Intramuscular Administration of Drotaverine Hydrochloride Decreases Both Incidence of Urinary Retention and Time to Micturition in Orthopedic Patients under Spinal Anesthesia: A Single Blinded Randomized Study.
ABSTRACT: Postoperative urinary retention (POUR) increases the duration of hospitalization and frequency and risk of urinary bladder catheterization. The objective of this study was to analyze the efficacy of intramuscularly administered drotaverine hydrochloride in the prevention of POUR in orthopedic patients.Two hundred and thirty patients 17-40 years of age undergoing lower limb orthopedic procedures under spinal anesthesia were enrolled in the study. The study group received 40?mg of drotaverine hydrochloride intramuscularly; the second group was the control. The main outcome measure was (1) the time to micturition and (2) the incidence of urinary bladder catheterization and time to catheterization.Two hundred and one patients of 230 enrolled participants completed the study. Compared to the control group, the male patients in study group exhibited a shorter time to spontaneous micturition (441 versus 563 minutes, 95% CI of the difference of means between 39 and 205 minutes) and a lower incidence of urinary bladder catheterization (4/75 versus 10/54) (RR 0.29, 95% CI: 0.1-0.87; P = 0.0175).Intramuscular administration of drotaverine hydrochloride decreased the time to spontaneous micturition and decreased the incidence of urinary bladder catheterization in male patients who underwent orthopedic surgery under spinal anesthesia. This trial is registered with NCT02026427.
Project description:Background:Postoperative urinary retention (POUR) in total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is common. However, risk factors for POUR and its consequences, specifically on postoperative renal function, have not been well defined. Methods:We performed a review of prospectively collected data on consecutive adult patients undergoing primary total joint arthroplasty from August 2014 to December 2015. Catheters were placed preoperatively and removed on the first or second postoperative day. The exclusion criterion was traumatic catheter insertion or the presence of fracture or neoplasm. Univariate and multiple logistic regression identified associations with POUR and its invasive therapies. Subgroup analysis of renal function by incidence of preoperative bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) and POUR was performed with nonparametric testing. Results:A total of 591 operations met inclusion criteria. The incidence of POUR was 6.4% and was directly related to a positive history of BOO (odds ratio [OR]: 4.15) and increased the duration of urinary catheterization (OR: 1.04). These factors, in addition to preoperative incontinence (OR: 8.36, 28.69) and lengthier hospitalizations (OR: 1.37, 1.30), were significantly associated with intermittent straight catheterization and reinsertion of an indwelling catheter to treat POUR. Serum creatinine increased with combined preoperative BOO and POUR (+0.22 mg/dL) but was preserved in others (+0.02-0.04 mg/dL) (P < 0.01). Conclusions:Preoperative BOO and longer catheterization increased the risk of POUR and were associated with the use of invasive modalities to treat POUR. POUR was associated with a longer hospitalization and impaired renal function in those with preoperative BOO; therefore, renal function should be monitored closely and nephrotoxic medications used cautiously when using urinary catheters in this patient population. Level of Evidence:Retrospective Analysis, Level IV.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Thoracic epidural analgesia is associated with a high rate of postoperative urine retention (POUR). Auriculotherapy can reduce visceral dysfunction and can be helpful in anesthesiology and pain control. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of preoperative auriculotherapy to decrease the occurrence of POUR. METHODS:This single-center, double-blinded, 2-arm randomized study was performed between January 2015 and May 2016 in a tertiary care university hospital. Male patients scheduled for an elective lung surgical procedure under combined general anesthesia and thoracic epidural analgesia were included. Auriculotherapy (A group) was performed once the patient was under general anesthesia with 5 semi-permanent needles inserted in both ears at the "Shen Men" "bladder", "pelvic parasympathetic", "anterior hypothalamus", and "frontal lobe" points. Five small round patches of adhesive pads were positioned bilaterally at the same points in the control group (C group). The main outcome measure was the requirement for bladder catheterization during the day and the first night following surgery. RESULTS:Fifty-three patients were randomized and 25 analyzed in each group. Requirement for bladder catheterization was different between groups: 24 C group patients (96%) and 18 A group patients (72%) (P = .049, Fisher exact test; Odds Ratio = 0.11 [0.01-0.95]. The number of patients needed to treat with auriculotherapy to avoid 1 case of bladder catheterization was 4. No adverse effect was observed due to auriculotherapy. CONCLUSION:This study demonstrates that auriculotherapy is a safe and useful technique reducing POUR in thoracotomy patients benefiting from thoracic epidural analgesia. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02290054 (November 13, 2014).
