Leukemia cell mobilization with G-CSF plus plerixafor during busulfan-fludarabine conditioning for allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that during conditioning chemotherapy for allogeneic stem cell transplant (allo-SCT), the disruption of stromal-leukemia interactions using G-CSF in combination with the CXCR4-specific inhibitor, plerixafor, may promote the release of leukemic cells from the niche and increase tumor elimination. In a phase 1/2 investigation, we treated 45 AML/myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)/CML patients (34 AML, 7 MDS and 4 CML) with G-CSF (10 ?g/kg daily for 6 days starting on day -9) plus plerixafor (doses of 0, 80, 160 or 240 ?g/kg daily for 4 days starting on day -7) along with the busulfan-fludarabine (Bu-Flu) conditioning regimen. In the phase 1 part, we determined that G-CSF plus plerixafor is safe in this setting. We compared the clinical effects and outcomes of AML/MDS study patients (n=40) with 164 patients from a historical data set who received Bu-Flu alone before allo-SCT by stratifying on cytogenetics and disease status to correct for bias. Study patients had increased myeloid chimerism and lower rates of GvHD. There was no significant difference in relapse-free survival or overall survival. The G-CSF plus plerixafor combination increased circulating WBCs, CD34+ cells and CXCR4+ cells, and preferentially mobilized FISH+ leukemic cells.
Project description:To characterize intracellular signaling in peripheral blood (PB) cells of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients undergoing pretransplant conditioning with CXCR4 inhibitor plerixafor, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and busulfan plus fludarabine (Bu+Flu) chemotherapy, we profiled 153 proteins in 33 functional groups using reverse phase protein array. CXCR4 inhibition mobilized AML progenitors and clonal AML cells, and this was associated with molecular markers of cell cycle progression. G-CSF/plerixafor and G-CSF/plerixafor/Bu+Flu modulated distinct signaling networks in AML blasts of patients undergoing conditioning with active disease compared to nonleukemic PB cells of patients in remission. We identified AML-specific proteins that remained aberrantly expressed after chemotherapy, representing putative chemoresistance markers in AML.
Project description:Conditioning regimens contribute significantly to outcomes following allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens provide lower toxicity at the cost of reduced efficacy compared with myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimens. However, because pre-transplant prognostic variables often determine the conditioning regimen, studies of RIC vs. MAC have been inconclusive. We present a retrospective analysis of 242 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients, 112 of whom were in 56 pairs matched using propensity scores, to account for variation that may confound clinical outcomes. The uniform conditioning regimens consisted of fludarabine with pharmacokinetic (PK)-guided intravenous busulfan (Bu). The RIC and MAC regimens were dosed at the average daily area under the concentration-vs-time curve (AUC) of 4000?µMol?min and 5000-6000?µMol?min, or total course AUC of 16,000?µMol?min and 20,000-24,000?µMol?min, respectively; PK-guided dosing removes overlap in systemic Bu exposure. When patients' data were propensity-matched, there was a trend toward significantly increased full donor chimerism and decreased chronic graft vs. host disease in RIC, and no significant differences in progression free survival and overall survival between RIC and MAC. Our results also elucidate the efficacy of PK-guided-dosing in the setting of allo-SCT for AML and MDS.
Project description:We report the long-term follow up of 49 patients (pts) enrolled on plerixafor compassionate use protocol. Thirty-seven pts (76%) had failed one previous mobilization attempt, while 12 (24%) had failed two or more previous attempts. Using the combination of plerixafor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, we collected2.5 × 10(6) CD34+cells/kg in 33 pts (67%). Forty-three of the 49 pts proceeded to an auto-SCT (ASCT). The median days to WBC and platelet engraftment were 11 (range, 9-13 days) and 16 (range, 11-77 days) days post ASCT, respectively. The median WBC count, Hb and platelet counts 1 year after ASCT were 4.7 × 10(9)/L, 12.2 g/dL and 109 × 10(9)/L, respectively. With median follow up of 42 months (range <1-54 months), 21 pts had evidence of disease progression. Five pts developed myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)/AML at median of 29 months post ASCT. The cumulative incidence of MDS/AML at 42 months was 17% (95% confidence interval, 6 to 32%). Development of secondary MDS/AML in pts proceeding to ASCT after plerixafor mobilization needs to be studied further in a larger cohort.
