Revealing Glycoproteins in the Secretome of MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells.
ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is one of the major issues in the field of oncology, reported with a higher prevalence rate in women worldwide. In attempt to reveal the potential biomarkers for breast cancer, the findings of differentially glycosylated haptoglobin and osteonectin in previous study have drawn our attention towards glycoproteins of secretome from the MCF-7 cancer cell line. In the present study, further analyses were performed on the medium of MCF-7 cells by subjecting it to two-dimensional analyses followed by image analysis in contrast to the medium of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEpC) as a negative control. Carboxypeptidase A4 (CPA4), alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), haptoglobin (HP), and HSC70 were detected in the medium of MCF-7, while only CPA4 and osteonectin (ON) were detected in HMEpC medium. In addition, CPA4 was detected as upregulated in the MCF-7 medium. Further analysis by lectin showed that CPA4, AAT, HP, and HSC70 were secreted as N-glycan in the medium of MCF-7, with HP also showing differentially N-glycosylated isoforms. For the HMEpC, only CPA4 was detected as N-glycan. No O-glycan was detected in the medium of HMEpC but MCF-7 expressed O-glycosylated CPA4 and HSC70. All these revealed that glycoproteins could be used as glycan-based biomarkers for the prognosis of breast cancer.
Project description:Virulence of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is directly linked to the pathogen's ability to glycosylate proteins; for example, Hp flagellin proteins are heavily glycosylated with the unusual nine-carbon sugar pseudaminic acid, and this modification is absolutely essential for Hp to synthesize functional flagella and colonize the host's stomach. Although Hp's glycans are linked to pathogenesis, Hp's glycome remains poorly understood; only the two flagellin glycoproteins have been firmly characterized in Hp. Evidence from our laboratory suggests that Hp synthesizes a large number of as-yet unidentified glycoproteins. Here we set out to discover Hp's glycoproteins by coupling glycan metabolic labeling with mass spectrometry analysis. An assessment of the subcellular distribution of azide-labeled proteins by Western blot analysis indicated that glycoproteins are present throughout Hp and may therefore serve diverse functions. To identify these species, Hp's azide-labeled glycoproteins were tagged via Staudinger ligation, enriched by tandem affinity chromatography, and analyzed by multidimensional protein identification technology. Direct comparison of enriched azide-labeled glycoproteins with a mock-enriched control by both SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry-based analyses confirmed the selective enrichment of azide-labeled glycoproteins. We identified 125 candidate glycoproteins with diverse biological functions, including those linked with pathogenesis. Mass spectrometry analyses of enriched azide-labeled glycoproteins before and after cleavage of O-linked glycans revealed the presence of Staudinger ligation-glycan adducts in samples only after beta-elimination, confirming the synthesis of O-linked glycoproteins in Hp. Finally, the secreted colonization factors urease alpha and urease beta were biochemically validated as glycosylated proteins via Western blot analysis as well as by mass spectrometry analysis of cleaved glycan products. These data set the stage for the development of glycosylation-based therapeutic strategies, such as new vaccines based on natively glycosylated Hp proteins, to eradicate Hp infection. Broadly, this report validates metabolic labeling as an effective and efficient approach for the identification of bacterial glycoproteins.
Project description:BACKGROUND:GlycA is a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy biomarker that predicts risk of disease from myriad causes. It is heterogeneous; arising from five circulating glycoproteins with dynamic concentrations: alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT), alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), haptoglobin (HP), transferrin (TF), and alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (AACT). The contributions of each glycoprotein to the disease and mortality risks predicted by GlycA remain unknown. METHODS:We trained imputation models for AAT, AGP, HP, and TF from NMR metabolite measurements in 626 adults from a population cohort with matched NMR and immunoassay data. Levels of AAT, AGP, and HP were estimated in 11,861 adults from two population cohorts with eight years of follow-up, then each biomarker was tested for association with all common endpoints. Whole blood gene expression data was used to identify cellular processes associated with elevated AAT. RESULTS:Accurate imputation models were obtained for AAT, AGP, and HP but not for TF. While AGP had the strongest correlation with GlycA, our analysis revealed variation in imputed AAT levels was the most predictive of morbidity and mortality for the widest range of diseases over the eight year follow-up period, including heart failure (meta-analysis hazard ratio = 1.60 per standard deviation increase of AAT, P-value = 1×10-10), influenza and pneumonia (HR = 1.37, P = 6×10-10), and liver diseases (HR = 1.81, P = 1×10-6). Transcriptional analyses revealed association of elevated AAT with diverse inflammatory immune pathways. CONCLUSIONS:This study clarifies the molecular underpinnings of the GlycA biomarker's associated disease risk, and indicates a previously unrecognised association between elevated AAT and severe disease onset and mortality.