Project description:The purpose of this study is to compare the rates of urinary tract infection (UTI) and postoperative urinary retention (POUR) in patients undergoing lower limb arthroplasty after either indwelling urinary catheterization or intermittent urinary catheterization.We conducted a meta-analysis of relevant randomized controlled trials (RCT) to compare the rates of UTI and POUR in patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty after either indwelling urinary catheterization or intermittent urinary catheterization. A comprehensive search was carried out to identify RCTs. Study-specific risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were pooled. Additionally, a meta-regression analysis, as well as a sensitivity analysis, was performed to evaluate the heterogeneity.Nine RCTs with 1771 patients were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the rate of UTIs between indwelling catheterization and intermittent catheterization groups (P>0.05). Moreover, indwelling catheterization reduced the risk of POUR, versus intermittent catheterization, in total joint surgery (P<0.01).Based on the results of the meta-analysis, indwelling urinary catheterization, removed 24-48 h postoperatively, was superior to intermittent catheterization in preventing POUR. Furthermore, indwelling urinary catheterization with removal 24 to 48 hours postoperatively did not increase the risk of UTI. In patients with multiple risk factors for POUR undergoing total joint arthroplasty of lower limb, the preferred option should be indwelling urinary catheterization removed 24-48 h postoperatively.Level I.
Project description:Background:Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) was considered the golden standard to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) for decades. However, TURP was associated with low efficiency to alleviate the lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and a significantly higher risk of bladder neck contracture (BNC) for patients with small-volume BPH. Our study aims to compare the therapeutic effect of a transurethral split of the prostate (TUSP) with TURP for patients with small-volume BPH (<30 mL). Methods:In this study, 101 small-volume BPH patients were randomly divided into two groups (TUSP and TURP group). The patient's baseline characteristics and perioperative outcomes were recorded. The follow-up was done at six months, one year and two years after surgical treatment. Results:No significant differences were observed between the two groups for the baseline characteristics, including age, prostate volume, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, concurrent disease, post-void residual (PVR), maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), international prostate symptoms score (IPSS), and quality of life (QoL) score. The operative time and hemoglobin decrease were significantly lower in the TUSP group compared to the TURP group. However, no significant differences were observed between both groups for catheterization time, postoperative hospital stay, and incidence of transurethral resection syndrome (TURS). However, of the late complications, the incidence of BNC in the TUSP group was significantly lower than the TURP group. No significant differences were found between both groups for other complications, including postoperative bleeding, micturition urgency, micturition frequency, micturition pain, urinary tract infection, recatheterization, transient incontinence, and continuous incontinence. Follow-up results showed that the IPSS of the TUSP group was significantly lower than the TURP group, while the Qmax of the TUSP group was significantly higher than the TURP group. Conclusions:This study shows that TUSP may be an efficient and safe treatment for small-volume BPH (<30 mL) with a lower incidence of postoperative BNC and better longtime clinical outcomes than TURP. It suggested that TUSP could be an ideal treatment choice for small-volume BPH.
Project description:Catheter-related bladder discomfort (CRBD) is a common distressing symptom complex during the postoperative period, especially after urologic procedures with a relatively greater size urinary catheter. In this study, we will enroll male patients undergoing elective prostate surgery with urinary catheterization under general anesthesia, and we will compare the efficacy of pudendal nerve block (PNB) and intravenous tramadol in CRBD prevention.This trial is a prospective, randomized controlled trial that will test the superiority of bilateral PNB with 0.33 % ropivacaine compared with intravenous tramadol 1.5 mg/kg for CRBD prevention. A total of 94 male patients undergoing elective prostate surgery with urinary catheterization after anesthesia induction will be randomized to receive either bilateral PNB with 0.33 % ropivacaine (the PNB group) or intravenous tramadol 1.5 mg/kg (the tramadol group) after the completion of surgery. The primary outcome is the incidence of CRBD. The most important secondary outcome is the severity of postoperative CRBD, and other secondary outcomes include Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) score for postoperative pain; incidence of postoperative side effects such as postoperative nausea/vomiting, sedation, dizziness, and dry mouth; postoperative requirement for tramadol as a rescue treatment for CRBD and sufentanil as a rescue analgesic for postoperative pain; and NRS score for acceptance of an indwelling urinary catheter.This trial is planned to test the superiority of PNB with 0.33 % ropivacaine compared with intravenous tramadol 1.5 mg/kg. It may provide a basis for a new clinical practice for the prevention of CRBD.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02683070 . Registered on 11 February 2016.