Project description:Allogeneic blood stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is a potentially curative treatment for patients with myeloid malignancies such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), but relapse remains the major cause of treatment failure. So far, therapeutic options for patients with AML or MDS who relapse after allo-SCT generally consisted of palliative care, low-dose or intensive chemotherapy as well as cellular therapies such as donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) and second transplantation in selected cases. Nevertheless, the prognosis of patients with myeloid malignancies relapsing after allo-SCT remains dismal therefore asking for novel treatment strategies. Considering their well-balanced profile of good efficacy and moderate toxicity in the non-transplant setting, the hypomethylating agents (HMA) azacitidine (Aza) and decitabine (DAC) have also been tested either alone or in combination with DLI in the post-transplant period. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the use of these two HMA as pre-emptive, salvage or consolidation therapy mostly retrieved from retrospective studies but also from a few prospective trials. Within this review, we also comment on some practical issues such as optimal dose and schedule, the choice of HMA candidates and the role of additional cellular interventions. Finally, we also give an overview on the assumed mode of actions, ongoing research, clinical studies and potential combination partners aiming to improve this treatment approach.
Project description:Hypomethylating agent (HMA) failure in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) carries a poor prognosis with limited treatment options. Although intensive, remission induction chemotherapy is often used subsequently, in particular to bridge to allogeneic transplantation, it is not clear whether an advantage exists for any particular regimen. Based on an international collaboration, we retrospectively analyzed induction response rate and survival in 366 patients after HMA failure. Patients received 7+3, intermediate- to high-dose cytarabine (IDAC), or purine nucleoside analog-based regimens. For the MDS cohort (n = 307), the overall response rate (ORR) was 41%; median overall survival (OS) was 10.8 months, and 40% of responding patients bridged to allogeneic stem cell transplant (allo-SCT). For the AML cohort (n = 59), the ORR was 32%, OS 6 months, and 42% of responding patients bridged to allo-SCT. Prognostic factors for response in MDS included adverse cytogenetics (odds ratio [OR], 0.46, P = .01), age ?65 years (OR, 0.47; P < .01), and use of IDAC (OR, 2.91, P = .01). Shorter survival was associated with adverse cytogenetics (hazard ratio [HR], 1.43; P = .06). In the AML cohort, OS was decreased by disease progression at time of HMA failure (HR, 2.66; P = .02) and prolonged with use of an anthracycline-containing regimen (HR, 0.37; P = .01). In conclusion, intensive chemotherapy after HMA failure may be a reasonable treatment option for selected patients as a bridge to allogeneic transplantation and should be considered a potential platform for future investigations.
Project description:We hypothesized that IV busulfan (Bu) dosing could be safely intensified through pharmacokinetic (PK-) dose guidance to minimize the inter-patient variability in systemic exposure (SE) associated with body-sized dosing, and that this should improve outcome of AML/MDS patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation. To test this hypothesis, we treated 218 patients (median age 50.7 years, male/female 50/50%) with fludarabine 40?mg/m2 once daily x4, each dose followed by IV Bu, randomized to 130?mg/m2 (N=107) or PK-guided to average daily SE, AUC of 6000??M?min (N=111), stratified for remission status and allo-grafting from HLA-matched donors. Toxicity and GvHD rates in the groups were similar; the risk of relapse or treatment-related mortality remained higher in the fixed-dose group throughout the 80-month observation period. Further, PK-guidance yielded safer disease control, leading to improved overall and PFS, most prominently in MDS patients and in AML patients not in remission at allogeneic stem cell transplantation. We conclude that AML/MDS patients receiving pretransplant conditioning treatment with our 4-day regimen may benefit significantly from PK-guided Bu dosing. This could be considered an alternative to fixed-dose delivery since it provides the benefit of precise dose delivery to a predetermined SE without increasing risk(s) of serious toxicity and/or GvHD.
Project description:PURPOSE:Salvage options for patients who relapse after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (allo-SCT) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplasia (MDS) remain limited, and novel treatment strategies are required. Both lenalidomide (LEN) and azacitidine (AZA) possess significant antitumor activity effect in AML. Administration of LEN post-transplantation is associated with excessive rates of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), but AZA has been shown to ameliorate GVHD in murine transplantation models. We therefore examined the tolerability and activity of combined LEN/AZA administration in post-transplantation relapse. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Twenty-nine patients who had relapsed after allo-SCT for AML (n = 24) or MDS (n = 5) were treated with sequential AZA (75 mg/m2 for 7 days) followed by escalating doses of LEN on days 10 to 30. Dose allocation and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) estimation were guided by a modified Bayesian continuous reassessment method (CRM). RESULTS:Sequential AZA and LEN therapy was well tolerated. The MTD of post-transplantation LEN, in combination with AZA, was determined as 25 mg daily. Three patients developed grade 2 to 4 GVHD. There was no GVHD-related mortality. Seven of 15 (47%) patients achieved a major clinical response after LEN/AZA therapy. CD8+ T cells demonstrated impaired interferon-?/tumor necrosis factor-? production at relapse, which was not reversed during LEN/AZA administration. CONCLUSION:We conclude LEN can be administered safely post-allograft in conjunction with AZA, and this combination demonstrates clinical activity in relapsed AML/MDS without reversing biologic features of T-cell exhaustion. The use of a CRM model delivered improved efficiency in MTD assessment and provided additional flexibility. Combined LEN/AZA therapy represents a novel and active salvage therapy in patients who had relapsed post-allograft.
