TLR2 and TLR4 polymorphisms influence mRNA and protein expression in colorectal cancer.
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of promoter region polymorphisms of toll-like receptor (TLR)2-196 to -174del and TLR4-1607T/C (rs10759932) on mRNA and protein expression in tumor tissue and of TLR4+896A/G (rs4986790) on colorectal cancer (CRC) risk.The TLR2-196 to -174del polymorphism was investigated using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the TLR4-1607T/C and TLR4+896A/G by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). We genotyped 434 DNA samples from 194 CRC patients and 240 healthy individuals. The mRNA relative quantification (RQ) was performed in 40 tumor tissue samples by quantitative PCR TaqMan assay, using specific probes for TLR2 and TLR4 genes, and ACTB and GAPDH reference genes were used as endogenous controls. Protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry with specific primary antibodies.No association was found for TLR4-1607T/C and TLR4+896A/G by three statistical models (log-additive, dominant and recessive). However, based on dominant and log-additive models, the polymorphic variant TLR2-196 to -174del was associated with increased CRC risk [dominant: odds ratio (OR) = 1.72, 95%CI: 1.03-2.89; P = 0.038 and log-additive: OR =1.59, 95%CI: 1.02-2.48; P = 0.039]. TLR2 mRNA expression was increased in tumor tissue (RQ = 2.36) when compared to adjacent normal tissue (RQ = 1; P < 0.0001), whereas the TLR4 mRNA showed a basal expression (RQ = 0.74 vs RQ = 1, P = 0.452). Immunohistochemistry analysis of TLR2 and TLR4 protein expression was concordant with the findings of mRNA expression. In addition, the TLR2-196 to -174del variant carriers showed mRNA relative expression 2.19 times higher than wild-genotype carriers. The TLR2 protein expression was also higher for the TLR2-196 to -174del variant carriers [117 ± 10 arbitrary unit (a.u.) vs 95 ± 4 a.u., P = 0.03]. However, for the TLR4 -1607T/C polymorphism no significant difference was found for both mRNA (P = 0.56) and protein expression (P = 0.26).Our findings suggest that TLR2-196 to -174del polymorphism increases TLR2 mRNA expression and is associated with higher CRC risk, indicating an important role in CRC genetic susceptibility.
Project description:Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play essential role in innate and acquired immunity, are expressed in various cell types, and are associated with altered susceptibility to many diseases, and cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate TLR2 (-196 to-174del), TLR4 (Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile) and TLR9 (T1237C and T1486C) gene polymorphisms at risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) development and progression.Peripheral blood was obtained from 397 patients with adjuvant (stage II/III, n = 202) and metastatic (n = 195) CRC. Moreover, blood samples from 50 healthy volunteers and 40 patients with adenomatous polyps were also included as control groups. DNA from patients and controls was analyzed using PCR and PCR-RFLP for genotyping functional polymorphism within TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 genotypes.TLR2-196 to-174del/del genotype was detected in 76.6% of the patients and was significantly higher that the controls groups (p<0.001). TLR4 Asp299Gly, TLR4 Thr399Ile, TLR9 T1237C and T1486C homozygous genotypes were detected in 70.5%, 70.5%, 61.5% and 61.5% of the patients respectively, and were also significantly higher than that in the control groups (p<0.001). All polymorphisms detected were also significantly associated with the metastatic disease (p<0.001) leading to shorter overall survival (p<0.001); whereas, TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms were significantly associated with KRAS mutations.The detection of higher frequencies of the TLR2, TLR4 and/or TLR9 polymorphisms in CRC patients compared with the control groups highlight the role of these polymorphism in CRC development and cancer progression.