Project description:CarboxypeptidaseA4 (CPA4) is a zinc-containing exopeptidases, and its aberrant expression has been implicated in cancer development and progression. However, few studies have investigated the association between CPA4 over-expression and clinical significance in gastric cancer (GC). In this study, we employed immunohistochemistry to evaluate the expression of CPA4 in gastric cancer tissues, and found that elevated CPA4 expression was detected in 64% (n=100) of primary GCs, but was weak or no staining in the normal mucosa. Clinical relevance analysis showed that positive staining for CPA4 was significantly associated with Tumor size, Stage, Lymph node metastasis, Depth of invasion and Distant metastasis. As tumor markers p53 and Ki67 are closely associated with tumor progression, we further analyzed the correlations between CPA4 levels and these two factors. We found that abnormal expression of CPA4 was positively associated with Ki67 (P=0.002) and reversely correlated with p53 (P=0.035) in GC. In Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, high levels of CPA4 were significantly associated with unfavorable survival in GC patients (P<0.001). Multivariate Cox regression model showed that high expression of CPA4 was an independent prognostic factor for GC patients. In conclusion, our results suggested that CPA4 was highly expressed in gastric cancer tissues. Overexpression of CPA4 can be used as an independent poor prognostic factor in gastric cancer.
Project description:Using whole transcriptome analysis and a lentiviral short hairpin RNA screening library, carboxypeptidase A4 (CPA4) was identified as a novel marker in breast cancer and a therapeutic target in triple?negative breast cancer (TNBC) in the present study. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the presence of CPA4, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, Ki67, epidermal growth factor receptor, cytokeratin 5/6, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1, cluster of differentiation (CD)44, CD24, claudins, E?cadherin, vimentin and androgen receptor in 221 cases of breast cancer, including 68 TNBC cases. The effects of CPA4 on the viability and migration ability of TNBC cells were analyzed using RNA interference methods. Increased CPA4 expression, specifically in the cytoplasm of cancer tissue cells, was detected. Furthermore, high CPA4 expression in TNBC cases was associated with low expression of E?cadherin and with the expression of cancer stem cell markers (high CD44/low CD24). Patients with TNBC and high levels of CPA4 expression had a significantly poorer prognosis compared with those with low CPA4 expression. Notably, viability and migration were reduced, but E?cadherin expression was upregulated in CPA4?suppressed TNBC cells. The present data suggested that CPA4 may be a novel inducer for epithelial?mesenchymal transition, which is characterized by the downregulation of E?cadherin and mesenchymal phenotypes. To conclude, CPA4 may be a marker for poor prognosis and a promising therapeutic target in TNBC with aggressive phenotypes.
Project description:Background. Chronic renal failure (CRF) has become a global health problem and bears a huge economic burden. FuShengong Decoction (FSGD) as traditional Chinese medicine has multiple pharmacological effects. Objectives. To understand the underlying molecular mechanism and signaling pathway involved in the FSGD treatment of CRF and screen differentially expressed proteins in rats with CRF treated with FSGD. Methods. Thirty-three male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group, CRF group, and FSGD group. Differentially expressed proteins were screened by iTRAQ coupled with nanoLC-MS/MS, and these identified proteins were later analyzed by GO, KEGG, and STRING. Additionally, haptoglobin (HP) and alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) were finally verified by ELISA, Western blot, and real time PCR. Results. A total of 417 proteins were identified. Nineteen differentially expressed proteins were identified in the FSGD group compared with the model group, of which 3 proteins were upregulated and 16 proteins were downregulated. Cluster analysis indicated that inflammatory response was associated with these proteins and complement and coagulation cascade pathways were predominantly involved. The validation methods further confirmed that the levels of HP and AAT were significantly increased. Conclusions. HP and AAT may be the important biomarkers in the pathogenesis of CRF and FSGD therapy.
Project description:Hereditary deficiency of the protein ?-1 antitrypsin (AAT) causes a chronic lung disease in humans that is characterized by excessive mobilization of neutrophils into the lung. However, the reason for the increased neutrophil burden has not been fully elucidated. In this study we have demonstrated using human neutrophils that serum AAT coordinates both CXCR1- and soluble immune complex (sIC) receptor-mediated chemotaxis by divergent pathways. We demonstrated that glycosylated AAT can bind to IL-8 (a ligand for CXCR1) and that AAT-IL-8 complex formation prevented IL-8 interaction with CXCR1. Second, AAT modulated neutrophil chemotaxis in response to sIC by controlling membrane expression of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored (GPI-anchored) Fc receptor Fc?RIIIb. This process was mediated through inhibition of ADAM-17 enzymatic activity. Neutrophils isolated from clinically stable AAT-deficient patients were characterized by low membrane expression of Fc?RIIIb and increased chemotaxis in response to IL-8 and sIC. Treatment of AAT-deficient individuals with AAT augmentation therapy resulted in increased AAT binding to IL-8, increased AAT binding to the neutrophil membrane, decreased Fc?RIIIb release from the neutrophil membrane, and normalization of chemotaxis. These results provide new insight into the mechanism underlying the effect of AAT augmentation therapy in the pulmonary disease associated with AAT deficiency.
