Is it time for bed? Short sleep duration increases risk of obesity in Mexican American children.
ABSTRACT: Cross-sectional studies show that sleep is related to childhood obesity. We aimed to examine the longitudinal impact of sleep on the risk of obesity in Mexican American children.We evaluated 229 Mexican American 8-10-year-olds and their mothers at baseline and at 12- and 24-month follow-ups. Sleep duration and anthropometrics were collected. Age- and gender-specific body mass index (BMI) z-scores (BMIz) were calculated based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. Sleep duration was estimated using accelerometry. Children were also categorized as long or short sleepers, using the National Sleep Foundation's recommendation to define adequate sleep duration (10-11?h for 5-12-year-olds). Using linear regressions, we examined whether sleep duration predicted BMIz, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and weight gain at 24 months.Children were mostly short sleepers (82%). Children who slept less were more likely to have a higher BMIz, WHtR, and weight gain at the 24-month follow-up (??=?-0.07, P?=?0.01; ??=?-0.11, P?<0.01; and ??=?-0.14, P?=?0.02, respectively), after controlling for baseline weight status, child gender, maternal BMI, and occupation.In Mexican American children, shorter sleep duration at baseline was associated with increased weight status over 24 months.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Published evidence suggests an inverse association between sleep duration and body weight status.<h4>Objective</h4>We examined the association of sleep duration with eating behaviors reported by adult Americans to understand the relation between sleep duration and body weight status.<h4>Design</h4>This cross-sectional study used sleep duration and dietary data from the continuous NHANES conducted from 2005 to 2010 (n = 15,199, age ?20 y). Eating behaviors examined included the following: reporting of and energy from main meals (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) and snacks (before breakfast, after dinner, and after 2000 h), intermeal intervals, time of day of main meal reporting, and intakes of macronutrients and beverages. Multiple regression methods were used to examine the independent association of hours of sleep duration grouped as short (?6 h), average (7-8 h), and long (?9 h) with eating behavior outcomes.<h4>Results</h4>Relative to average-duration sleepers, a smaller percentage of short-duration sleepers mentioned breakfast, lunch (women only), and dinner in the recall (P ? 0.04). They also reported a lower mean percentage of energy from main meals but higher energy from all snacks (P ? 0.0004) and after 2000 h (P = 0.03). Short-duration sleepers reported the earliest eating time of the first episode and the latest time of the last eating episode. Absolute amounts of sugar and caffeine and percentage of energy from beverages (women only) were higher in short-duration sleepers. However, the total number of eating episodes and energy intake were not related with sleep duration.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Short-duration sleepers began eating earlier and ended their eating later in the day, but despite the longer eating period, they did not report more eating events. Profiles of the relative contribution of main meals and snacks, at or after 2000 h eating, and beverages in short-duration sleepers were suggestive of eating behaviors that may increase energy intake, but 24-h energy intake did not differ among categories of sleep duration.
Project description:STUDY OBJECTIVES:We examine the association between self-reported sleep duration and diabetes incidence in a national sample of American Indians/ Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) with prediabetes. METHODS:Data were derived from the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention demonstration project. This longitudinal analysis included 1,899 participants with prediabetes recruited between January 1, 2006 and July 31, 2009 who reported sleep duration and completed all 16 classes of the lifestyle intervention consisting of diet, exercise, and behavior modification sessions to promote weight loss. Three years of follow-up data were included to fit Cox regression models to compute hazard ratios (HRs) for diabetes incidence across sleep duration categories. RESULTS:The crude diabetes incidence rate was 4.6 per 100 person-years among short sleepers (? 6 h per night) compared to 3.2 among those sleeping 7 h and 3.3 among those sleeping 8 h or more. After adjustment for age and sex, short sleep (? 6 h vs. others) was associated with increased diabetes risk (HR 1.55 [95% confidence interval 1.11-2.17]); risk remained significantly elevated after controlling for socioeconomic characteristics, health behaviors, and health status. When adjusting for body mass index and percent weight loss, the short sleep-diabetes relationship was attenuated (HR 1.32 [95% confidence interval 0.92-1.89]). No significant long sleep-diabetes association was found. Further, short sleepers lost significantly less weight than others (3.7% vs. 4.3%, P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS:Short sleep duration, but not long duration, was significantly associated with increased diabetes risk and less weight loss among AI/ANs in a lifestyle intervention. Further exploration of the complex factors underlying short sleep duration is warranted.