Project description:AIMS:Post-operative urinary retention (POUR) is a common cause of unplanned admission following day-case surgery and has negative effects on both patient and surgical institution. We aimed to prospectively evaluate potential risk factors for the development of POUR following day-case general surgical procedures. METHODS:Over a 24-week period, consecutive adult patients undergoing elective day-case general surgery at a single institution were prospectively recruited. Data regarding urinary symptoms, comorbidities, drug history, surgery and perioperative anaesthetic drug use were collected. The primary outcome was the incidence of POUR, defined as an impairment of bladder voiding requiring either urethral catheterisation, unplanned overnight admission or both. Potential risk factors for the development of POUR were analysed by logistic regression. RESULTS:A total of 458 patients met the inclusion criteria during the study period, and data were collected on 382 (83%) patients (74.3% male). Sixteen patients (4.2%) experienced POUR. Unadjusted analysis demonstrated three significant risk factors for the development of POUR: age???56 years (OR 7.77 [2.18-27.78], p?=?0.002), laparoscopic surgery (OR 3.37 [1.03-12.10], p?=?0.044) and glycopyrrolate administration (OR 5.56 [2.00-15.46], p?=?0.001). Male sex and lower urinary tract symptoms were not significant factors. Multivariate analysis combining type of surgery, age and glycopyrrolate use revealed that only age???56 years (OR 8.14 [2.18-30.32], p?=?0.0018) and glycopyrrolate administration (OR 3.48 [1.08-11.24], p?=?0.0370) were independently associated with POUR. CONCLUSIONS:Patients aged at least 56 years and/or requiring glycopyrrolate-often administered during laparoscopic procedures-are at increased risk of POUR following ambulatory general surgery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Epidural catheters are state of the art for postoperative analgesic in abdominal surgery. Due to neurolysis it can lead to postoperative urinary tract retention (POUR), which leads to prolonged bladder catheterization, which has an increased risk for urinary tract infections (UTI). Our aim was to identify the current perioperative management of urinary catheters and, second, to identify the optimal time of suprapubic bladder catheter removal in regard to the removal of the epidural catheter. METHODS:We sent a questionnaire to 102 German hospitals and analyzed the 83 received answers to evaluate the current handling of bladder drainage and epidural catheters. Then, we conducted a retrospective study including 501 patients, who received an epidural and suprapubic catheter after abdominal surgery at the University Hospital Würzburg. We divided the patients into three groups according to the point in time of suprapubic bladder drainage removal in regard to the removal of the epidural catheter and analyzed the onset of a UTI. RESULTS:Our survey showed that in almost all hospitals (98.8%), patients received an epidural catheter and a bladder drainage after abdominal surgery. The point in time of urinary catheter removal was equally distributed between before, simultaneously and after the removal of the epidural catheter (respectively: ~28-29%). The retrospective study showed a catheter-associated UTI in 6.7%. Women were affected significantly more often than men (10,7% versus 2,5%, p<0.001). There was a non-significant trend to more UTIs when the suprapubic catheter was removed after the epidural catheter (before: 5.7%, after: 8.4%). CONCLUSION:The point in time of suprapubic bladder drainage removal in relation to the removal of the epidural catheter does not seem to correlate with the rate of UTIs. The current handling in Germany is inhomogeneous, so further studies to standardize treatment are recommended.