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) is responsible for recognizing Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and activating the immune response. Polymorphisms in TLR2 may modulate gastric carcinogenesis. AIM:To evaluate whether the TLR2 19216T/C (rs3804099) and TLR2 -196 to -174 ins/del (rs111200466) polymorphisms contribute to gastric carcinogenesis in the Brazilian population, and to determine the influence of both polymorphisms and H. pylori infection on TLR2 mRNA expression. METHODS:DNA was extracted from 854 peripheral blood leukocyte or gastric tissue samples [202 gastric cancer (GC), 269 chronic gastritis (CG), and 383 control/healthy (C)] and genotyped by allele-specific PCR or restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-PCR. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction by TaqMan® assay was used to quantify TLR2 mRNA levels in fresh gastric tissues (48 GC, 36 CG, and 14 C). RESULTS:Regarding the TLR2 -196 to -174 polymorphism, the ins/del and del/del genotypes were associated with a higher risk of GC by comparison with the C in all of the analyzed inheritance models (codominant, dominant, recessive, overdominant and log-additive; P < 0.0001). Similarly, an increased risk was observed when comparing the GC and CG groups [codominant (P < 0.0001), dominant (P < 0.0001), recessive (P = 0.0260), overdominant (P < 0.0001) and log-additive (P < 0.0001)]. In contrast, TLR2 19216T/C was associated with a protective effect in the GC group compared to the C group [dominant (P = 0.0420) and log-additive (P = 0.0300)]. Regarding the association of polymorphisms with H. pylori infection, individuals infected with H. pylori and harboring the TLR2 -196 to -174 ins/del polymorphism had an increased risk of gastric carcinogenesis [codominant (P = 0.0120), dominant (P = 0.0051), overdominant (P = 0.0240) and log-additive (P = 0.0030)], while TLR2 19216T/C was associated with a protective effect [codominant (P = 0.0039), dominant (P < 0.0001), overdominant (P = 0.0097) and log-additive (P = 0.0021)]. TLR2 mRNA levels were significantly increased in the GC group (median RQ = 6.95) compared to the CG group (RQ = 0.84, P < 0.0001) and to the normal mucosa group (RQ = 1.0). In addition, both H. pylori infection (P < 0.0001) and the presence of the polymorphic TLR2 -196 to -174del (P = 0.0010) and TLR2 19216 C (P = 0.0004) alleles influenced TLR2 mRNA expression. CONCLUSION:The TLR2 -196 to -174 ins/del and TLR2 19216 T/C polymorphisms are strongly associated with GC. TLR2 mRNA expression levels are upregulated in neoplastic tissues and influenced by both the presence of H. pylori and variant genotypes.
Project description:To investigate toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) -196 to -174 del, and TLR4 (+896A/G rs4986790 and +1196C/T rs4986791) polymorphisms at risk of chronic gastritis and gastric cancer in a Brazilian population and association of gastric lesions with risk factors such as smoking, alcohol intake and Helicobacter pylori infection.In this case-control study, polymorphism at TLR2 -196 to -174 del was investigated by using the allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, while the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique was carried out to identify the TLR4 (rs4986790 and rs4986791) genotypes in 607 Brazilian individuals (208 with chronic gastritis-CG, 174 with gastric cancer-GC and 225 controls -C).The single nucleotide polymorphisms TLR4+1196C/T was not associated with risk of chronic gastritis or gastric cancer and the homozygous genotypes TLR4+896GG and TLR4+1196TT were absent in the studied population. However, the frequency of TLR2 -196 to -174 ins/del + del/del and TLR4+896AG genotypes was significantly higher (P < 0.01 and P = 0.01, respectively) in the cancer group (33.4% and 11.5%, respectively) than in the control group (16.9% and 4.5%, respectively). It was also observed that the G-C haplotype of the TLR4+896A/G+1196C/T (P = 0.02) and the combination of variant alleles of the TLR2/TLR4+896G (P = 0.02) are associated with susceptibility to gastric cancer. In addition, the multiple logistic regression showed that male gender [odds ratio (OR) = 2.70; 95% CI: 1.66-4.41; P < 0.01], alcohol intake (OR = 2.93; 95% CI: 1.76-4.87; P < 0.01), TLR2 -196 to -174 del (OR = 2.64; 95% CI: 1.56-4.44; P < 0.01) and TLR4+896G (OR = 3.19; 95% CI: 1.34- 7.61; P < 0.01) polymorphisms were associated with a higher susceptibility to developing this neoplasm.Our data indicate that TLR2 -196 to -174 del and TLR4+896G may increase the risk of gastric cancer in a Brazilian population.