CD103+ CD11b+ Dendritic Cells Induce Th17 T Cells in Muc2-Deficient Mice with Extensively Spread Colitis.
ABSTRACT: Mucus alterations are a feature of ulcerative colitis (UC) and can drive inflammation by compromising the mucosal barrier to luminal bacteria. The exact pathogenesis of UC remains unclear, but CD4+ T cells reacting to commensal antigens appear to contribute to pathology. Given the unique capacity of dendritic cells (DCs) to activate naive T cells, colon DCs may activate pathogenic T cells and contribute to disease. Using Muc2-/- mice, which lack a functional mucus barrier and develop spontaneous colitis, we show that colitic animals have reduced colon CD103+ CD11b- DCs and increased CD103- CD11b+ phagocytes. Moreover, changes in colonic DC subsets and distinct cytokine patterns distinguish mice with distally localized colitis from mice with colitis spread proximally. Specifically, mice with proximally spread, but not distally contained, colitis have increased IL-1?, IL-6, IL-17, TNF?, and IFN? combined with decreased IL-10 in the distal colon. These individuals also have increased numbers of CD103+ CD11b+ DCs in the distal colon. CD103+ CD11b+ DCs isolated from colitic but not noncolitic mice induced robust differentiation of Th17 cells but not Th1 cells ex vivo. In contrast, CD103- CD11b+ DCs from colitic Muc2-/- mice induced Th17 as well as Th1 differentiation. Thus, the local environment influences the capacity of intestinal DC subsets to induce T cell proliferation and differentiation, with CD103+ CD11b+ DCs inducing IL-17-producing T cells being a key feature of extensively spread colitis.
Project description:The colonic mucus layer plays a critical role in intestinal homeostasis by limiting contact between luminal bacteria and the mucosal immune system. A defective mucus barrier in animal models allows bacterial contact with the intestinal epithelium and results in spontaneous colitis. A defective mucus barrier is also a key feature of active ulcerative colitis (UC). Alterations in the immune compartment due to intestinal bacterial breach in mice lacking the colon mucus barrier have not been characterized and correlated to active UC.To characterize alterations in the immune compartment due to intestinal bacterial breach in Muc2-/- mice, which lack the colon mucus barrier, and correlate the findings to active UC.Bacterial contact with colon epithelium and penetration into colon tissue was examined in Muc2-/- mice and colon biopsies from patients with active UC using fluorescence microscopy and qPCR. Neutrophils, lymphocytes, CD103+ dendritic cell subsets and macrophages in colon from Muc2-/- mice and biopsies from UC patients were quantitated by flow cytometry.Inflamed UC patients and Muc2-/- mice had bacteria in contact with the colon epithelium. Bacterial rRNA was present in colonic mucosa in humans and Muc2-/- mice and in the draining lymph nodes of mice. Inflamed Muc2-/- mice and UC patients had elevated colon neutrophils, T cells and macrophages while a reduced frequency of CD103+ DCs was present in the inflamed colon of both mice and humans.The parallel features of the colon immune cell compartment in Muc2-/- mice and UC patients supports the usefulness of this model to understand the early phase of spontaneous colitis and will provide insight into novel strategies to treat UC.
Project description:A crosstalk between commensals, gut immune cells, and colonic epithelia is required for a proper function of intestinal mucosal barrier. Here we investigated the importance of two distinct intestinal dendritic cell (DC) subsets in controlling intestinal inflammation. We show that Clec9A-diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) mice after depletion of CD103(+)CD11b(-) DCs developed severe, low-dose dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, whereas the lack of CD103(+)CD11b(+) DCs in Clec4a4-DTR mice did not exacerbate intestinal inflammation. The CD103(+)CD11b(-) DC subset has gained a functional specialization that able them to repress inflammation via several epithelial interferon-? (IFN-?)-induced proteins. Among others, we identified that epithelial IDO1 and interleukin-18-binding protein (IL-18bp) were strongly modulated by CD103(+)CD11b(-) DCs. Through its preferential property to express IL-12 and IL-15, this particular DC subset can induce lymphocytes in colonic lamina propria and in epithelia to secrete IFN-? that then can trigger a reversible early anti-inflammatory response in intestinal epithelial cells.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (MPs) are important for immunological homeostasis in the colon. We found that F4/80hi CX3CR1hi (CD11b+CD103-) cells account for 80% of mouse colonic lamina propria (cLP) MHC-IIhi cells. Both CD11c+ and CD11c- cells within this population were identified as MPs based on multiple criteria, including a MP transcriptome revealed by microarray analysis. These MPs constitutively released high levels of IL-10 at least partially in response to the microbiota via an MyD88-independent mechanism. In contrast, cells expressing low to intermediate levels of F4/80 and CX3CR1 were identified as DCs, based on phenotypic and functional analysis and comprise three separate CD11chi cell populations: CD103+CX3CR1-CD11b- DCs, CD103+CX3CR1-CD11b+ DCs and CD103-CX3CR1intCD11b+ DCs. In non-inflammatory conditions, Ly6Chi monocytes differentiated primarily into CD11c+, but not CD11c- MPs. In contrast, during colitis, Ly6Chi monocytes massively invaded the colon and differentiated into pro-inflammatory CD103-CX3CR1intCD11b+ DCs, which produced high levels of IL-12, IL-23, iNOS and TNF. These findings demonstrate the dual capacity of Ly6Chi blood monocytes to differentiate into either regulatory MPs or inflammatory DCs in the colon, and that the balance of these immunologically antagonistic cell types is dictated by microenvironmental conditions. Overall design: FACS sorted expression from normal controls