Project description:Catheter-related bladder discomfort (CRBD) is a distressing symptom complex after surgery, especially in male patients who have had urinary catheterization under general anesthesia. In this prospective, randomized, controlled trial, we compared dorsal penile nerve block (DPNB) with 0.33% ropivacaine with intravenous tramadol 1.5?mg?kg(-1) in prevention of CRBD, as well as the incidences of postoperative side effects. Fifty-eight male patients aged 18 to 50 years, undergoing elective liver surgery and limb surgery with urinary catheterization, were enrolled and divided randomly into 2 groups. In the DPNB group, patients were given dorsal penile nerve block with 15?mL of 0.33% ropivacaine, and in the tramadol intravenous administration (TRAM) group, patients were given 1.5?mg?kg(-1) tramadol after the completion of surgery before extubation. The primary outcome was the incidence of CRBD, and the secondary outcomes included the severity of CRBD, postoperative side effects, postoperative pain, and the acceptance of urinary catheterization. Patients were evaluated upon arrival to postanesthetic care unit (PACU), at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6?hours after patients' arrival in the PACU for outcomes. The incidence of CRBD was significantly lower in the DPNB group than in the TRAM group, either upon arrival to PACU (10.3% vs 37.9%, P?=?0.015), or at 0.5?hours (3.4% vs 34.5%, P?=?0.003), 1?hours (3.4% vs 37.9%, P?=?0.001), 2?hours (6.9% vs 34.5%, P?=?0.010), and 4?hours (6.9% vs 27.6%, P?=?0.039) after patients' arrival in PACU. Compared with the TRAM group, the severity of postoperative CRBD upon arrival to PACU (P?=?0.011) and at 0.5?hours (P?=?0.005), 1?hours (P?=?0.002), 2?hours (P?=?0.005), 4?hours (P?=?0.017), and 6?hours (P?=?0.047) after patients' arrival in PACU were all significantly reduced in the DPNB group. The incidences of postoperative nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and sedation were decreased significantly in the DPNB group compared with the TRAM group (P?<?0.05). The acceptance of urinary catheterization was 93.1% (27/29 patients) in the DPNB group and 58.6% (17/29 patients) in the TRAM group, respectively (P?<?0.001).DPNB with ropivacaine has a better effect for CRBD reduction and less side effects than intravenous tramadol administration. The trial has been registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01721031).
Project description:Purpose: To evaluate the effects of dezocine on the prevention of postoperative catheter-related bladder discomfort (CRBD). Patients and methods: Ninety-six adult patients undergoing abdominal surgery with urinary catheterization under general anesthesia were randomized into dezocine and control (flurbiprofen) groups. The postoperative CRBD, pain score, sedation score and adverse effects were evaluated at 0, 1, 2 and 6 hrs after tracheal extubation. Results: The primary outcome showed a lower incidence of CRBD at 1 hr post-extubation in the dezocine group (29.17%) than the control group (58.33%, P<0.01). The incidences at 0 and 2 hrs post-extubation and the overall incidence were also lower in the dezocine group than the control group (all P<0.05). The severity of CRBD at 0, 1, 2 and 6 hrs and the pain, sedation score and other adverse effects were comparable between the two groups (P>0.05); however, the overall severity of CRBD was decreased in the dezocine group compared with the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Intraoperative dezocine reduces the incidence and severity of postoperative CRBD without clinically relevant adverse effects.
Project description:The storage and periodic elimination of urine, termed micturition, requires a complex neural control system to coordinate the activities of the urinary bladder, urethra, and urethral sphincters. At the level of the lumbosacral spinal cord, lower urinary tract reflex mechanisms are modulated by supraspinal controls with mechanosensory input from the urothelium, resulting in regulation of bladder contractile activity. The specific identity of the mechanical sensor is not yet known, but considerable interest exists in the contribution of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels to the mechanosensory functions of the urothelium. The sensory, transduction, and signalling properties of the urothelium can influence adjacent urinary bladder tissues including the suburothelial nerve plexus, interstitial cells of Cajal, and detrusor smooth muscle cells. Diverse stimuli, including those that activate TRP channels expressed by the urothelium, can influence urothelial release of chemical mediators (such as ATP). Changes to the urothelium are associated with a number of bladder pathologies that underlie urinary bladder dysfunction. Urothelial receptor and/or ion channel expression and the release of signalling molecules (such as ATP and nitric oxide) can be altered with bladder disease, neural injury, target organ inflammation, or psychogenic stress. Urothelial receptors and channels represent novel targets for potential therapies that are intended to modulate micturition function or bladder sensation.