Project description:Common genetic variants predispose to obesity with varying contribution by age. We incorporated known genetic variants into genetic risk scores (GRSs) and investigated their associations with overweight/obesity and central obesity in preadolescents. Furthermore, we compared GRSs with lifestyle factors, and tested if they predict the change in body size and shape in a 4-year follow-up. We utilized 1142 subjects from the Finnish Health in Teens (Fin-HIT) cohort. Overweight and obesity were defined with age- and gender-specific body mass index (BMI) z-score (BMIz), while central obesity by the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Background data on parental language, eating habits, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and sleep duration were included. Genotyping was performed with the Metabochip platform. Weighted, standardized GRSs were derived. Of the11-year-old children, 25.5% were at least overweight and 90.8% had Finnish speaking background. BMI-GRS was associated with higher risk for overweight with odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 1.39 (1.20; 1.60) and obesity 1.41 (1.08; 1.83), but not with central obesity. BMI-GRS was weakly and inversely associated with the changes in BMIz and WHtR in the 4-year follow-up. Waist-to-hip ratio-GRS was not related to any obesity measures at baseline nor in the follow-up. The effect of BMI-GRS is similar to that of low LTPA on overweight. An interaction between parental language and BMI-GRS was noted (P = .019): BMI-GRS associated more strongly with overweight in Swedish than in Finnish speakers. We further identified two suggestive genetic variants near LOC101926977 and LOC105369677 associated with BMIz in preadolescents which were replicated in the adult population. In preadolescents, known genetic predisposing factors induce a risk for overweight comparable to low LTPA. However, the GRS was poor in predicting short-term changes in BMI or WHtR.
Project description:The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends infant-parent room-sharing until age 1. We assessed the association between room-sharing and sleep outcomes.The Intervention Nurses Start Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories study is an obesity prevention trial comparing a responsive parenting intervention with a safety control among primiparous mother-infant dyads. Mothers completed the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire at 4, 9, 12, and 30 months. Reported sleep duration and overnight behaviors, adjusted for intervention group, were compared among early independent sleepers (own room <4 months), later independent sleepers (own room between 4 and 9 months), and room-sharers at 9 months.At 4 months, reported overnight sleep duration was similar between groups, but compared with room-sharers, early independent sleepers had better sleep consolidation (longest stretch: 46 more minutes, P = .02). At 9 months, early independent sleepers slept 40 more minutes nightly than room-sharers and 26 more minutes than later independent sleepers (P = .008). The longest stretch for early independent sleepers was 100 and 45 minutes more than room-sharers and later independent sleepers, respectively (P = .01). At 30 months, infants sleeping independently by 9 months slept >45 more minutes nightly than those room-sharing at 9 months (P = .004). Room-sharers had 4 times the odds of transitioning to bed-sharing overnight at both 4 and 9 months (P < .01 for both).Room-sharing at ages 4 and 9 months is associated with less nighttime sleep in both the short and long-term, reduced sleep consolidation, and unsafe sleep practices previously associated with sleep-related death.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Emotional eating (i.e. eating in response to negative emotions) has been suggested to be one mechanism linking depression and subsequent development of obesity. However, studies have rarely examined this mediation effect in a prospective setting and its dependence on other factors linked to stress and its management. We used a population-based prospective cohort of adults and aimed to examine 1) whether emotional eating mediated the associations between depression and 7-year change in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and 2) whether gender, age, night sleep duration or physical activity moderated these associations. METHODS:Participants were Finnish 25- to 74-year-olds who attended the DILGOM study at baseline in 2007 and follow-up in 2014. At baseline (n = 5024), height, weight and WC were measured in a health examination. At follow-up (n = 3735), height, weight and WC were based on measured or self-reported information. Depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression Scale), emotional eating (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18), physical activity and night sleep duration were self-reported. Age- and gender-adjusted structural equation models with full information maximum likelihood estimator were used in the analyses. RESULTS:Depression and emotional eating were positively associated and they both predicted higher 7-year increase in BMI (R2 = 0.048) and WC (R2 = 0.045). The effects of depression on change in BMI and WC were mediated by emotional eating. Night sleep duration moderated the associations of emotional eating, while age moderated the associations of depression. More specifically, emotional eating predicted higher BMI (P = 0.007 for the interaction) and WC (P = 0.026, respectively) gain in shorter sleepers (7 h or less), but not in longer sleepers (9 h or more). Depression predicted higher BMI (P < 0.001 for the interaction) and WC (P = 0.065, respectively) increase in younger participants, but not in older participants. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings offer support for the hypothesis that emotional eating is one behavioural mechanism between depression and development of obesity and abdominal obesity. Moreover, adults with a combination of shorter night sleep duration and higher emotional eating may be particularly vulnerable to weight gain. Future research should examine the clinical significance of our observations by tailoring weight management programs according to these characteristics.