Project description:Expression of recombinant proteins fused to a novel glycomodule tag, termed hydroxyproline (Hyp)-O-glycosylated peptides (HypGP), was earlier found to boost secreted protein yields up to 500-fold in plant cell culture. Here, this technology was applied to the expression of human protease inhibitor ?1-antitrypsin (AAT) in tobacco BY-2 cell culture. A designer HypGP tag composed of a 'Ala-Pro' motif of 20 units, or (AP)<sub>20</sub>, was engineered either at the N- or C-terminal end of AAT. The (AP)<sub>20</sub> tag substantially increased the secreted yields of the recombinant AAT up to 34.7 mg/L. However, the (AP)<sub>20</sub>-tagged AAT products were frequently subjected to proteolytic processing. The intact AAT-(AP)<sub>20</sub> along with some of the truncated AAT domains exhibited desired biological activity in inhibiting elastase. The results from this research demonstrated that the designer (AP)<sub>20</sub> module engineered in BY-2 cells could function as a molecular carrier to substantially enhance the secreted yields of the recombinant AAT.
Project description:Background:Carboxypeptidase A4 (CPA4), as a novel tumor biomarker, is prevalently observed in various cancers. However, the potential role of CPA4 in pancreatic cancer (PC), to our knowledge, has not been fully clarified. Materials and Methods:We systematically explored the detailed function of CPA4 in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) stimulated PC in human clinical samples and in vitro. Results:CPA4 was overexpressed in clinical PC samples that was positively related with tumor size (P=0.026), T stage (P=0.011), lymph-node metastasis (P=0.026) and a worse prognosis for PC patients (P=0.001). Interestingly, CPA4 was inversely correlated with E-cadherin (r=-0.372, P=0.003) in clinical samples and PC cell lines which cooperatively contributed to a worse prognosis (P=0.005) for PC patients. CPA4 overexpression enhanced EMT in AsPC-1 and Capan-2 cells, which promoted EMT-like cellular morphology and cell invasion and migration. Meanwhile, CPA4 overexpression activated EMT and PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling, following with the downregulation of E-cadherin and ?-catenin, and the upregulation of N-cadherin, vimentin, p-PI3K (Tyr458), p-AKT (Ser473) and p-mTOR (Ser2448). However, PI3K inhibitor LY294002 reversed CPA4 overexpression-stimulated EMT in vitro. Moreover, CPA4 was co-immunoprecipitated with AKT in two PC cells with CPA4 high expression. Conversely, CPA4 silencing inhibited EMT in PANC-1 cells. CPA4 overexpression or silencing promoted or inhibited cell proliferation and drug resistance in Capan-2 and PANC-1 cells via regulating Bcl2/Bax and cleaved-caspase3 signaling. However, LY294002 reversed CPA4 overexpression-stimulated cell proliferation and drug resistance in vitro in Bcl2/Bax and caspase3-dependent apoptosis. Conclusion:CPA4 overexpression contributes to aggressive clinical stage of PC patients and promotes EMT in vitro via activation of PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling.
Project description:Carboxypeptidase A4 (CPA4) is a member of the metallocarboxypeptidase family. A previous study indicated that CPA4 may participate in the modulation of peptide hormone activity and hormone-regulated tissue growth and differentiation. However, the role of CPA4 in lung tumorigenesis remains unclear. Our study revealed that CPA4 expression was higher in both lung cancer cells and tumor tissues. We performed 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assays, colony-formation assays, and Cellomics ArrayScan Infinity analysis to demonstrate that CPA4 knockdown inhibited non small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell proliferation. Conversely, ectopic expression of CPA4 enhanced lung cancer cell proliferation. Consistent with these observations, we generated xenograft tumor models to confirm that CPA4 downregulation suppressed NSCLC cell growth. Mechanistically, we revealed that CPA4 downregulation may induce apoptosis and G1-S arrest by suppressing the protein kinase B/c-MYC pathway. These results suggest that CPA4 has an oncogenic effect on lung cancer growth. Taken together, we identified a novel gene in lung cancer that might provide a basis for new therapeutic targets.
Project description:Elevated levels of plasma alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) correlate with a poor prognosis of various cancers. Herein, we investigated effects of exogenous AAT on non-small lung cancer cell lines with high (H1975) and very low (H661) baseline expression of SERPINA1 gene encoding AAT protein. Comparison of cells grown for 3 weeks in a regular medium versus medium supplemented with 2?mg/ml of AAT revealed that in the presence of AAT cells acquire better proliferative properties, resistance to staurosporine (STS)-induced apoptosis, and show higher expression of CLU, a pro-tumorigenic gene coding clusterin protein. Similarly, the co-administration of STS with AAT or addition of AAT to the cells pre-treated with STS abrogated effects of STS in both cell lines. Following experiments with H1975 cells have shown that AAT blocks critical steps in STS-induced cell death: inhibition of AKT/MAPK pathways, and activation of caspase 3 and autophagy. AAT does not inhibit apoptosis-triggered by chloroquine (inhibitor of autophagy) or streptonigrin (inducer of p53 pathway). The anti-apoptotic effects of AAT were unaffected by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). However, AAT induced TLR4 levels and enhanced LPS effects on the production of IL-6, a tumor-promoting cytokine. Our data provide further evidence that AAT plays a significant role in the tumorigenesis.