Project description:The identification of intestinal macrophages (m?s) and dendritic cells (DCs) is a matter of intense debate. Although CD103(+) mononuclear phagocytes (MPs) appear to be genuine DCs, the nature and origins of CD103(-) MPs remain controversial. We show here that intestinal CD103(-)CD11b(+) MPs can be separated clearly into DCs and m?s based on phenotype, gene profile, and kinetics. CD64(-)CD103(-)CD11b(+) MPs are classical DCs, being derived from Flt3 ligand-dependent, DC-committed precursors, not Ly6C(hi) monocytes. Surprisingly, a significant proportion of these CD103(-)CD11b(+) DCs express CCR2 and there is a selective decrease in CD103(-)CD11b(+) DCs in mice lacking this chemokine receptor. CCR2(+)CD103(-) DCs are present in both the murine and human intestine, drive interleukin (IL)-17a production by T cells in vitro, and show constitutive expression of IL-12/IL-23p40. These data highlight the heterogeneity of intestinal DCs and reveal a bona fide population of CCR2(+) DCs that is involved in priming mucosal T helper type 17 (Th17) responses.
Project description:Intestinal integrity is maintained by balanced numbers of CD103+ Dendritic cells (DCs), which generate peripherally induced regulatory T cells (iTregs). We have developed a mouse model where DC-specific constitutive CD40 signals caused a strong reduction of CD103+ DCs in the lamina propria (LP) and intestinal lymph nodes (LN). As a consequence, also iTregs were strongly reduced and transgenic mice on the C57Bl/6-background (B6) developed fatal colitis. Here we describe that transgenic mice on a pure Balb/c-background (B/c) do not show any pathologies, while transgenic C57Bl/6 x Balb/c (F1) mice develop weak colon inflammation, without fatal colitis. This graded pathology correlated with the effects of CD40-signalling on DCs in each background, with striking loss of CD103+ DCs in B6, but reduced in F1 and diminished in B/c background. We further show direct correlation of CD103+ DC-numbers with numbers of iTregs, the frequencies of which behave correspondingly. Striking effects on B6-DCs reflected robust loss of surface MHCII, known to be crucial for iTreg induction. Furthermore, elevated levels of IL-23 together with IL-1, found only in B6 mice, support generation of intestinal IFN-?+IL-17+ Th17 cells and IFN-?+ Th1 cells, responsible for onset of disease. Together, this demonstrates a novel aspect of colitis-control, depending on genetic background. Moreover, strain-specific environmental sensing might alter the CD103+ DC/iTreg-axis to tip intestinal homeostatic balance to pathology.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (MPs) are important for immunological homeostasis in the colon. We found that F4/80hi CX3CR1hi (CD11b+CD103-) cells account for 80% of mouse colonic lamina propria (cLP) MHC-IIhi cells. Both CD11c+ and CD11c- cells within this population were identified as MPs based on multiple criteria, including a MP transcriptome revealed by microarray analysis. These MPs constitutively released high levels of IL-10 at least partially in response to the microbiota via an MyD88-independent mechanism. In contrast, cells expressing low to intermediate levels of F4/80 and CX3CR1 were identified as DCs, based on phenotypic and functional analysis and comprise three separate CD11chi cell populations: CD103+CX3CR1-CD11b- DCs, CD103+CX3CR1-CD11b+ DCs and CD103-CX3CR1intCD11b+ DCs. In non-inflammatory conditions, Ly6Chi monocytes differentiated primarily into CD11c+, but not CD11c- MPs. In contrast, during colitis, Ly6Chi monocytes massively invaded the colon and differentiated into pro-inflammatory CD103-CX3CR1intCD11b+ DCs, which produced high levels of IL-12, IL-23, iNOS and TNF. These findings demonstrate the dual capacity of Ly6Chi blood monocytes to differentiate into either regulatory MPs or inflammatory DCs in the colon, and that the balance of these immunologically antagonistic cell types is dictated by microenvironmental conditions. FACS sorted expression from normal controls
Project description:Signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRP?/CD172a) is a conserved transmembrane protein thought to play an inhibitory role in immune function by binding the ubiquitous ligand CD47. SIRP? expression has been used to identify dendritic cell subsets across species and here we examined its expression and function on intestinal DCs in mice. Normal mucosa contains four subsets of DCs based on their expression of CD103 and CD11b and three of these express SIRP?. However, loss of SIRP? signaling in mice leads to a selective reduction in the CD103(+) CD11b(+) subset of DCs in the small intestine, colon, and among migratory DCs in the mesenteric lymph node. In parallel, these mice have reduced numbers of TH 17 cells in steady-state intestinal mucosa, and a defective TH 17 response to Citrobacter infection. Identical results were obtained in CD47KO mice. DC precursors from SIRP? mutant mice had an enhanced ability to generate CD103(+) CD11b(+) DCs in vivo, but CD103(+) CD11b(+) DCs from mutant mice were more prone to die by apoptosis. These data show a previously unappreciated and crucial role for SIRP? in the homeostasis of CD103(+) CD11b(+) DCs in the intestine, as well as providing further evidence that this subset of DCs is critical for the development of mucosal TH 17 responses.