Project description:Purpose:We conducted this study to add the evidence regarding the gender-specific association between sleep duration and blood pressure (BP) in children. Methods:A secondary analysis was performed among 1000 children aged 7-13 years, who had at least two rounds of survey records in China Health and Nutrition Survey through 2004-2015. Generalized estimating equation was used to explore the gender-specific association of sleep duration with BP. The subgroup analysis was applied in those participants with normal weight. Results:The time trend of decreasing sleep duration, along with increasing BP level, was observed in each age group during the survey period. Short sleepers (<9 hours per day) have higher level of both systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) than long sleepers in girls (all p?<?0.05). By contrast, only SBP was higher in short sleepers among boys (p?<?0.05). There was gender difference in the association between sleep duration and DBP (p for interaction <0.05). The stratification analysis showed that short sleep duration could consistently predict a higher level of diastolic BP (DBP) in both crude (??=?2.968, 95% CI: 1.629, 4.306) and adjusted models (??=?1.844, 95% CI: 0.273, 3.416) only in girls. Sleep duration was also analyzed as continuous variable, and the very similar associations were observed. Moreover, the established associations can be verified among children with normal weight. Conclusions:There was a time trend of decreasing sleep duration alongside increasing BP among children from 2004 to 2015. Short sleep duration was independently associated with increased DBP; however, only girls were susceptible to the association.
Project description:Sleep duration and sleep quality play important roles in the development of hypertension (HT) in middle-aged subjects, with controversial data in elderly. In this study, we investigated the link between HT and self-reported sleep in non-insomniac elderly subjects.We examined 500 participants without insomnia complaints aged 72 ± 1 years. An extensive instrumental evaluation was carried out, including 24-h blood pressure (BP) monitoring and an assessment of nocturnal BP dipping. Sleep duration and quality were evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The subjects were stratified into three groups according to sleep duration: short (< 6 h), normal (> 6h to < 8 h), and long (> 8 h) sleepers. A PSQI < 5 defined good sleepers (GS, n = 252), and a PSQI > 5 (n = 248) defined poor sleepers (PS).PS represented 50% of the subjects, more frequently females. Compared to GS, PS did not differ in terms of HT, BP, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and BP dipping. Short, normal, and long sleepers accounted for 28%, 42%, and 30% of subjects, with HT, BP values, BRS, and gender not differing between groups. No relationship was found between nocturnal BP values and self-reported sleep measures. Logistic regression analysis indicated that neither sleep duration nor sleep quality predicts the prevalence of HT, the body mass index being the only factor affecting this association.ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers NCT00759304 and NCT00766584.In a sample of non-insomniac elderly subjects, neither sleep duration nor sleep quality affected the prevalence of HT. These data argue against a relationship between self-reported sleep duration and quality and HT in elderly without insomnia.