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In addition to Helicobacter pylori infection, host genetic factors contribute to gastric cancer (GC). Recognition of H. pylori is known to involve Toll-like receptors (TLR), which subsequently leads to activation of NF-?B. Thus, the overall aim of this study was to estimate for the first time the pooled effect size of polymorphisms in TLR2, TLR4 and CD14 on GC development through a meta-analysis.<h4>Methods</h4>A case-control study comprising 284 ethnic Chinese individuals (70 non-cardia GC cases and 214 functional dyspepsia controls) was conducted for the genotyping of TLR2 -196 to -174del, CD14 -260 C/T and TLR4 rs11536889 using PCR, RT-PCR and mass spectrometry. Case-control studies of TLR2, TLR4 and CD14 polymorphisms and GC were searched up to June 2012. Pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were obtained by means of the random effects model.<h4>Results</h4>In our ethnic Chinese case-control study, the TLR4 rs11536889 C allele increased the risk of GC (OR: 1.89, 95%CI: 1.23-2.92) while the CD14 -260 T allele was protective (OR: 0.62, 95%CI: 0.42-0.91). TLR2 -196 to -174 increased the risk of GC only in H. pylori-infected individuals (OR: 3.10, 95%CI: 1.27-7.60). In the meta-analysis, TLR4 Asp299Gly showed borderline results in the general analysis (pooled OR: 1.58, 95%CI: 0.98-2.60), nevertheless, stratified analysis by ethnicity showed that the mutant allele was a definitive risk factor for GC in Western populations (pooled OR: 1.87, 95%CI: 1.31-2.65). There was a potential association between the TLR2 -196 to -174 deletion allele and GC in Japanese (pooled OR: 1.18, 95%CI: 0.96-1.45). TLR4 Thr399Ile did not provide significant results.<h4>Conclusions</h4>TLR4 rs11536889 and CD14 -260 C/T are associated with non-cardia GC in Chinese. Based on our meta-analysis, the TLR signalling pathway is involved in gastric carcinogenesis, TLR4 Asp299Gly and TLR2 -196 to -174del showing associations with GC in an ethnic-specific manner.
Project description:Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns and activate innate and adaptive immune responses. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the TLR genes may influence host-pathogen interactions and can have an impact on the progression of infectious diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the genotype distribution of TLR2 (2029C/T, rs121917864; 2258G/A, rs5743708), TLR4 (896A/G, rs4986790), and TLR9 (- 1237T/C, rs5743836; - 1486T/C, rs187084; 1174G/A, rs352139; and 2848C/T, rs352140) polymorphisms in 149 children and adolescents with infectious mononucleosis (IM) and 140 healthy individuals. The potential association of TLR SNPs with the clinical manifestations of EBV infection was also studied. The presence of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 SNPs was identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). EBV DNA loads were detected by quantitative real-time PCR assay. The TLR4 896 GG and the TLR9 1174 GA genotypes were associated with an increased risk of EBV-related IM in examined patients (p?=?0.014 and p?=?0.001, respectively). The heterozygous genotype of the TLR4 896A/G SNP was associated with an increased risk of elevated liver enzyme levels and leukocytosis (p?<?0.05). Our preliminary study revealed that the TLR4 896A/G and the TLR9 1174G/A polymorphisms seem to be related to the course of acute EBV infection in children and adolescents.