Project description:Allogeneic stem cell transplantation remains the standard treatment for resistant advanced chronic myeloid leukemia and Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Relapse is the major cause of treatment failure in both diseases. Post-allo-SCT administration of TKIs could potentially reduce relapse rates, but concerns regarding their effect on immune reconstitution have been raised. We aimed to assess immune functions of 12 advanced CML and Ph+ ALL patients who received post-allo-SCT nilotinib. Lymphocyte subpopulations and their functional activities including T-cell response to mitogens, NK cytotoxic activity and thymic function, determined by quantification of the T cell receptor (TCR) excision circles (TREC) and TCR repertoire, were evaluated at several time points, including pre-nilotib-post-allo-SCT, and up to 365 days on nilotinib treatment. NK cells were the first to recover post allo-SCT. Concomitant to nilotinib administration, total lymphocyte counts and subpopulations gradually increased. CD8 T cells were rapidly reconstituted and continued to increase until day 180 post SCT, while CD4 T cells counts were low until 180-270 days post nilotinib treatment. T-cell response to mitogenic stimulation was not inhibited by nilotinib administration. Thymic activity, measured by TREC copies and surface membrane expression of 24 different TCR Vβ families, was evident in all patients at the end of follow-up after allo-SCT and nilotinib treatment. Finally, nilotinib did not inhibit NK cytotoxic activity. In conclusion, administration of nilotinib post allo-SCT, in attempt to reduce relapse rates or progression of Ph+ ALL and CML, did not jeopardize immune reconstitution or function following transplantation.
Project description:Although there are now fewer allo-SCTs performed for CML, leukemic relapse post transplant remains a persistent problem. To better define clinical and biological parameters determining postrelapse outcome, we studied 59 patients with CML relapsing after HLA-identical sibling allo-SCT between 1993 and 2008. Eighteen (30.5%) were transplanted in advanced phase and 41 (69.5%) in chronic phase. With a median follow-up from relapse of 7.9 years, 5-year post relapse survival (PRS) was 62%. Multivariate analysis found disease status at transplant, time to diagnosis of relapse from transplant and pretransplant tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) use as significant factors associated with PRS. Analysis of BCR-ABL transcript expression in the hematopoietic progenitor compartment was performed in 36 patients (22 relapsed, 8 non-relapsed and 6 TKI alone controls). Patients with BCR-ABL expression in their early hematopoietic stem cell compartment (Lineage(-)CD34(+)CD38(-)CD90(+)) had worse survival irrespective of the disease status. We conclude that disease status remains the strongest clinical prognostic factor for PRS in CML following allo-SCT. The persistence of BCR-ABL expression in the progenitor cell compartment in some patients after SCT emphasizes the need to target CML-leukemia stem cells.
Project description:NKp46 is a major determinant of natural killer (NK) cell function and it is implicated in tumor immune surveillance in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of NKp46 expression in an independent cohort of patients with AML, and to investigate the impact of NKp46 on clinical outcome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). NKp46 expression was assessed at diagnosis on NK cells by flow cytometry (N = 180 patients). Clinical outcome was evaluated with regard to NKp46 expression. Patients with NKp46high phenotype at diagnosis had better progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) than patients with NKp46low phenotype (74.3% vs. 46.6%, p = 0.014; 82.6% vs. 57.1%, p = 0.010, respectively). In multivariate analysis, high NKp46 was an independent factor for improved OS (HR = 0.409, p = 0.010) and PFS (HR = 0.335, p = 0.011). Subgroup analysis revealed that allo-SCT had a favorable impact on PFS in patients with NKp46high phenotype (p = 0.025). By contrast, allo-SCT did not impact PFS in patients with low NKp46 expression (p = 0.303). In conclusion, we validate the prognostic value of NKp46 expression at diagnosis in AML. However, the prognostic value of NKp46 expression is limited to patients treated with allo-SCT, thus suggesting that NKp46 status may be predictive for allo-SCT responsiveness.