Project description:Sleep is an important pillar of health and a modifiable risk factor for diabetes, stroke and obesity. Little is known of diet and sleep patterns of Hispanics/Latinos in the US. Here we examine eating behavior as a function of sleep duration in a sub-sample of 11,888 participants from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, a community-based cohort study of Hispanics aged 18-74 years in four US cities. Using a cross-sectional probability sample with self-report data on habitual sleep duration and up to two 24-h dietary recalls, we quantified the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI-2010) score, a measure of diet quality, and intake of selected nutrients related to cardiovascular health. Linear regression models were fit to estimate least-square means of usual nutrient intake of saturated fats, potassium density, fiber, calcium, caffeine and the AHEI-2010 score by sleep duration adjusting for age, sex, Hispanic/Latino background, income, employment status, education, depressive symptomology, and years lived in the US. Distribution of calories over the day and association with sleep duration and BMI were also examined. Short sleepers (?6 h) had significantly lower intake of potassium, fiber and calcium and long sleepers (?9 h) had significantly lower intake of caffeine compared to others sleepers after adjusting for covariates. However no difference in the AHEI-2010 score was seen by sleep duration. Significantly more long sleepers, compared to intermediate and short sleepers, reported having ?30% total daily calories before bedtime. Not consuming a snack or meal within 3 h before bedtime was associated with higher AHEI-2010 scores. These findings identify novel differences in dietary patterns by sleep duration in a Hispanic/Latino cohort in the U.S. CLINICALTRIALS.NCT02060344.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This study assessed the associations between short and long sleep duration and prevalence of cardiometabolic outcomes in American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) and compared these associations to those evident among other race/ethnicities. METHODS:We analyzed data from the 2013-2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. In total, 14,536 AI/ANs, 729,962 non-Hispanic whites, 71,765 blacks, and 59,472 Hispanics were included. Logistic regressions were conducted to compute unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR) for the associations of interest. RESULTS:Among AI/ANs, 38.6% reported sleeping <7 hours per night (short sleepers) while 39.3% reported 8+ hours of sleep (long sleepers). After adjusting for age and gender, both short and long sleep durations were associated with higher odds of reporting diabetes, stroke, coronary heart disease and heart attack in almost all race/ethnic groups. After multiple adjustments, the sleep-diabetes association was more pronounced (OR = 1.71 and OR = 1.56 for short and long sleepers, respectively) among AI/ANs than other race/ethnicities. CONCLUSIONS:Future studies are warranted to examine race/ethnic variability in the association between sleep duration and cardiometabolic outcomes.
Project description:STUDY OBJECTIVES:Activities throughout the day, including sleep, sedentary behavior (SB), light-intensity physical activity (LIPA), and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) are independently associated with cardiometabolic health. Few studies have examined interrelationships between sleep and 24-hour activity and associations with cardiometabolic risk. The objective of this study is to understand how replacing time in SB, LIPA, or MVPA with sleep impacts cardiometabolic risk. METHODS:Women's Health Initiative OPACH Study participants (N = 3329; mean age = 78.5 ± 6) wore ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers 24 hours/7 days. Adjusted linear regression estimated the relationship between sleep duration and cardiometabolic markers. Separately for shorter (<8 hours) and longer (?8 hours) sleepers, isotemporal substitution models estimated the cross-sectional associations with cardiometabolic markers with reallocating time in daytime activities to or from sleep. RESULTS:Longer sleep duration was associated with higher insulin, HOMA-IR, glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides (all p < 0.05). The associations between sleep duration and C-reactive protein, waist circumference, and body mass index (BMI) were U-shaped (both p < 0.05). For shorter sleepers, reallocating 33 minutes of MVPA to sleep was associated with higher values of insulin, HOMA-IR, glucose, triglycerides, waist circumference, and BMI (0.7%-11.5%). Replacing 91 minutes of SB time with sleep was associated with lower waist circumference and BMI (-1.3%, -1.8%). For long sleepers, shifting 91 minutes of sleep to SB was associated with higher waist circumference and BMI (1.3%, 1.4%). CONCLUSIONS:This is one of the first isotemporal analyses to include objectively measured sleep duration. Results illuminate possible cardiometabolic risks and benefits of reallocating time to or from sleep.