Project description:Chlamydia trachomatis infections demonstrate remarkable differences in clinical course that are approximately 40% based on host genetic variation. Here, we study the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their haplotypes in TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 (TLR2 +2477G>A; TLR2 -16934T>A; TLR4+896A>G; TLR9 -1237T>C and TLR9 +2848G>A) in relation to the susceptibility to, and severity of C. trachomatis infections. We analysed the five SNPs in a cohort of 770 Dutch Caucasian women either attending a sexually transmitted diseases outpatient clinic (n = 731) or having complaints of subfertility (n = 39). Haplotype analyses showed a trend for TLR2 haplotype I (-16934T/+2477G) to protect against the development of symptoms and tubal pathology (Ptrend = 0.03) after Chlamydia infection. In the susceptibility cohort, TLR9 haplotype III (-1237C/+2848A) showed a significant decreasing trend in the development of symptoms after C. trachomatis infection (P = 0.02, OR: 0.55, 95%CI: 0.33-0.91). Logistic regression of the TLR2 haplotypes, TLR4+896A>G, and TLR9 haplotypes showed that the TLR2 haplotype combinations AG-TA and AG-TG confer risk (OR 3.4 (P = 0.01) and 1.6 (P = 0.03)), while the TLR9 haplotype combination TG-TA protects against C. trachomatis infections (OR: 0.4, P = 0.004). Our study shows that both TLR2 and TLR9 genes and SNP combinations do influence the clinical course of Chlamydia infections.
Project description:Relationship between Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) and cancer risk has been illustrated in some studies, but their conclusions are inconsistent. Therefore, we designed this meta-analysis to explore a more accurate conclusion of whether TLR2 affects cancer risks. Articles were retrieved from various literature databases according to the criteria. We used STATA to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) to evaluate the relationship between certain polymorphism of TLR2 and cancer risk. Finally, 47 case-control studies met the criteria, comprising 15851 cases and 21182 controls. In the overall analysis, people are more likely to get cancer because of -196 to -174del in TLR2 in all five genetic models, B vs. A (OR = 1.468, 95% Cl = 1.129-1.91, P=0.005); BB vs. AA (OR = 1.716, 95% Cl = 1.178-2.5, P=0.005); BA vs. AA (OR = 1.408, 95% Cl = 1.092-1.816, P=0.008); BB+BA vs. AA (OR = 1.449, 95% Cl = 1.107-1.897, P=0.007); BB vs. BA+AA (OR = 1.517, 95% Cl = 1.092-2.107, P=0.013). Meanwhile, rs4696480 could significantly increase the risk of cancer in Caucasians, furthermore, rs3804099 significantly decreased cancer risk in overall analysis, but more subjects are necessary to confirm the results. All in all, this meta-analysis revealed that not only -196 to -174del increased the risk of among overall cancers, Caucasians are more likely to get cancer because of rs4696480, while rs3804099 polymorphism could reduce the risk of cancer in some genetic models. There is no direct evidence showing that rs5743708, rs3804100 and rs1898830 are related to cancer.
Project description:Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a multifactorial disease with complex interplay between multiple genetic variants. We performed Classification and Regression Tree Analysis (CART) and Grade of Membership (GoM) analysis to identify combinations of alleles among the DNA repair, inflammatory and apoptotic pathway genetic variants in modifying the risk for GBC. We analyzed 16 polymorphisms in 8 genes involved in DNA repair, apoptotic and inflammatory pathways to find out combinations of genetic variants contributing to GBC risk. The genes included in the study were XRCC1, OGG1, ERCC2, MSH2, CASP8, TLR2, TLR4 and PTGS2. Single locus analysis by logistic regression showed association of MSH2 IVS1+9G>C (rs2303426), ERCC2 Asp312Asn (rs1799793), OGG1 Ser326Cys (rs1052133), OGG1 IVS4-15C>G (rs2072668), CASP8 -652 6N ins/del (rs3834129), PTGS2 -1195G>A (rs689466), PTGS2 -765G>C (rs20417), TLR4 Ex4+936C>T (rs4986791) and TLR2 -196 to -174del polymorphisms with GBC risk. The CART analysis revealed OGG1 Ser326Cys, and OGG1 IVS4-15C>G polymorphisms as the best polymorphic signature for discriminating between cases and controls. In the GoM analysis, the data was categorized into six sets representing risk for GBC with respect to the investigated polymorphisms. Sets I, II and III described low intrinsic risk (controls) characterized by multiple protective alleles while sets IV, V and VI represented high intrinsic risk groups (GBC cases) characterized by the presence of multiple risk alleles. The CART and GoM analyses also showed the importance of PTGS2 -1195G>A polymorphism in susceptibility to GBC risk. In conclusion, the present multigenic approach can be used to define individual risk profiles for gallbladder cancer in North Indian population.