Project description:Intestinal CD103(-) dendritic cells (DCs) are pathogenic for colitis. Unveiling molecular mechanisms that render these cells proinflammatory is important for the design of specific immunotherapies. In this report, we demonstrated that mesenteric lymph node CD103(-) DCs express, among other proinflammatory cytokines, high levels of osteopontin (Opn) during experimental colitis. Opn expression by CD103(-) DCs was crucial for their immune profile and pathogenicity, including induction of T helper (Th) 1 and Th17 cell responses. Adoptive transfer of Opn-deficient CD103(-) DCs resulted in attenuated colitis in comparison to transfer of WT CD103(-) DCs, whereas transgenic CD103(-) DCs that overexpress Opn were highly pathogenic in vivo. Neutralization of secreted Opn expressed exclusively by CD103(-) DCs restrained disease severity. Also, Opn deficiency resulted in milder disease, whereas systemic neutralization of secreted Opn was therapeutic. We determined a specific domain of the Opn protein responsible for its CD103(-) DC-mediated proinflammatory effect. We demonstrated that disrupting the interaction of this Opn domain with integrin ?9, overexpressed on colitic CD103(-) DCs, suppressed the inflammatory potential of these cells in vitro and in vivo. These results add unique insight into the biology of CD103(-) DCs and their function during inflammatory bowel disease.
Project description:The function of mucosal dendritic cell (DC) subsets in immunity and inflammation is not well understood. In this study, we define four DC subsets present within the lamina propria and mesenteric lymph node compartments based on expression of CD103 and CD11b. Using IL-12p40 YFP (Yet40) reporter mice, we show that CD103(+)CD11b(-) mucosal DCs are primary in vivo sources of IL-12p40; we also identified CD103(-)CD11b(-) mucosal DCs as a novel population producing this cytokine. Infection was preferentially found in CD11b(+) DCs that were negative for CD103. Lamina propria DCs containing parasites were negative for IL-12p40. Instead, production of the cytokine was strictly a property of noninfected cells. We also show that vitamin A metabolism, as measured by ALDH activity, was preferentially found in CD103(+)CD11b(+) DC and was strongly downregulated in all mucosal DC subsets during infection. Finally, overall apoptosis of lamina propria DC subsets was increased during infection. Combined, these results highlight the ability of intestinal Toxoplasma infection to alter mucosal DC activity at both the whole population level and at the level of individual subsets.
Project description:Tolerance to harmless exogenous antigens is the default immune response in the gastrointestinal tract. Although extensive studies have demonstrated the importance of the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and intestinal CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs) in driving small intestinal tolerance to protein antigen, the structural and immunological basis of colonic tolerance remain poorly understood. We show here that the caudal and iliac lymph nodes (ILNs) are inductive sites for distal colonic immune responses and that colonic T cell-mediated tolerance induction to protein antigen is initiated in these draining lymph nodes and not in MLNs. In agreement, colonic tolerance induction was not altered by mesenteric lymphadenectomy. Despite tolerance development, CD103(+)CD11b(+) DCs, which are the major migratory DC population in the MLNs, and the tolerance-related retinoic acid-generating enzyme RALDH2 were virtually absent from the ILNs. Administration of ovalbumin (OVA) to the distal colon did increase the number of CD11c(+)MHCII(hi) migratory CD103(-)CD11b(+) and CD103(+)CD11b(-) DCs in the ILNs. Strikingly, colonic tolerance was intact in Batf3-deficient mice specifically lacking CD103(+)CD11b(-) DCs, suggesting that CD103(-) DCs in the ILNs are sufficient to drive tolerance induction after protein antigen encounter in the distal colon. Altogether, we identify different inductive sites for small intestinal and colonic T-cell responses and reveal that distinct cellular mechanisms are operative to maintain tolerance at these sites.