAARs), generating slow inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. By contrast, only negligible contribution of these receptors could be found in perisomatic IPSCs, generated by fast-spiking parvalbumin interneurons. Remarkably, ?5-GABAAR-mediated IPSCs were strongly outward-rectifying generating 4-fold larger conductances above -50?mV than at rest. Experiments and modeling show that synaptic activation of these receptors can very effectively control voltage-dependent NMDA-receptor activation as well as Schaffer-collateral evoked burst firing in pyramidal cells. Taken together, nonlinear-rectifying ?5-GABAARs with slow kinetics match functional NMDA-receptor properties and thereby mediate powerful control of dendritic postsynaptic integration and action potential firing by dendrite-targeting interneurons.