Project description:<h4>Backgrounds</h4>The activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) may be an important event in the immune evasion of tumor cell. Recently, numerous studies have investigated the associations between TLR2 -196 to -174 del and two SNPs of TLR4 (rs4986790 and rs4986791) and the susceptibility to different types of cancer; however, the results remain conflicting. The aim of this study was to assess the association between TLR2 and TLR4 polymorphisms and cancer risk in a meta-analysis with eligible published studies.<h4>Methodology/principle findings</h4>A dataset composed of 14627 cases and 17438 controls from 34 publications were included in a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between overall cancer risk or cancer-specific risk and three SNPs of TLRs (TLR2 -196 to -174 del, TLR4 rs4986790 and rs4986791). The results showed that all of these three polymorphisms were significantly associated with the increased cancer risk (dominant model: OR?=?1.64, 95% CI: 1.04-2.60 for TLR2 -196 to -174 del; OR?=?1.19, 95% CI: 1.01-1.41 for TLR4 rs4986790; and OR?=?1.47, 95% CI: 1.120-1.80 for TLR4 rs4986791; respectively). In stratified analysis, we found the effect of TLR2 -196 to -174 del on cancer risk remained significant in the subgroup of Caucasians and South Asians, but not in East Asians. However, the association between rs4986791 and cancer risk was significant in both South Asians and East Asians, but not in Caucasians. Furthermore, the association between rs4986790 and cancer risk was statistically significant in digestive cancers (dominant model: OR?=?1.76, 95% CI: 1.13-2.73) and female-specific cancers (dominant model: OR?=?1.50, 95% CI: 1.16-1.94). However, no significant association with risk of digestive system cancers was observed for TLR2 -196 to -174 del and TLR4 rs4986791.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>This meta-analysis presented additional evidence for the association between TLR2 and TLR4 polymorphisms and cancer risk. Further well-designed investigations with large sample sizes are required to confirm this conclusion.
Project description:Studies have demonstrated that TLR4 and TLR2 expression by monocytes and the blood levels of TLR4 and TLR2 ligand in diabetic patients are significantly incased compared to nondiabetic patients, indicating that more monocytes in diabetic patients may have coactivation of TLR4 and TLR2. Although it has been shown that either TLR4 or TLR2 activation leads to increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines, the effect of coactivation of TLR2 and TLR4 in mononuclear cells on proinflammatory cytokine expression and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we found that while TLR1, TLR2, TLR4 and TLR6 were expressed by U937 mononuclear cells, TLR4 was expressed at the highest level. Interestingly, results showed that while activation of either TLR4 or TLR2/6 (TLR2dimerized with TLR6), but not TLR2/1 (TLR2dimerized with TLR1), significantly increased IL-6 expression by U937 mononuclear cells, coactivation of TLR4 and TLR2/6, but not TLR4 and TLR2/1, led to a further augmentation on IL-6 expression by increasing IL-6 transcriptional activity, but not mRNA stability. To explore the signaling mechanisms involved in the augmentation, we found that p38MAPK and NF?B pathways, but not ERK and JNK pathways, were required for the augmentation of IL-6 expression by coactivation of TLR4 and TLR2/6. Furthermore, we found that coactivation of TLR4 and TLR2/6 increased p38 phosphorylation, but not NFkB activity, as compared to activation of TLR4or TLR2/6 alone. Taken together, this study showed that coactivation of TLR4 and TLR2/6 coordinates an additive augmentation of IL-6 gene transcription via p38MAPK pathway in U937 mononuclear cells.